01 - Software

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01 - Software

  1. 1. Software 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 1
  2. 2. Software brings the machine to life  When a computer is using a particular program, it is said to be running or executing that program.  Two major categories of software  System software, i.e., Operating System  Application software 2345 2554 Real-world tasks Application Useful output 3089 Software ... System Software Hardware 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 2
  3. 3. Operating Systems  The operating system tells the computer how to interact with the user and how to use devices such as the disk drives, keyboard, and monitor. The operating system is continue to run until the computer is turned off.  When a computer is turned on, it goes through steps to prepare itself to run user's application:  Run system software located in ROM BIOS.  Next, the computer runs the operating system in diskette, hard disk, or other storage devices.  After the computer finds and runs the operating system, the user can issue commands to the computer. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 3
  4. 4. Application software  Application software is a program that help people accomplish specific tasks.  Thousands of application are available; however some major categories that likely to be encounter are:  Word processors  Spreadsheets  Database management software (DBMS)  Multimedia, graphics and presentations  Utilities  Communications 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 4
  5. 5. Word Processors 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 5
  6. 6. Spreadsheets 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 6
  7. 7. Graphics 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 7
  8. 8. Presentations 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 8
  9. 9. Data 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 9
  10. 10. Transforming Data into Information  Computers cannot understand anything about us.  All they can do is recognizing two distinct states produced by electricity, magnetic polarity, or reflected light.  All they can understand is whether a switch is on or off.  The CPU consists of several million tiny electronic switches called transistors.  A computer assembling its individual on/off switches into patterns that are meaningful to us.  In strictest sense, data consists of the raw numbers that computers organize to produce information.  Computers turn raw, separated data into meaningful information. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 10
  11. 11. Data and Information 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 11
  12. 12. How Computer Represents Data  To a computer, H 0100 1000 everything is a e r 0110 0111 0101 0010 number. e 0110 0101 0010 0000  For computer, the a 0110 0001 sentence "Here r e 0111 0110 0010 0101 are some words" 0010 0000 s 0111 0011 is represented by: o 0110 1111 m 0110 1101 e 0110 0101 0010 0000 w 0111 0111 o 0110 1111 r 0111 0010 d 0110 1000 s 0111 0011 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 12
  13. 13. Number Bases  A number base is a specific collection of symbols on which a number system can be built.  The number base familiar to us is base 10, upon which the decimal number system is built. There are ten symbols, 0 through 9, used in decimal system.  When we need to represent a number greater than 9 we use two symbols together; as 9 + 1 = 10.  Each symbol in a number is called a digit, so 10 is a two-digits number. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 13
  14. 14. Other Number Systems  Binary: Base 2  Octal: Base 8  Hexadecimal: Base 16 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 14
  15. 15. Number Base Systems Decimal Binary Octal Hexadecimal 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 10 2 2 3 11 3 3 4 100 4 4 5 101 5 5 6 110 6 6 7 111 7 7 8 1000 10 8 9 1001 11 9 10 1010 12 A 11 1011 13 B 12 1100 14 C 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 15
  16. 16. (cont'd.) Decimal Binary Octal Hexadecimal 13 1101 15 D 14 1110 16 E 15 1111 17 F 16 10000 20 10 17 10001 21 11 18 10010 22 12 19 10011 23 13 20 10100 24 14 21 10101 25 15 22 10110 26 16 23 10111 27 17 24 11000 30 18 25 11001 31 19 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 16
  17. 17. Numbers in a computer  In a computer, all data must be reduced to electrical switches. A switch has only two states --”ON” or “OFF” -- so it has only two numeric symbols. 0 stands for “OFF”, and 1 stands for “ON”.  Computers function in a binary number system (base 2).  When a computer needs to represent a quantity greater than 1, it uses the second digit. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 17
  18. 18. Bits and Bytes  When referring to computerized data, each switch -- whether on or off -- is called bit.  The term bit is a contraction of binary digit.  A bit is the smallest possible unit of data.  To represent anything meaning -- that is to convey information -- the computer needs groups of bits.  The larger unit of data is the byte, which is a group of 8 bits. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 18
  19. 19. (cont'd.)  With one byte, the computer can represent up to 256 different values because it is possible to count from 0 to 255 with 8 binary digits (one byte).  One byte combination is an enough unit to represent all the (English) characters on the keyboard, including all letters (uppercase and lowercase), numbers, punctuation marks, and other symbols. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 19
  20. 20. Character Codes  The programmers need a standard code which is group of numbers to represent or stand for letters of the alphabet, punctuation marks, and other symbols.  ASCII  Unicode 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 20
  21. 21. ASCII  The American National Standard Institute (ANSI) solution to represent the symbols with bits of data was the ASCII character set.  ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange  Today ASCII is the most common character set used.  ASCII is the seven bits code.  The ISO (International Standard Organization) standard expanded on the ASCII character set, to offer different sets of characters for different language group. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 21
  22. 22. (cont'd.) Dec Hex Code Dec Hex Code Dec Hex Code 32 20 space 48 30 0 68 40 D 33 21 ! 49 31 1 69 41 E 34 22 “ 50 32 2 70 42 F 35 23 # 51 33 3 .. 36 24 $ 52 34 4 90 5A Z 37 25 % 53 35 5 91 5B [ 38 26 & 54 36 6 92 5C 39 27 ' 55 37 7 93 5D ] 40 28 ( 56 38 8 94 5E ^ 41 29 ) 57 39 9 95 5F _ 42 2A * 58 3A : 96 60 ` 43 2B + .. 97 61 a 44 2C , 64 40 @ 98 62 b 45 2D - 65 41 A 99 63 c 46 2E . 66 42 B 100 64 d 47 2F / 67 43 C 101 65 e 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 22
  23. 23. Unicode  Unicode Worldwide Character Standard represents each symbol by two bytes --16 bits.  With two bytes, a Unicode character can be any one of more than 65,536 different characters or symbols.  Many software publishers, including Microsoft, Netscape, and Accent, encourage their developers to use Unicode in their programs. 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 23
  24. 24. Users  Job related to computer  Computer engineers  System administrators  Network administrators  System analysts  Programmers  Software testers  System maintainers 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 24
  25. 25. (cont'd.)  Many jobs use computer as a tool.  Accountants  Draftsmen  Animators  Data entry worker  Customer support specialists 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 25
  26. 26. Responsibility of the users  Keep computer from malicious software  Virus, worm, trojan, spam, internet fraud  Anti virus/spyware  Update software, patches  Recognize limitations of computer systems  Hardware errors ~ design error, hardware failure  Software errors ~ OS, applications  Applying wrong ways  Use computer for working  The Computer Crime Act B.E. 2550 188 110 Computer Programming : Chapter 1.3 – Software | Data | Users 26

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