UNWTO.TedQual Magazine


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UNWTO.TedQual Magazine

  1. 1. World Tourism OrganizationUNWTO.TEDQUALASIA&THE PACIFICMAGAZINE[first edition]MAGAZINEINDEX 1 I 2 II 5III 7IV 9 V 12VI 16VII 19 22
  2. 2. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition]EDITORIALIn December 2010 Professor Douglas Pearce and his The idea of a news magazine devoted to the disseminationcolleagues at Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand, of ideas of good teaching practice resulted from this wish,hosted a meeting of those Higher Tourism Education and the present editors were asked by Loreto Ibanez toInstitutions accredited by the United Nations World implement this idea. The concentration on teachingTourism Organization (UNWTO) under its UNWTO.TedQual practice was thought important because (a) it permitted aProgramme. This meeting was specific to such institutions distinction and complementarity between this and thelocated in the Asia-pacific Region and thus there were existing newsletter generated on behalf of UNWTO by ourrepresentatives from Australia, India, Indonesia, P.R China, colleagues in Korea, (b) it continued the themes laid downand invited guests from New Zealand tourism related and by Professor Pearce and his colleagues and (c) it isgovernmental bodies. At that meeting Loreto Ibanez, consistent with a major theme of the UNWTO.TedQualUNWTO.TedQual Programme Manager, asked people what Programme. Hence this first edition!their expectations were from such an inaugural meeting, Naturally, conditions are never static, and as a UNand a variety of suggestions emanated as to what could specialized agency, UNWTO itself is undergoing changes aspossibly be done. This exercise could be summarised as one it increasingly aligns its programmes with the purposes andof generally high aspirations but tempered by senses of principles of United Nations, and is working with other UNreality in terms of funding, time commitment and what Agencies to complement their work in areas of mutualmight be achievable in the short term. interest, such as World Heritage Sites with UNESCO and making tourism more sustainable with UNEP.During and after this meeting it was determined that ifgenuine networks are to be established among those It is suspected that over time these will begin to challengeinterested in the provision of tourism education, there our role as educators, and indeed some of those concernsneeds to be a formalised albeit perhaps initially a minimal will come to be reflected in the newsletter.means of communication amongst the members ofUNWTO TedQual Institutions that would retain aconsciousness of the network and what might be achieved.The theme of the Victoria University WellingtonConference was best practice in teaching and, prior todeparture, those present committed themselves toholding a second conference in late 2012, with thedelegates from Indonesia wishing to host such aconference. The question was how communications mightbe sustained in the interim. Chris Ryan, Lisa Ruhanen, and Xu Honggang 1
  3. 3. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] [Xu Honggang Sun Yat-Sen University, Guanzhou]Tourism higher education has been growing very rapidly For the past 3 years, over 200 undergraduate students havefor the past thirty years in China. Today there are more than taken this approach and over 50 projects have been offered300 higher education institutions which offer tourism to the students. These projects are divided into two types.programmes, ranging from the technical institutes to the One third of the projects are organized by faculty staff whoresearch oriented universities such as Sen yat-sen have research or consultancy projects, such as theUniversity and Zhejiang University. monitoring of sustainable tourism, a survey of a historical village, or surveys of the satisfaction of the hotel customers,There are advantages and challenges of placing the etc. Since the teaching staff in Sun Yat-sen University aretourism program within a research-oriented university. The under pressure to apply and win various research projects,major advantages lie in the fact that the students have it is possible for them to incorporate some of thedeveloped good analytical and problem solving skills undergraduate students in their research or consultingthrough solid training. The great challenges lie in the efforts projects. Two thirds of such projects are funded by nationalthat have to be made in balancing the practical and or provincial education committees and the university,theoretical components of learning in the course structure. such as the border heritage in the Greater Pearl River deltaThe conventional way of using the industrial placement to and the heritage conservation of Xiguan house. Havingprovide the practical component that has been inherited been trained quite extensively in research methods, thefrom countries like the USA and United Kingdom is not as students gain competitive advantages among their peers.effective in China because the interns are often treated as A tutor also provides assistance in the projects. Three casesemployees without proper guidance from the industry and are presented here to illustrate the organization of theare given the same positions as vocational school interns projects.without the opportunity to demonstrate their own learningand skills. Thus it is not uncommon that satisfaction with Lucun heritage village studythe industry actually declines after the period of internship. Lucun is a historical village close to the world heritage ofAfter studying the strengths and challenges of internship Hungcun and Xidi village, each of which attracts 700programmes, the School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat- thousand tourists every year. Some tourists have alsoSen University decided to design research projects for the begun to explore the surrounding villages. Having seen theundergraduate students to bridge the link between tourism impacts in Hungcun and Xidi, the localindustry practice and theoretical leaning through their government wanted to formulate conservation strategiesparticipation in these projects and so develop further before large scale tourism development occurs. A teamstudent enthusiasm and care about working in the tourism from Sun Yat-sen University was asked to help to identifysector. the heritage buildings and other cultural heritages in Lucun for the preparation of the conservation plan. So a team was organized that comprised three teachers (one from tourism and two from architecture), and four graduate and eight undergraduate students. 2
  4. 4. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] [Xu Honggang Sun Yat-Sen University, Guanzhou]Many more than 8 students applied for the opportunity to The self-organized research projectparticipate. They were selected based on their preparationfor the exercise and every one had to present on what it was A study of brand management of traditional catering andon which they would like to focus. The task for the students outlets in Guangzhou was funded in 2010 from the Nationalwas to survey every household and interview the owners Educational Committee. Usually these projects can last oneabout their housing conditions and to understand the year. The research team was required to survey traditionalfactors which influence the maintenance of the heritage. catering in the historical center of Guangzhou and conductThe team stayed in the village for a week and documented the research on the brand value of these outlets and theirthe houses and the layout of the village in detail. Maps were cuisine. Seven undergraduate students were involved inalso drawn to illustrate the conservation needed for the the projects. They interviewed the owners, customers, andhouses. members of the government in order to understand the potential brand value of these traditional cuisines. Based onYangshuo sustainable tourism monitoring the survey, they also provided suggestions to the owners and to the government on how to better promote theFrom 2005, Sun Yat-sen University has established culture of traditional catering and to effectively conservecollaboration with the World Tourism Organization in these businesses. Their reports were delivered to thesetting up a sustainable tourism monitoring programme. A government and the catering establishments involved inmonitoring station was established in Yangshuo Yulong the project.scenic area. Every year, in the summer time, students are Some feedback has been collected to review the results oforganized and trained to participate in the monitoring these research projects. The motivations for the students toprogramme. The monitoring project usually takes one participate are: 1) to gain the capacity to deal with theweek. Students were asked to work with the communities practical issues, 2) to broaden their vision and knowledge ofand other stakeholders to review the social, economic and the tourism industry, and 3) to apply the theories learned inenvironmental changes for the past year and identify the the classrooms to analyze real world problems. Studentsemerging major issues. Based on the survey, the students pointed out that they had indeed improved theirsubmitted reports on the social, economic and understanding of knowledge gained from the class. Theyenvironmental status of Yangshuo and summarize the also developed capacities to identify real world problemsshort term and long term change. These reports are and apply appropriate theories to solve these problems.provided and local community for publicity. Another important gain is to develop capacities to work with the research team and various stakeholders in this process. However, they also pointed out some issues about the research funded projects. For example, due to the lack of requirements of a strict time framework, students are often more enthusiastic at the beginning of the project but find it difficult to sustain their enthusiasm throughout the project if the project lasts for more than one year. 3
  5. 5. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] [Xu Honggang Sun Yat-Sen University, Guanzhou]A review process was conducted in 2011 to evaluate theoutcomes of the undergraduate student research projects.It was found that a proper management of the project iscrucial to be effective. Good guidance from the faculty, amixture of the graduate and undergraduate students in ateam and a proper time framework are necessary toimprove the outcomes.However the research projects have increased facultysworkload and there is also uncertainty as to whether there [ Students conducting interviews in Lucun Heritage Village]are enough projects contracted to the school to meet theneeds of all students. As a project, major efforts have beenmade between the School and tourism destinations todevelop a long term partnership. Longitudinal research canprovide better service to the local stakeholders, reduce theworkload for the faculty to find and organize such projectsand increase the possibility for the faculty to publish theresearch outcomes in academic journals. [ Students at work in Yangshuo] 4
  6. 6. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] II Tourism Industry-Academe Partnerships: Opportunities and Challenges [Dr Lisa Ruhanen, Dr Noreen Breakey & Mr Richard Robinson School of Tourism, The University of Queensland]Amongst tourism and hospitality tertiary degree programs, For TRIP 2009, sixteen students were competitivelyinternships are a reasonably common feature. This is selected and placed in one of two south-east Queenslandbecause internships provide students with valuable host destinations over the mid-semester break for 10 days.practical work experiences, linking theoretical knowledge The 2009 iteration of the program had two discretethrough practice, and improving students ability to enter components. Firstly, students were placed with a rotationthe workforce industry ready. For the industry hosts, of industry operators in the respective destinations andeducators and education institutions, internships can during this time participated in the more traditionalenhance relationships and strengthen strategic and internship or work experience common in many tourismcollaborative networks. It is within this context that the and hospitality programs. To support the learningSchool of Tourism at The University of Queensland (UQSoT) outcomes of the internship, the students were required todeveloped the Tourism Regional Immersion Program complete a journal-style workbook, providing reflective(TRIP). This destination immersion experience was entries on their experiences in the region. Secondly, thedesigned to provide an opportunity for students to live, students in each of the destinations undertook a strategicwork and interact with the broader community in a research project nominated by the host region which wasregional tourism destination. delivered at a Knowledge Exchange Workshop several weeks after the internship period.Mindful of the importance of internships for studentlearning and the opportunities such programmes In 2010 however, based on feedback from the students,represent for industry and the institution, a re-designed industry and participating School of Tourism faculty, theprofessional development course for final year TRIP model was further revised and instead onlyundergraduate tourism, hospitality and event students incorporated the research project component. Otherundertaking UQSoTs Bachelor of International Hotel and elements such as the destination immersion (living andTourism Management (BIHTM) was first introduced in 2009. working in the destination) remained. TRIP 2010 wasTRIP is one of four work-integrated learning (WIL) options in delivered in partnership with five regional destinations inthe professional development course and is considered south-east Queensland. Another notable change was theinnovative in terms of providing an alternative to a decision to reduce the time in region to 5 days and to maketraditional internship or work experience program where a mutually beneficial destination-driven research projectstudents are placed with a single host business for a the focal point of TRIP. It was also decided to reduce thespecified period of time. However, the TRIP model has had student group size from eight to no more than five perseveral evolutions in its short history. destination and mandate that the projects be completed within the five day internship period. This reconciled the interests of all parties. Lobbying destination hosts to participate in TRIP focused on identifying a suitable project, and the capacity and willingness of the host to provide accommodation and transfers for the students and resource the project requirements. 5
  7. 7. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] II Tourism Industry-Academe Partnerships: Opportunities and Challenges [Dr Lisa Ruhanen, Dr Noreen Breakey & Mr Richard Robinson School of Tourism, The University of Queensland]Across the five TRIP projects for 2010 there was The immersion-style model remains, although arguablyconsiderable diversity which reflects that of the tourism there are pressures on the length of time the studentsindustry. As such, the requirements from the destination, spend on TRIP with a significant reduction between 2009the dates the students completed their internships, and the and 2010; this has some practical advantages for allr e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d v a r i e d t r e m e n d o u s l y. S i n c e stakeholders but arguably does place constraints on theexpectations from all parties were high, UQSoT decided to program. Importantly though, the immersion approachagain competitively select TRIP student candidates can assist in the development of relationships, boththrough a combination of a written proposal and between students and also with the local community of theparticipation in an interview. Once students were selected host destination. This is considered an important aspect ifand groups had been formed, the students were invited to the knowledge exchange component of the program is toscope their destination projects, collect resources and do be successful. At this stage the TRIP team continue topreliminary research before contacting the destination evaluate and assess the most appropriate and sustainablehosts to organize a pre-internship familiarization. These TRIP model.occurred at various times before the students finally wentin region during their September mid-semester break. Allthe TRIP placements occurred as planned during theSeptember mid-semester break. However, someunanticipated events transpired which suggest theprogram is leaving a legacy. Two destinations, invited theirTRIP groups back to present their project findings to counciland industry stakeholders within their region and UQSoTsponsored a south-east Queensland tourism industryconference with the express purpose of showcasing TRIPand its destination hosts.The TRIP model is constantly evolving and shifting, as theTRIP team look for a sustainable model. Obviously there isconsiderable commitment from the School, participatingfaculty members, industry hosts and of course the students.As such, as noted above, changes were instigated followingthe 2009 iteration to make the program more manageable.From our experience in 2009 it was found that the industryvalued the research project very highly and this aspect wasthe focus of the 2010 TRIP process and will again be thefocus of the 2011 iteration of the program. 6
  8. 8. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] III The Job-Search and Promotion-Seeking Stategies of Tourism Graduates at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand. [Adam Weaver,Victoria University Wellington]From Anxiety to ActionWhen speaking with university students about their Methods and Key Findingsstudies, one becomes acquainted with some of theiranxieties the same anxieties that their university The main findings of this study emerged as the authorinstructors may have had when they were students. interviewed twenty-one recent graduates of the degree,Students are typically concerned about courses that Bachelor of Tourism Management (BTM). These graduatesaddress concepts they find difficult to grasp, assignment had full-time jobs within the tourism industry in Newdeadlines that are ominously close, and the way end-of- Zealand. Recent graduates were considered to beterm examinations come ever nearer. These anxieties are graduates who had received their BTM (their only universityoften accompanied by others that are probably more degree) within five years of the research interview. Thecentral to students thoughts once classes have ended; interviews were conducted over the course of a year, fromassignments that have yet to be submitted, and April 2007 to April 2008. An examination of job-search andexaminations to be written: and after that issues of finding promotion-seeking strategies of BTM graduates had notjobs after graduation and forging a satisfying career path. been the original focus of the research. The main purposeThe search for work and the pursuit of promotions by recent of the interviews was to explore graduates perceptions ofgraduates of a tourism management programme are the jobs in New Zealands tourism industry (Weaver, 2009).subject of this article as well as a longer contribution to an However, the final section of the interview scheduleacademic journal (Weaver, 2011). addressed the topics of job search and the pursuit of promotions. Graduates, often without much prompting,In response to their desire for (and anxieties about) work spoke in some detail about the techniques they used andand career advancement, some recent graduates tried to ones they would recommend to students about totake certain matters into their own hands. They exercised complete the BTM.human agency and sought to market their capabilities totargeted audiences in enterprising ways. This A key finding of this research project was that graduatesentrepreneurialism of the self is arguably a function of use forms of emotional labour to advance their interests.broader socio-cultural shifts within New Zealand, and Many graduates of university tourism programmes useprobably in many Western countries, since the 1970s and emotional labour when they work in the tourism industry.1980s. Taking initiative, demonstrating a degree of They project certain emotions as an essential part of theirboldness, and effectively promoting ones own personal jobs, especially when interacting with customersachievements or potential are seen as increasingly (Hochschild, 1983). Emotional labour, however, is notprominent features of successful people. Graduates of simply performed to satisfy ones work requirements. ForVictoria University of Wellingtons Bachelor of Tourism example, graduates use and recommend sociable labourManagement (BTM) programme seem to approach their as a means to search for jobs.nascent careers as if they were a business venture. Theyattempt to self-market their availability and suitability forjobs, and they appear to deploy strategy in particular,when seeking more advanced positions within the tourismindustry. 7
  9. 9. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] III The Job-Search and Promotion-Seeking Stategies of Tourism Graduates at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand. [Adam Weaver,Victoria University Wellington]They seek opportunities to interact with prospective As well, faculty members could pay a visit to theiremployers. Networking was a crucial dimension of their universitys student employment centre to discover theefforts to find jobs. This networking may, for instance, take ways in which their institution is trying to prepare studentsplace at industry-related functions. Once graduates found for the world of work.work, they were eager to secure promotions. Promotionswere seen as a reward for dedicated service and The findings discussed in this article need someexceptional workplace performance. In order to improve qualification. Only the views of recent graduates weretheir chances of promotion, graduates worked in a sought. The perspectives of employers would be worthdemonstrative fashion ( demonstrative labour ) so that obtaining as they are the intended targets of the sociabletheir managers would notice their achievements. and demonstrative labour used by graduates. In fact,Emotional labour is required of many graduates who work employers may see certain types of sociable andin the tourism industry, but it is also apparent that they demonstrative labour as bothersome. Perhaps these formsdeploy types of emotional labour (sociable and of labour, when they are effective, involve subtleties relateddemonstrative labour) for their own purposes. Sociable to timing, tact, and tone that employers could help toand demonstrative labour are consistent with the notion of identify and describe. An underside to demonstrativean entrepreneurial culture: individuals (the graduates) labour was noted by a post-graduate student with industryacting as if they are one-person firms and marketing their experience who read the studys findings: working in a wayown talents to customers (in this case, potential employers that gets one noticed (working demonstratively) couldor current managers). involve sabotaging ones rivals so they appear incompetent compared to oneself in the eyes of managers. He was aImplications, Caveats, and Concluding Thoughts witness to such sabotage. The nature of demonstrative labour in the workplace raises certain ethical issues thatThe studys findings have potential implications for tourism could be the subject of some intellectually rewarding, andprogrammes at tertiary education providers such as relevant, class discussion.universities. There is scope for faculty members andcurrent students to reflect upon the skills emphasized Referenceswithin their academic programme. Both sociable anddemonstrative labour require sound communication skills Hochschild, A. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California.and confidence in ones own abilities. It would perhaps beworthwhile for current tourism students to hear from Weaver, A. (2009). Perceptions of job quality in the tourism industry: The views of recent graduates of a universitys tourism managementrecent graduates about their job- and promotion-seeking programme. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitalityexperiences both positive and negative. Faculty Management, 21(5), 579-593.members could organize seminars or functions where Weaver, A. (2011). Pursing jobs and promotions: University graduates inrecent graduates share their trials and tribulations with tourism as enterprising self-marketers. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 10(1), 80-95.students. ) 8
  10. 10. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] IV Breaching the Research-Teaching Divide. [Anne L. Zahra, University of Waikato, New Zealand]From my personal experience and from observations and There are a number of dimensions to the interconnection ofdiscussions with colleagues, academic staff tend to teaching and research. Figure One shows a twocompartmentalise their teaching and research functions. dimensional representation that I will use to structure partUniversities in their promotion processes tend to place of this reflection.greater weighting to the quantity and quality of research Generally universities compared to higher technicaloutputs in comparison to teaching quality and innovation. institutions have always given importance to research-ledThis is further exacerbated by university sector research teaching ( Zamorski, 2002 ) whereby the teaching contentperformance evaluation exercises in which some of undergraduate and postgraduate courses is informed bydeveloped countries have engaged over the last twenty the personal research of the lecturer. For the tourism fieldyears ( Hall, 2010; Tribe, 2003 ) . Empirical studies support this is not as easy as it seems, as our research can be in a very specialised subject area, yet we are required to teach broadthe claim being made that there is a dichotomy between multidisciplinary content in undergraduate and sometimesteaching and research in higher education institutions even in postgraduate courses ( Kinchin & Hay, 2007 ) . A(Clark, 1991; Hattie & Marsh, 1996; Ramsden & Moses, 1992). personal example is that one of my research subject areasThere has long been a call to breach this teaching-research over the last few years has been volunteer tourism and Idivide (Marsh & Hattie, 2002; Trowler & Wareham, 2007) yet have never been able to incorporate this research in any ofthe challenge still remains on how to support academic the courses I have taught. Yet, despite the difficultiesstaff to better align their teaching and research functions. In sometimes encountered for the tourism subject area,this reflective article I will share my experience of how I have research-led teaching for most of us is the major conduit totried to align my teaching and research roles as a way of align research and teaching.resolving this polarisation. One criterion in determining the quality of a tourism and hospitality degree can be the extent to which research informed assessments are used to meet degree objectives, such as analytical skills, problem solving and critical thinking. Although very beneficial to students, under- graduate research informed assessments rarely contribute to furthering the research agenda of academic staff unless it is a new research subject area for the lecturer. At the post- graduate level specialised topics for research assessments can on occasions aid the lecturer in either keeping abreast with the research literature or lead to the discovery of new literature and insights. However it is my experience that you cannot rely on this as it dependent on the few high achieving students you have and it only happens from time to time. only limited experience in teaching research methodology papers and therefore I cannot share any experiences in this regard. 9
  11. 11. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] IV Breaching the Research-Teaching Divide. [Anne L. Zahra, University of Waikato, New Zealand]Rresearch orientated teaching is introducing students to To progress conference papers to journal publicationsthe knowledge construction process of research or what is usually requires time and work on behalf of the academiccommonly known as the research process. Students are ( Locke & Zahra, 2011) but this time and effort is clearly antaught how to undertake research. This is commonly taught alignment of teaching and research. The question oftenin either of two ways: in a purely theoretical manner, arises of who should be the first author when academicsdescribing the research process, or in a practical way publish with their students? In post-graduate researchwhereby students undertake small or large practical conversations/seminars I have attended at the Universityresearch assessment tasks or a combination of both the of Waikato it seems that common practice is that the firsttheory and the practice of research. The practice of research author should be the person who came up with thegenerally entails some form of data collection, data analysis research topic and who did most of the work, which in myand reporting of the findings. The practice of research can case for the conference papers was the student. It is alsoeither be quantitative or qualitative research. The practice considered good research protocol and a contribution toof quantitative research at the postgraduate level can the research environment for the senior researcher tosometimes lead to a research publication if the right encourage and foster the junior researcher to take the leadresearch question had been asked, if the sample size is wherever possible. In my view developing futureadequate, if there is a robust research methodology and if researchers is also a teaching function, once again anthe publication addresses a gap in the literature. It is very alignment of the teaching and research functions.difficult for a research methodology paper to deliver all ofthe above, but an experienced researcher can attain this There is still two more ways of aligning research andwith careful planning and a good knowledge of the teaching that are not represented in Figure One - researchliterature. I am not an experienced researcher and I have outputs from teaching practice ( Zahra, 2008, 2009, 2010 )The fourth and final quadrant in Figure One is research- and the scholarship of teaching and learning with studentsbased teaching assessments. This is where students as potential co-enquirers and co-researchers thought thethemselves undertake enquiry-based learning. There are learning process. However it is beyond the scope of thismany similarities between research-orientated teaching short article to discuss these options. They can be dealt withand research-based teaching. However the chief distinction in future issue of this publication.is that for the latter the students are the main drivers of theresearch project and in many instances generate theresearch topic. Research outputs from research-basedteaching are very dependent on the quality of the student(generally post-graduate students) and the nature of thetopic. From my experience conference researchpublications are very achievable from research basedteaching ( McArthur & Zahra, 2009; Song & Zahra, 2009;Zahra & McFarlane, 2009 ). 10
  12. 12. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFICWorld Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] IV Breaching the Research-Teaching Divide. [Anne L. Zahra, University of Waikato, New Zealand] lark, B. R. (1991). The Fragmentatio nof res earch, teachi ng and study: An explorative essay. InM . A. Trow & T. Nybom (Eds.), University and Society: Essays on the so cial rol e of research and hig her edu cati on (pp. 101-111). London: Jessic a Ki ngsley Publishers. Hall, C. M. (2010). Pu blis hor perish? Bi bliometric analysis, jou rnal ranking an d the ass es sment of researc hquality in Tou rism. Tou rism Management, 32(1), 16-27. Hattie, J., & Marsh, H. W. (1996). The relationship between research and teaching: A meta-an al ys is. Review of Educ ational Research, 66(4), 507 -542. Kinchi n, I., & Hay, D. (2007). The myth of the res earc h-led teacher. T eac hers an d teaching: Theo ry and practice, 13(1), 43-61. Locke, M ., & Zahra, A. L. (2011). Are medi a reports represtentative of host community support for meg a events? The c ase of Sydney World You th Day 2008. . Event Management, 15(3), In press. Marsh, H. W., & Hattie, J. (2002). The Relati onBetween Rese arch Productivity and Teaching Effec ti venes s: Complementary, Antag onistic , or Independent Cons tru cts? The Jou rnal of Hi gher Education, 73(5 ), 603- 641. McArthur, M., & Zahra, A. (2009). How do es the H amilton 400 V8 Event impac t on the hospi tali ty sector. Pap er presented at the I nternational Hospital ity Conference, Tau ran ga, New Z ealan d. 15-17 November. Rams den, P., & Mos es , I. (1992). Asso ciations between research and tea ching in Australian Higher Education. Higher Education, 23 (3), 273-2 95. Song , X., & Zahra, A. (20 09). International Hospitality Conference. Paper presented at the International Hospitality Conference, Taurang a, New Zealand. 15-17 November Tribe, J. (200 3). The RAE-ification of touri smresearch in the UK. Internati onal Journal of Touris mResearch, 5(5), 225-234. Trowler, P., & Wareham, T. (2007). Re-conceptualis ing the teaching-research nexus Retrieved 30/9/2010, 2010, from www.portal-l ive.so lent.ac.uk Zahra, A. (2008). Empi ri cal evidence of learning journal s as a formo f assessment. Pap er presented at the 18 th Internati onal Researc hC onference of the Cou ncil for Au stral ian Uni versity To urism and Hospitality Education, Gold Coast, Australia. Febru ary 10-13 . Zahra, A. (2009). Langu ag e and cu ltural c onsiderations when implementing innovati ve approaches to assessments: Reflective learning journals and the perc eption of non-Eng lish speaking stu dents. Jo urnal o f Tourism and Hospitality Educ ati on, 21(3), 54-59. Zahra, A. (2010). Learning jou rnals as a form of assessment in a hospi tali ty context. Paper presented at the CHME 19 th Annu al Resear ch Conference, Surry, UK. May 5-6. 11
  13. 13. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFICWorld Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] V Building Capacities at the Frontline: UNESCO Cultural Heritage Specialist Guide Programme for Asia-Pacific. [Chin-Ee Ong, Heritage Studies Centre, Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao,] 12
  14. 14. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] V Building Capacities at the Frontline: UNESCO Cultural Heritage Specialist Guide Programme for Asia-Pacific. [Chin-Ee Ong, Heritage Studies Centre, Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao,]Boasting a CV that includes re-opening the UNESCO Office The provision of economic benefits and meaningfulin Cambodia during the transitory and still turbulent times employment at World Heritage sites, the programmein the early 1990s and directing the international effort to argues, need not derive from the selling of standardisedsafeguard the Angkor Monuments, Sir Richard (the title merchandises in shopping malls. Between 2005 and 2010,Commandeur de lOrdre Royal du Cambodge was Professor Engelhardts team from UNESCO Bangkok andbestowed upon Professor Engelhardt by His Majesty King The Heritage Studies Centre of The Institute for TourismNorodom Sihanouk) has witnessed much on the a frontline Studies, Macao, with the help of Architectural Conservationof heritage conservation from countering Khmer Rouge Programme at The University of Hong Kong and ancultural violence to combatting tomb-raiding poachers international board of advisors, supported by seed fundingand smugglers. Today, the internationally-recognised from the Asian Development Bank, conceptualised andheritage expert is wary of other forms of violence. The conducted catalytic train-the-trainer workshops informer UNESCO Regional Advisor for Culture explained, fourteen locations in Asia.today, we see so much commercialisation happening inand around many World Heritage sites because local Professionalising and improving the image and expertise ofcommunities and businesses do not understand the tour guides and interpretation is seen as a route to advancefundamental, underlying values of these sites and economic and other benefits for communities at Worldmistakenly believe their only value is as a mass market Heritage sites. In addition to prompting better salaries forconsumer products. The result is the overly-simplistic specialised and better-trained guides, the programme alsodeployment of World Heritage sites as mere tourist hopes to create Gianna Moscardos mindful visitors atmagnets and the ringing of heritage sites with shopping Asias World Heritage sites through better qualitymalls and other forms of commercial and recreational interpretation that both engages and informs visitors of theaimed at the mass market. heritage values of the sites they are visiting.[Figure 2: Playful postmodern tourists at Angkor? The need [Figure 3: Group package tourists climbing scared andto create more mindful visitation at World Heritage sites fragile temples of Angkor.*Source: Author, 2008*] *Source: Author, 2008*] 13
  15. 15. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] V Building Capacities at the Frontline: UNESCO Cultural Heritage Specialist Guide Programme for Asia-Pacific. [Chin-Ee Ong, Heritage Studies Centre, Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao,]Places, not mere attractions Launched by UNESCO-ICCROM Asian Academy of Heritage Management (AAHM) in 2005 after a UNESCO- Attractions is a word tourism marketers like to use but commissioned study conducted by Institute for Tourismthese are places we are dealing with. People live in and Studies, Macao in 2004 revealed poor visitor satisfactionaround heritage sites and many of these people benefit with guiding and interpretation in World Heritage sites inlittle from mass tourism but have to cope with mass Asia, the programme is also a response to concerns oftourisms many negative impacts , explained Dr Sharif potential impacts of mass tourism at World Heritage sites inShams Imon, lead author and trainer of the programme and Asia. In the programme, instructors seek to steer tourDirector of The Heritage Studies Centre, Institute for guides gazes towards seeing World Heritage sites are seenTourism Studies, Macao. A conservation architect by as lived-in places and not just tourism attractions. Unliketraining and a consultant to International Council on cultural heritage management strategies that focus onMonuments and Sites (ICOMOS), Dr Imon is critical of the carrying-capacity, engineering and architectural andways in which unguided visitation and unchecked rise in economic aspects of visitation, engaging and livelymass tourism is benefiting preservation of the World interpretation of heritage resources based on their heritageHeritage places and the livelihoods of their communities. values is seen by UNESCO and AAHM as an important More tourists do not always mean better tourism. We have strategy in protecting heritage places and enriching visitorto look at how tourists experience the sites and how their experiences. This programme seeks to improve thevisitations create better employment for people in the experience of visitors and protection of cultural heritagecommunities . resources and communities at UNESCO World Heritage sites by improving and professionalising interpretation and[Figure 4: UNESCO Cultural Heritage Specialist Guiding guiding. It seeks to complement existing local and nationalin Training at Champasak, Laos. frameworks for tour guide certification and training by*Source: Imon, 2007*] providing expert training for motivated licensed guides wishing to specialise in World Heritage guiding. Capacity-building from Macao to India UNESCO Project Officer Ms Montira Horayangura Unakul stressed the catalytic function the programme seeks to achieve through its numerous strategically placed regional train-the-trainer workshops: Through the conduct of these regional train-the-trainer workshops, we hope to create lead trainers capable of conducting training in their own countries and nurturing their own sets of specialist guides. This programme also aims at building upon and complementing existing certification and licensing systems for tour guiding within the respective national frameworks. 14
  16. 16. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] V Building Capacities at the Frontline: UNESCO Cultural Heritage Specialist Guide Programme for Asia-Pacific. [Chin-Ee Ong, Heritage Studies Centre, Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao,]An architect by professional training, Ms Unakul revealed Faculty members in IFT helped develop the trainingthat the programme seeks to ignite capacities for: manuals for the programme in English. Today, the main manual has been translated into at least six other1. providing accredited guides the opportunity to languages (simplified and traditional Chinese, Bahasastrengthen their skills in interpreting heritage sites, Indonesia, Khmer, Lao, Thai and Vietnamese) and used inwith an emphasis on World Heritage Sites training workshops in Asia-Pacific. A complementary2. enhancing the educational experience of visitors manual for site managers was also written in 2007 under(both local and international), leading to longer the endorsement of United Nations Economic and Socialstays and repeat visitation Commission for Asia and the Pacific. As part of the3. contributing to the sustainable safeguarding of programme and as the regional focal point of AAHM, IFTUNESCO World Heritage sites by educating visitors faculty members have so far conducted train-the trainerabout conservation issues and advocating codes of workshops in Bhutan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia,responsible conduct Thailand and Vietnam and trained academics, government4. benefiting local communities by promoting their officials and professionals from fourteen countries. Fromrole as hosts and active participants in the cultural the later part of 2007, the UNESCO New Delhi officetourism brought the programme into India and furthered the5. improving career prospects for accredited guides. programme by introducing sophisticated thematic modules on specialist topics such as Buddhism andThis training and certification programme is being Vijayanagara Art, Architecture and History.implemented through active partnerships betweenmembers of AAHM, training institutions from the UNESCAPAsia Pacific Education and Training Institutes in Tourism [Figure 5: Learning about heritage conservation(APETIT) network and National Tourism Organizations in Hoi An shophouses, Vietnam.(NTOs), with the Institute for Tourism Studies (IFT) serving *Source: Author, 2007*]as the Knowledge Management Hub and UNESCOproviding technical advisory. In 2007, the programme wascommended in the 31st Session of the World HeritageCommittee meeting in Christchurch: a best-practiceexample of an initiative aiming at integrating theconservation of World Heritage within the widersustainable development framework for the benefit of localcommunities . 15
  17. 17. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] VI [Kaye Chon and Chris Ryan]Historically a distinction was made between a polytechnic This tension between the applied and the theoretical isand university - the former being more oriented toward obviously applicable to the hospitality industry. Hotelvocational education and the latter concerned with groups expect graduates to emerge with strongintellectual endeavour for the sake of generating new managerial skills within the context of operational andconcepts and understandings. The one was applied and the strategic management. Front of house operations,second theoretical. However, starting arguably in the restaurant management, food operations, yield1960s, governments around the world commenced management, hotel and room design and many otherincreasing the provision of university places in the belief features are all part of the standard curriculum for manythat future economic success would be dependent on the hotel schools. Yet like many universities, HK PolyU wouldexistence of a well trained university core of young people wish its teaching to be research led, and in a world where soable to meet the challenges of technological and other much more selling is done via the internet, wherechallenges becoming apparent as the world moved into environmental management systems are increasinglythe second half of the twentieth century. It seems now allied to knowledge management systems, staffalmost impossible to believe that in a country like the participation in human resource management systemsUnited Kingdom that the number of university students and where all are entwined in emergent notions ofwas little more than 60,000 in the 1950s - today that would corporate socially responsible management the issuesbe the equivalent of just three moderately sized are not simply what to research, but the context withinuniversities. which they are taught to students.By the 1980s it became increasingly apparent that the The context also refers to the physical space and manymodels of 30 years earlier were inappropriate in many ways. universities and hotel schools operate training restaurantsSmall tutorial groups began to disappear under financial and have students spend periods of time in hotelpressures, universities were expected to be more aware of internships so that students acquire the practical contextemployer needs, and the distinction between the applied within which to make sense of their class room knowledge.and the theoretical soon buckled under the realisation that The question posed to Hong Kong PolyU staff was whethergood practice informs theoretical formation and equally a closer symbiotic relationship between classroom andtheory informs better practice. In some countries former practical context could not be achieved. The answer haspolytechnics became universities and attained the title of now a glass and steel physical presence at Hong Konguniversity even as the nature of what was being taught PolyU called Hotel ICON at a building cost US$170 million,changed in both traditional and new universities. Some which houses not only the staff and students of theuniversities such as Virginia Tech proudly proclaimed the university but operates daily as a hotel.applied within their titles, and Hong Kong PolytechnicUniversity is another. 16
  18. 18. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] VI [Kaye Chon and Chris Ryan]As a hotel, Hotel ICON has 262 deluxe rooms and suites, In addition to a training restaurant Hong Kong PolyU hasthree F&B outlets, a 300-seat Silver Box ballroom, a looked at best practice from other parts of the universityconference centre, a swimming pool and a harbour-facing system in Asia such as National Kaoshiung University offitness centre. The hotel also features a spa managed by the Hotel and Tourism Managements wine and viticulturenoted resort and spa company, Banyan Tree. In accordance testing rooms, and has installed the Vinoteca Lab thatwith the concept that teaching should be research driven offers students opportunities to not only talk about but toand practical there exist three dedicated "prototype actually practice and learn about the best means of keepingguestrooms" used primarily for research and innovation wines and of course, eventually serving them. It is expectedwhich have now been in use since 2010. Each of these three this will be a popular class!prototype guestrooms have been developed according toits respective theme, namely design," "technology" and As noted, all of this has meant a challenge to staff to revise"well being." While tailor making experiences for guests, the their curriculum and teaching methods. Professor Chonprototype guestrooms also allows further research into and has stated that As Hotel ICON will have to serve thethe application of advanced concepts in hotel teaching needs of the School, we have already undergonemanagement fashioned to make possible a more the strenuous process of revising the course syllabi of moresustainable future. This opens up a new mode of teaching than 40 courses so as to facilitate and ensure a full Hotel and(and challenge) for teaching staff. It is permitting the School integration. The School has integrated Hotel ICONdevelopment of ideas by students and staff in components into a number of cutting-edge research projects includingsuch as room design, the use of sustainable materials, how Hotel Customer Behaviour Studies and Environmentalrooms may better incorporate sustainable engineering Management in Hospitality Industry in addition to thefeatures, and the use of integrated IT systems to better meet active internship programme for students and ensuring thethe clients need of a seamless transition between a hotels facilities are subsumed into the daily teaching andtelevision entertainment medium that also uses internet experience of the students.facilities for business purposes. It is also offeringopportunities for experimentation in price/facility Hotel ICON is fully owned and operated by PolyUsprovision alternatives all of which can be tested on actual subsidiary "Hotel ICON Company Limited". About 300 full-guests. time employees are currently working in the Hotel supported by some 100 students of the School who willModern hotel management education also requires hands have their periods of internship within the hotel. Theon experience with new managerial and analytical software General Manager, Richard Hatter, has 25 years ofthat aids the profitable running of a hotel. Like other international experience in the hospitality industryuniversities (for example Beijing International Studies including past positions as General Manager and Director ofUniversity) a state of the art Samsung Digital Lab for the Shangri-La Groups Asia region covering Hong Kong,Hospitality Technology supported by the company has Mainland China, Singapore and Indonesia.been installed. 17
  19. 19. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] VI [Kaye Chon and Chris Ryan]The purpose behind the development is to ensure thatstudents will have the best possible opportunity tocombine the theoretical and practical with theenvironment of a working hotel a hotel with professionalstaff and guests a hotel where the students decisions maywell influence guest experience! Of course, students willnot be immediately exposed to the risks of making poordecisions, but by the time they are in that position the aim isthat they will be assured in their decision making,professional in their dealings with guests, and laying thefoundations of a long career in the industry. 18
  20. 20. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] VII Higher Tourism Education: Guiding students and graduates to make things right at all times. [Loreto Ibañez Castillo, UNWTO. TEDQUAL Programme Manager]Ethics is never forgotten in the definition and development This article seeks to share worldwide experiences on thisof any higher tourism education programme; and no one - matter, by analyzing the key moments within the definitionneither management, faculty, students nor future and implementation of the programme that couldemployers - disagrees on its importance. But a real contribute to guiding students towards making thingscommitment to go beyond the classic approach of right at all times.delivering and learning the concepts to focus on guidingstudents and graduates to make things right at all times, is The development of the programme buildingperhaps a less developed issue. expectations.How many students might have finished their studies The development of a programmes vision, mission and aimas an automaton, knowing that this is not what and its subsequent dissemination to potential students isthey really want to do with their lives? And how many perhaps the first moment when students expectationsInstitutions/Programmes have not invested much time in about their professional future start to be built; however, itencouraging their students to pay attention to whether is also when, for the first time, gaps between thesethey have chosen the right career, in order not to lose expectations and reality start to appear.students?Equally, employers are now increasingly focusing on But why is this happening? Could it be that that sometimesselecting those students who feel a passion for what they information seems to be overwritten for commercialhave studied and are ready to continue learning, so purposes or are there other reasons behind it all?students who have solely focused on obtaining goodgrades might not obtain the expected results while looking There are several answers to this question. Thefor a job. commercial reasoning seems to be one of the main ones, but in many cases the gaps are due to other deeper reasons.On the other hand, Institutions/Programmes have the hard Often, those defining the three key elements of thetask to recruit students every year; and of having to programme - vision, mission and aim - are not directlyconstantly prove to the industry, the potential students, the connected to the tourism sector on a day-today basis, ormarket and the competitors that their reputation and the have written about these elements in a generic way byemployment rate of graduate students are justifiably high. using a fixed recipe that could in theory be applied to any tourism programme but which, in reality, implies the loss ofBut what happens when students are not happy with what an opportunity to integrate the views of management,they have studied, and in most cases with their work? students, faculty and the future employers in its definitionWould it have been better to encourage students to stop and implementation right from the very beginning of theand think about whether they should discontinue their conceptualization, therefore leading to increasing thepresent studies if it is not what they are looking for or want probabilities that the programme will not to be connectedto do as a job in the future? to reality, and consequently, building expectations in the students which might not be realistic. 19
  21. 21. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE VII Higher Tourism Education: Guiding students and graduates to make things right at all times. [Loreto Ibañez Castillo, UNWTO. TEDQUAL Programme Manager]Admission and induction process In most programmes, interaction with future employers is available either through internships or thanks to a strategyThe second crucial moment that contributes to students where the sector directly participates in the programme asmaking the right decision concerning their future is the faculty members. However a closer approach that couldadmission and induction process, at which point students generate other types of interaction such as invitingexpect to feel identified with their choice of study. faculty, students and employers to create a commonNevertheless, this feeling is not always fulfilled. The project is not frequently implemented, although it couldadmission process might not depend directly on the work towards obtaining the employers commitment toInstitution but on intermediaries and the induction process safeguard the students future as well as encouragingis sometimes considered more of a second marketing commitment on behalf of students and faculty to respondopportunity for the Institution, rather than an opportunity and consider the needs of these future employers as part ofto share both success and non-success stories with new the Programme.students as both of these would help the student realizeand decide whether the choice is correct. And we find this situation again in the connection students should have with day-to-day reality. This connection atAs a result, students usually finish building their initial local, national and international levels - would ensureexpectations based on the success stories they hear about students minds are open to live their profession withduring the induction process, while the down sides are understanding about cultural differences, sensitivenessoften forgotten in the construction of the path they are towards the positive impact any tourism activity shouldwilling to follow; a second significant gap that can distort have in its host countries and communities, and respect forthe main aim of guiding students to make things right at all the tourist as an individual, and not just as a source oftimes. income.The implementation of the Programme All the above aspects link directly to the importance of encouraging a relation between faculty and studentsSome aspects/actions regarding the implementation of the beyond the classroom while the programme isprogramme, are crucial when guiding students towards implemented. An example would be the organization oftheir future: cooperation for development activities and joint students1) interaction with future employers, 2) connection with internship/faculty placement experiences abroad - aday-to-day reality, and 3) communication with faculty practice that has started to be implemented in fastbeyond the classrooms. emerging tourism destinations and that could help students get the full picture concerning the work environment they will find in the tourism sector. 20
  22. 22. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition] VII Higher Tourism Education: Guiding students and graduates to make things right at all times. [Loreto Ibañez Castillo, UNWTO. TEDQUAL Programme Manager]The post-graduate follow-upFinally, the follow-up given to graduating students couldbe considered the finishing touch in the whole makingsure students have done things right at all times process.This follow-up should include: 1) helping students selectcompanies/organizations where basic ethical principlesare followed when applying for a jobto; 2) encouragingethical behaviour on the job and, 3) encouraging them tobe citizens who, through work, are seeking to contribute tothe economic and social development of the country, placeof residence and family. All of these are key aspects that willhelp students become positive leaders in the tourismsector while making a significant contribution to theaccomplishment of the UN purposes and principlesreflected in the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, ILO policypapers and Millennium Development Goals.ReferencesThis paper has been based on the authors experience andreports of the UNWTO.TedQual auditors visit to HigherTourism Education Institutions worldwide, afterinterviewing Employers of the tourism sector, FacultyMembers, Students and Management team. 21
  23. 23. UNWTO.TEDQUAL ASIA&THE PACIFIC World Tourism Organization MAGAZINE [first edition]Why submit yourself to the UNWTO-TEDQUAL Accreditation Process?[Gu Huimin, Beijing International Studies University. Chris Ryan, University of Waikato.]INTERVIEWThe School of Hospitality Management at Beijing CR You referred to process earlier – what did you learnInternational Studies University recently went through the from the process, and how did it differ from what you normallyprocess of accreditation for UNWTO.TedQual accreditation. do?Professor Gu Huimin, Deputy Dean of the School of TourismManagement and Director of the China Hospitality Industry GH Well, as I said, usually in China there is a lot of emphasis on the quality of provision, and of course that too was covered byResearch Centre at the university, was asked about the who was our UNWTO.TedQual auditor. I have to say that theUnited Nations World Tourism Organisations accreditation auditor did a very good job. Usually any inspection by the Chineseprocess. Her replies to the questions posed by Chris Ryan authorities is a team so we expected more than one person wouldare reproduced below. come to look at us, but the auditor was very thorough. A key issue as I said was that of the process by which I mean the experience of the students. It was not only a question of what they lean but alsoCR Why did you apply for UNWTO.TedQual? how they learn, and how do we as teachers not only teach but establish learning environments for the students. So we wereGH We wanted to measure ourselves against international forced to look carefully at our curriculum and how not only did we asbest practice, and the United Nations World Tourism Organization staff relate to the wider industry, but also how we could use thoseis also a very recognizable label by which others can judge us. We relationships to help establish a better understanding on the part ofare highly regarded in China but it was important that we should the students. So this could involve different things, from theobtain an internationally recognizable accreditation to complement periods of internship in industry, to the use of industry examples inour Chinese accreditations and recognitions. Indeed we found our teaching so that it was relevant, to the use of case studies. Inthat there was a difference between what we were used to in China that way our research activities are also important because it is aand what was required of us by the UNWTO moderator. In China means by which we as teachers keep up to date, are cognizant ofthe inspections are very much about supply factors – that is how governmental initiatives and industry movements and can passmany computers do we have, how many classroom, what this to our students. I know this is important in most countries – butstandards of accommodation do we offer for the students, how it is especially important in China because things are changing somany staff do we have and what qualifications do the staff have? very rapidly here.With the UNWTO we had to look more carefully at the processeswe engage in. CR So, was the accreditation worthwhile?CR So, just how many people did you have involved in GH To be honest, we are still waiting for the outcome as thewriting the submission for the accreditation? auditor was here only about 6 weeks ago, and so we are still waiting for the final result. I am confident we will gain accreditation, but theGH In total we have about 50 staff, and of these about 10 were question is for how long. However, to answer your question, apartengaged in the writing of the documentation with perhaps a smaller from any prestige that may be associated with the accreditation,group being the core. We also involved two of our administrative and I wont pretend that is not important – because in gaining suchstaff. Throughout the process we had meetings with all the staff so recognition it places Beijing International Studies Universitysthey knew what was happening. programme alongside those of well- known and internationally famous universities like Hong Kong and say yours too – but it was an important learning process. I found it interesting also seeing a 22