Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, Dissertation Proposal PPT.
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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, Dissertation Proposal PPT.

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, Dissertation Proposal PPT.

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, Dissertation Proposal PPT. Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, Dissertation Proposal PPT. Presentation Transcript

  • FACTORS THAT IMPACT THEACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OFMINORITY STUDENTS:A COMPARISON AMONG ASIAN-AMERICAN, AFRICAN-AMERICAN,AND HISPANIC STUDENTS IN LARGEURBAN SCHOOL DISTRICTSGrace Thomas NickersonDr. William Kritsonis- Dissertation ChairSpring 2008
  • CHAPTER I
  • INTRODUCTION• Bridging the achievement gap between AsianAmerican, African American, and Hispanic studentshas been a well discussed topic within America.Research gained in the study will identify the factorsthat must be considered in order to effectivelybridge the achievement gap between AsianAmerican, African American, and Hispanic students,thus allowing all students to learn at their optimallevel. View slide
  • BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM• Performance levels among minority groups inthe United States are in sharp contrastacross all academic subjects.AsianAmericans perform higher than anyother minority group, and sometimes abovetheir white counterparts. View slide
  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM• There is an achievement gap between AsianAmerican, African American, and Hispanicstudents. Discovering what factors contributeor inhibit the high academic performance ofAsian American, African American, andHispanic students will give educationalleaders insight on how to bridge theacademic achievement gap.
  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY• Discovering what causes the disparities inperformance between Asian American,African American, and Hispanic students mayassist us in finding ways to improve theeducational performance of low performingminority students.
  • RESEARCH QUESTIONSThe study will aim to answer the following questions:1. How does frequency of individual study modes, frequencyof group study modes, time spent doing homework, andparental involvement affect the academic achievement ofAfrican American students in an urban high school?2. How does frequency of individual study modes, frequencyof group study modes, time spent doing homework, andparental involvement affect the academic achievement ofHispanic students in an urban high school?3. How does frequency of individual study modes, frequencyof group study modes, time spent doing homework, andparental involvement affect the academic achievement ofAsian American students in an urban high school?
  • NULL HYPOTHESES• Ho1.1 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof African American students and the frequency of individual study modes, frequency ofgroup study modes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.• Ho1.2 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof African American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.• Ho1.3 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof African American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.• Ho1.4 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof African American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • NULL HYPOTHESES cont.• Ho2.1 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group studymodes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.• Ho2.2 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group studymodes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.• Ho2.3 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group studymodes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.• Ho2.4 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group studymodes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • NULL HYPOTHESES cont.• Ho3.1 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.• Ho3.2 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.• Ho3.3 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.• Ho3.4 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievementof Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY• The study seeks to find what factorscontribute or hinder the academicachievement among Asian American, AfricanAmerican, and Hispanic students.Discovering the factors that contribute to theacademic achievement of each minoritygroup will increase the effectiveness ofAmerican education.
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS• Frequency of study modes (groupstudy and individual study) explainhow often and what methods areused by students to study. This caninclude study groups and individualstudying (Yan, 2005).• Time on homework explains theamount of time spent onstudying, doing school work,and/or anything dealing with thestudent’s education andacademic success (Yan, 2005).• Parental involvement explainsthe amount of interaction andinvolvement the parent has intheir children’s education. Thisranges from attending schoolfunctions, reading to their child,helping with the child homework,calling teachers and providingcurfews for the children’sacademics. This is a broad areabecause it can also includetalking to other parents abouteducation which does not involvethe student (Yan, 2005).
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS cont.• Asian- American are people of Asianancestry or origin who was born in or isan immigrant to the United States(Wikipedia, 2006).• African Americans (also Afro-American orBlack American, or Black) is a member ofan ethnic group in the United Stateswhose ancestors, usually in predominantpart, were indigenous to Africa. Ingeneral, the cultural assumption in theU.S. is that if a person is Black, nativeEnglish-speaking and living in the UnitedStates, he or she is "African American(Wikipedia, 2006).• Hispanic as used in the United States, isone of several terms used to categorizepersons whose ancestry hails either fromSpain, the Spanish-speaking countries ofLatin America, or the original settlers ofthe traditionally Spanish-heldSouthwestern United States. The term isused as a broad form of classification inthe U.S. census, local and federalemployment, and numerous businessmarket researches (Wikipedia, 2006).• Success is measured by students’mastery on the Exit-Level TAKS (TexasAssessment of Knowledge and Skills)test.
  • LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY1. A possible limitation may exist in the difference of cultures and traditions withineach minority group.2. Socio-economic status may also be bias among minority groups regardingeducation.3. The learning styles among the cultures may vary.4. Racially and culturally diverse schools may yield different results thanpredominately Asian American, African American, and Hispanic schools.
  • LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY cont.5. The study is limited to urban school districts in Texas.6. The size of the ethnic groups present in the participatinghigh schools may give disproportionate results.7. There may be a difference in academic achievement inminority students in rural school districts.
  • CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKFREQUENCY OF STUDY MODESPRACTICEDPARENTAL INVOLVEMENTTIME SPENT ON HOMEWORKMINORITY STUDENTS(Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Students)
  • CHAPTER IIReview of Literature
  • PROBLEM FORMULATION• Overview of the Subject– Discover the factors that contribute to or hinder theacademic achievement among Asian Americans, AfricanAmericans, and Hispanics students.• Parental Involvement• Frequency of individual study modes• Frequency of group study modes• Time spent on Homework
  • SUPPORTING LITERATURE:The Minorities’ Academic History• Curtis Crawford, 2000– At the advanced reading level, Whites and Asians were ahead ofHispanics and Blacks. In proficient reading, whites led the other minoritygroups. However, at the advanced math level, Asians were ahead ofwhites (Crawford, 2000, p.38).• College Board, 1999– the elimination of racial inequalities in academic achievement is a moraland pragmatic imperative (College Board, 1999, p. 1-2).• Bhattacharyya, 2000– Researchers have been perplexed at the academic and professionalsuccess of Asian Americans as compared to other ethnic minority groups
  • SUPPORTING LITERATURE:American Education vs. Asian Education• L. Ellington, 2005– The content of Japanese textbooks is based upon the national curriculum,while most American texts tend to cover a wider array of topics (Ellington,2005, p. 3) .• Elaine Wu, 2005– The only way we ( the United States) measure how well students do isthrough testing, teachers end up teaching how to take the test and notnecessarily the subject matter (Wu, 2005, p. 2).• Gary Decoker, 2002– America has tried to mimic the Japanese systems by overemphasizing itshomogeneity and equating national curriculum guidelines with nationalstandards (Decoker, 2002, p. 21).
  • SUPPORTING LITERATURE:Parental Involvement• Joyce Epstein, 2002– Involve families with their children in academic learning at home, includinghomework, goal-setting, and other curriculum-related activities. Encourageteachers to design homework that enables students to share and discussinteresting tasks (Epstein, 2002, p.14 ) .• S. Gregory, 2000– The more roles parents’ play in their children’s education, at home and atschool, the more successful children will be academically and socially(Gregory, 2000, p. 164).• W. Yan, 2005– Family obligation is related to parents’ intensive investment in the well-beingof the school outcome in particular and the value of education in general(Yan, 2005, p. 116-117).
  • SUPPORTING LITERATURE:Time Spent on Homework• Rosanne Paschal, 1984– Extensive classroom research on “time on homework” and internationalcomparisons of year-round time for study suggest that additional homeworkmight promote U. S. students’ achievement (Paschel, 1984, p. 97) .• John Lofty, 1995– Students need to know the time values and practices of academic life, andthat their difficulties accommodating the timescapes of the academy canbecome good reason for their exclusion (Lofty, 1995, p. 33).• Steven Ingles, 2002– Asians spend more time on homework outside of school than Blacks,Hispanics and Whites (Ingles, 2002, p. 4).
  • Cont. of SUPPORTING LITERATURE:Frequency of Individual Study Modes&Frequency of Group Study Modes• Robert Slavin, 1980– Learning team techniques have generally had positive effects on suchstudent outcomes as academic achievement, mutual attraction amongstudents (Slavin, 1980, p. 253).• Gary Decoker, 2002– Rapid learners can help those who are slower, and students who do notunderstand the lesson can ask questions of the fast learners. (Decoker, 2002,p. 98-99).• Monica Lambert, 2006– Although secondary level teachers often assume that all students haveacquired sufficient study skills by the time they reach high school, many havenot (Lambert, 2006, p. 241).
  • OPPOSING LITERATURE• F. Elsmary, 2005– Asian parents can learn something from non-Asian parents by expressingthat their child’s happiness does mean as much as any educationalachievements (Elsmary, 2005, p. 2).• D. Kuhn, 2006– Asian parents can inculcate in their children the belief that excellence in theirschoolwork leads to family pride, material wealth and social status, and failureto achieve excellence leads to the opposite – shame and disgrace (Kuhn,2006, p. 29).• E. Shrake, 2004– Overshadowed by the popular model minority image of Asian Americanstudents and high levels of academic achievement among a portion of thisgroup, their problem behaviors have often been overlooked in educational aswell as research communities (Shrake, 2004, 602).
  • SUMMARY: CHAPTER II• After researching this topic, the factors that aremost noted to contribute to the success of AsianAmerican, African American, and Hispanic studentsis parental involvement, time spent on homework,the frequency of individual study modes, andfrequency group study modes. There are manyother factors that contribute to the academicsuccess of Asian American, African American, andHispanic students; however, this study is focusingon the three, common components mentionedabove.
  • CHAPTER IIIMethodology
  • PROBLEM STATEMENTThe problem of the study is what factors bestcontribute and what factors hinder theacademic achievement of Asian American,African American, and Hispanic students.
  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDYThe purpose of the study is to determine therelationships between parental involvement,frequency of individual study, frequency of groupstudy, time spent on homework, and theacademic achievement of Asian American,African American, and Hispanic students.
  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS1. How does frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group studymodes, time spent doing homework, and parental involvement affect theacademic achievement of African American students in an urban high school?2. How does frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group studymodes, time spent doing homework, and parental involvement affect theacademic achievement of Hispanic students in an urban high school?3. How does frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group studymodes, time spent doing homework, and parental involvement affect theacademic achievement of Asian American students in an urban high school?
  • HYPOTHESES• H1.1 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofAfrican American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.• H 1.2 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofAfrican American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.• H 1.3 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofAfrican American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.• H 1.4 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofAfrican American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • HYPOTHESES cont.• H 2.1 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofHispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group studymodes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.• H 2.2 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofHispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group studymodes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.• H 2.3 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofHispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group studymodes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.• H 2.4 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofHispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group studymodes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • HYPOTHESES cont.• H3.1 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofAsian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.• H3.2 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofAsian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.• H3.3 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofAsian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.• H3.4 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement ofAsian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groupstudy modes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • RESEARCH DESIGN• Variables– Independent Variable• Student Race– Asian American– African American– Hispanic– Dependent Variables• Parental involvement• Frequency of individual study modes• Frequency of group study modes• Time spent on Homework (hours per week)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN cont.• Quanitative Design– The Causal Correlational statistical method, utilizing the statisticalanalysis of Multiple Regression, will be used to note relationshipsbetween the factors of frequency of individual study modes,frequency of groups study modes, time spent on homework, andparental involvement on academic achievement of Asian American,African American, and Hispanic students.• Qualitative Design– Questionnaire– Closed-end, Likert-type questions
  • SAMPLE SELECTION• Sample Selection– High school senior students• How selected– The students will complete the questionnaire during their SocialStudies classes. All students will have the opportunity to participatein the study because Social Studies is a required course.• Expert Case– The participants will be Asian American, African American, andHispanic high school senior students.
  • INSTRUMENTATION• Qualitative– Questionnaire• The instrument used is a Likert-style questionnaire.The questionnaire will be based on parentalinvolvement, frequency of individual study modes,frequency of group study modes, and time spent onhomework.
  • INSTRUMENT cont.• Quanitative– Results from the questionnaire on parental involvement, time spenton homework, and frequency of study modes (group study andindividual study) practiced will be ranked from 1-4 (4: having moreinfluence and 1: having least influence). An average will be takenfrom each section of the questionnaire.– The average from each section will be placed in SPSS and theCasual Correlational statistical method of multiple regression will beused to determine the relationship of the parental involvement, timespent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, frequencyof group study modes, and the academic achievement of the threeminority groups using their Exit-Level TAKS scores.
  • DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES• Confidentiality– To assure confidentiality, the student completing the questionnaire will not have to log on to thecomputer to complete the questionnaire.– The results on the demographic section of the questionnaire will be used to correlate the TAKSscores based on demographics.– After the data has been collected, it will be stored in a secure location in bank safe deposit box for7 years. After 7 years, the data will be destroyed by way of incineration.• Validity– A pilot questionnaire will be conducted to ensure the questions on the questionnaire are clear andpertinent to the study.• Credibility– A peer debriefing will be conducted to ensure the participants’ responses have not changed.• Confirmability– Findings will be confirmed with the data from NCES (National Center of Educational Statistics) thatdetails relationships between the tested racial groups and the frequency of study modes(individual and group study), parental involvement, and time spent on task.
  • DATA ANALYSIS• Multiple Regression statistics will be used to analyze the informationgathered from the respondents’ answers to the questionnaire.• Each answer will be coded with a particular number to be entered intoSPSS to determine which factor predicts the most success from thethree minority groups.• The Exit-Level TAKS scores will be used to measure and connectsuccess to the respondents’ answers on the questionnaire.• The data from NCES that details the factors being investigated will beused to confirm the SPSS results of the respondents’ answers.
  • SUMMARY: CHAPTER III• The procedure detailed in this chapter will establishrelationships between Asian American, AfricanAmerican, and Hispanic students and parentalinvolvement, time spent on homework, andfrequency of individual study modes, and frequencyof group study modes. Determining which factorshave the greatest impact for each minority group willestablish guidelines for educational leaders to followto produce academically successful students.
  • REFERENCES• Abboud, S & Kim, J. (2005). Top of the Class: Asian Parents Raise High• Achievers and How You Can Too. California: Berkley Publishing Company.• Bhattacharyya, S. (2001, November). From Yellow Peril" to Model Minority: The Transition of AsianAmericans. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association,Little Rock, AR.• Chubb, J. (2002) Bridging the achievement gap. Washington, D.C.: Brooking Institution Press.• College Board (1999) Reaching the top: a report of the national task force on minority high achievement.New York: (ED435765)• Crawford, C (2000). Racial Promotion and through Racial Exclusion. Society. 37(5), 37-43. RetrievedFebruary 23, 2006, from ERIC Educational database.• Daniels, H., & Bizar, M. (2005). Teaching the best practice way: methods• that matter k - 12. York, ME: Stenhouse.• Decoker, G. (2002). National standards and school reform in japan and• the united states. Williston, VT: Teachers College Press.• Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (1994). Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SagePublications.• EdSource Online. (1999). Peers, Parents and Schools: how they affect school achievement. RetrievedFebruary 2, 2006, from EdSource Online Website: http://www.edsource.org/pub_edfct_peers.cfm.
  • REFERENCES cont.• Ellington, L. (2005, September). Japan Education. Retrieved• January 22, 2006, from Indiana University: National Clearinghouse for U. S.- Japan Studies Website:http://www.indiana.edu/~japan/digest5.html.• Elmasry, Faiza (2005, December 28). Why do asian american students excel in school?. Retrieved February 23, 2006,from IMDiversity.com website: http://www.imdiversity.com/villages/asian/education_academia_study/voa_asian_achieve.• Epstein, J. et al. (2002). School, family, and community partnerships: your handbook for action (2nd ed.). ThousandOaks, CA: Corwin.• Farkas, G. (2002). Racial disparities and discrimination: what do we know, how do we know we know it and what do weneed to know. Teachers College Record, 105(6), 1119 - 1146. Retrieved February 23, 2006, from ERIC Educationaldatabase.• Flaxman, E. (2003). Closing the achievement gap: two views from• current research. ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, 3, 1-5. Retrieved February 23, 2006, from ERIC Educationaldatabase.• Freeman, J. (1995). Whats right with schools. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, 93, 1-5. RetrievedFebruary 23, 2006, from ERIC Educational database.• Gordon, E. & Smiley, T. (2006). The Covenant. Chicago, IL: Third World• Press.• Gregory, S. (2000). The academic achievement of minority students. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
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