Biblical Citation: Leviticus 23:24 Rosh Hashonah is the first of the High Holidays or Yamim Noraim (“Days of Awe”), also known as “Aseret Yemei Teshuva (Ten Days of Repentance).
“ SHEMA” Lieber, d. (Ed.) (2001). Etz Hayim . NY: JPS This is the watchword of Judaism It reminds us of the breadth and depth of the Jewish people This proclamation has been said all over the world For many millennia and in many different accents “ SHEMA” means ‘Listen,’ ‘Wake-up,’ and ‘Pay Attention’
“ SHEMA” in Oculus - Wilshire Blvd. Temple , Los Angeles, CA Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli This is an example of those words placed in an architectural setting It is the third home of congregation B’nai B’rith of Los Angeles It was built in 1929 The architect was the son of the congregation’s first rabbi He used the Byzantine Revival style The congregation began in 1851 The oculus is the center of an octagonal sanctuary This congregation was a merge of pioneers and Hollywood moguls
“ KADDISH” Lieber, d. (Ed.) (2001). Etz Hayim . NY: JPS Ånother familiar prayer is the Mourner’s Kaddish It is said at other times during the year It is especially poignant and meaningful at the High Holidays You may think of those family and friends who are no longer with us Perhaps They were part of your lives at this time last year It encourages you to value the gift of each unique day.
“ AVENU MALKENU” Lieber, D. (Ed.) (2001). Etz Hayim . NY: JPS This prayer may jog your memory It may remind you of your actions taken in the past year Were they the best you had to give?
“ UNETANEH TOKEF” Lieber, D. (Ed.) (2001). Etz Hayim . NY: JPS This prayer reminds you that these are the Days of Judgment The High Holidays may motivate you to make changes in your life Perhaps to expand your knowledge of some aspect of Judaism Your presence at this presentation may be just such a beginning
“ KOL NIDRE” Lieber, D. (Ed.) (2001). Etz Hayim . NY: JPS The High Holidays acknowledge the power of this service It is a reminder of your transgressions against God For which repentance on Yom Kippur atones However, for those offenses to another person Only your words and actions can obtain forgiveness These thoughts may float through your hearts They may encourage your mind to wander to memories of the past As well as possibilities for the future Visual images are influenced by the Torah and liturgy They may accompany these mental and heartfelt meanderings
KOL NIDRE - illuminated manuscript, 1342 This image is from the 14 th century It shows that Kol Nidre was observed for nearly 1000 years!
FRONTISPIECE TO THE KOL NIDRE PRAYER - Mahzor, 1320 Sed-Rajna, G. (Ed.) (1997). Jewish Art. New York: Abrams Prayer book for the Festival Season (Mahzor) Some of these illustrations are in a distinctive style This particular artist collaborated on the illumination of a work It was produced in a monastery near lake Constance This was in Germanic lands at that time These prayer books were definitely meant for use in synagogues The community shared the costs of the manufacture of the book They owned it communally The artists were definitely independent 1328-production of liturgical manuscripts was abruptly halted This was due to the Black Death Persecutions ended the flourishing cultural life there
TEMPLE MENORAH- 1st c., BCE Snyder, J. (2004). The Jewish World 365 Days. NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc The Menorah is the pre-eminent image of Judaism It comes from Exodus 25: 31-39 and Exodus 37: 17-24 This depiction is the oldest known image of a menorah It was found in the excavations of the Old City of Jerusalem
MENORAH -6 th/ 7th c., CE Snyder, J. (2005). The Israel Museum. Jerusalem, Israel: Harry Abrams Throughout history, this image was created in all kinds of materials Notice the detail of the lions adjacent to the central section
MENORAH -Bible, Cervera, Spain, 1300 Narkiss, B. (1992). Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts. Jerusalem: Keter This image is from a famous Spanish 14 th c. Bible from Cervera The Biblical description (Zechariah 4) of the Menorah is Made of pure gold Two symmetrical branches Extending from one central stem Alternating pattern Flowers, buds, and almond-shaped calyxes All are Repeated symmetrically
MENORAH - Stained Glass, 19th c. And that it should weigh “One kikkar”...whatever that is
MENORAH -Emblem for State of Israel The Menorah should NEVER be re-created EXACTLY as the original The basic image interpreted in a variety of ways throughout history
MENORAH- entrance to Wilshire Blvd. Temple, Los Angeles, Ca. Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli South Façade has a monumental Romanesque-style 3-arch portal This serves as a porch This entrance is crowned by a menorah
JEWISH STAR/MAGEN DAVID/HEXAGRAM Frankel, E. & Teutsch, B. (1992). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Symbols , Northvale, NJ: Aronson Publisher The six-pointed hexagram is used by others in Mandalas Emblems for Franciscan Friars National Flags of various countries during medieval times, Badges for American Sheriffs The Great Seal of the United States on a one-dollar bill ... It is associated with the Jewish people in a variety of ways, such as:
JEWISH STAR/MAGEN DAVID/HEXAGRAM -Stained Glass, 19th c. Gruber, S. (1999). Synagogues. New York: Metro Books A sparkling and complex kaleidoscope of shapes and colors
JEWISH STAR/MAGEN DAVID/HEXAGRAM -Dome, 19th c. Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli The uppermost symbol atop the dome of a Jewish synagogue
JEWISH STAR/MAGEN DAVID/HEXAGRAM - Flowers from Mount Sion Pressed flowers in a turn of the 20th c. Jerusalem version
JEWISH STAR/MAGEN DAVID/HEXAGRAM -Flag of Israel The Flag of Israel proudly flying!
CACTUS/SABRA- Native-born Israelis Frankel, E. & Teutsch, B. (1992). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Symbols , Northvale, NJ: Aronson Publisher This image is a part of the personal or communal Israeli experience It is intended to capture the sharp and prickly exterior That covers the sweet interior of the native-born Israelis...
AKEDA- Genesis 22: 1-24 Lieber, D. (2001). (Ed.) Etz Hayim. NY: Jewish Publication Society Regardless of the aesthetic approach You will hear this story on the second day of Rosh Hashonah This is a direct connection of over fifteen hundred years!
AKEDA- Bet Alpha, Israel, 6th c. Sed-Rajna, G. (Ed.) (1997). Jewish Art. New York: Abrams This mosaic is by the artist Marianos and his son Hanina This floor was made during the 6th century Under the reign of Emperor Justinian (518-527) They were NOT interested in the illusion of 3-D physical space They were interested in the narrative or telling of a story They inserted the names of the individuals in the story They showed the hands of God to make it as clear as possible.
HAFTORAH: THE BOOK OF JONAH Lieber, D. (2001). (Ed.) Etz Hayim. NY: Jewish Publication Society Jews in these synagogues will read The Book of Jonah It is the Haftarah or reading from the Prophets It is read in the afternoon of Yom Kippur
JONAH -Micrography, German, 13th c. Cohen-Mushlin (1974). Jewish Art, Vol. 1-22,1996. Jerusalem: Center for Jewish Art Jews in the 13th c. made this Book of Jonah The manuscript is in micrography The Hebrew words form the shapes of Jonah and the Big Fish Many consider this technique the only uniquely Jewish art style
JEWS PRAYING IN THE SYNAGOGUE ON YOM KIPPUR- M. Gottlieb, 1878 Sed-Rajna, G. (Ed.) (1997). Jewish Art. New York: Abrams For them, Jewish tradition conflicted with entry into the mainstream Jewish Polish/Russian ancestors found a challenge This presented a dilemma to creative artists like Maurycy Gottlieb He experienced anti-Semitic incidents at his art school in Cracow He left his home city and went to Warsaw There he was influenced by the Haskalah movement This is also known as the Jewish Enlightenment Reveals Gottlieb’s ambivalence about traditional Jewish observance His outward glance in his self-portrait shows skepticism Some worshipers are studying seriously and others are not Each one seems isolated, though this was the Jewish community! Gottlieb died the very next year at the young age of 23!
SCUOLA GRANDE TEDESCA -( facade), Venice, Italy, 16th c. Gruber, S. (1999). Synagogues. New York: Metro Books Synagogues in Italy were often difficult to find They were part of buildings, which also housed apartments Their modest facades blended in with all of these other uses Unless you notice the arched windows on the third floor
SCUOLA GRANDE TEDESCA (Ashkenazi) Ark, Venice, 1528/1732-33 Sed-Rajna, G. (Ed.) (1997). Jewish Art. New York: Abrams Inside, the eyes could feast on all of the visual glory This sumptuous Baroque ark is an example of Economic stability, which allowed Jewish culture to flourish The term “Ghetto” originated in the 16th c. in Italy Jews lived in the area of foundries, or “jettos”
TORAH MANTLE- Italy, 18th c. Grossman, G. (1995). Jewish Art. New York: Hugh Lauter Levin The generosity of affluent families resulted in sumptuousness This was found both in the interior architecture/Ark and in Judaica They were the pride of the community These objects brought great honor to the donors Finials and a crown on the scroll The shield is in the shape of a half crown These were all customary designs in Italy
CONSISTORY SYNAGOGUE- Alfred Aldrophe, Paris, 1874 Sed-Rajna, G. (Ed.) (1997). Jewish Art. New York: Abrams This Parisian synagogue moves forward in time and west in location It shows the influence of mainstream church architecture This is seen in its long nave, side aisles, and apsidal domed Bima area This is an orthodox synagogue in Paris Separate seating for women is in the arcaded gallery on either side
THE AMIDA- Jacques-Emile Edouard Brandon, Amsterdam, 1897 Korn, I. (1996). A Celebration of Judaism in Art . NY: Todtri Productions The Amida is the “Silent prayer” It is part of three traditional daily and holiday services Jacques-Emile-Edouard Brandon was the artist for this painting He came from a wealthy Spanish-Portuguese Bordeaux Jewish family This painting was made from studies done by the artist In Amsterdam It records the scale and light of the interior It culminates over 30 years of his artistic work on Jewish life
TOURO SYNAGOGUE (facade), Newport, Rhode Island, 1763 Gruber, S. (1999). Synagogues. New York: Metro Books Jews came to America in 1635 from Recife, Brazil They had gone to Recife from Amsterdam Those Jews built the first synagogue in the United States It is named for Rabbi Isaac Touro (d. 1794) He officiated at its consecration Its lay leader was Moses Seixas He wrote a congratulatory letter to George Washington He received a response Washington stated that The United States of America would give “ To bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance”
A. TOURO SYNAGOGUE (interior), Newport, Rhode Island, 1763 Gruber, S. (1999). Synagogues. New York: Metro Books This synagogue is designed in the American Federalist style Behind the bima is a trap door Some say it was for a “quick getaway” Others say it was for the slaves in the Underground Railroad B. RIMONIM- Myer Myers, 18th c Grossman, G. (1995). Jewish Art. New York: Hugh Lauter Levin Myer Myers made these Torah finials He was born in 1723 in America Myer Myers is one of the most famous American silversmiths He achieved worldwide renown The New York Colonial legislature naturalized his Dutch father This allowing Myer to apprentice under a master silversmith He chose Paul Revere! Myers was a veteran of the Revolutionary War He was president of the New York Silversmiths’ Association His rimonim (Torah finials) reflect his Dutch Sephardi background They use fruit forms rather than architectural designs These rimonim are preserved in the Touro Synagogue
MIKEVE-ISRAEL SYNAGOGUE- Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, 1732 Sed-Rajna, G. (Ed.) (1997). Jewish Art. New York: Abrams Jews from Holland brought a Torah scroll to Curacao In 1659 They established this synagogue It is celebrated for its curving gables Its interior layout is similar to the Sephardi one in Amsterdam In the “New World” Jews built synagogues in: Surinam Barbados Nevis St. Eustatius St. Thomas
SYNAGOGUE (interior)-Surinam, 1993 VENEZUELAN EMBASSY This is the interior of the synagogue showing its famous sand floor Sand floors are common features of public meeting sites in Surinam This tiny island is adjacent to South America It was established by Dutch Sephardic Jews
EAST (Ark) WALL- Congregation Emanu-El, New York, NY, 1930 Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli Congregation Emanu-El is on 5 th Avenue in New York City It was built as an expression of architectural optimism and opulence This was just before the depression and World War II The interior space is enormous The style is suggestive of medieval churches Large arches on both sides lead to the great arch over the Ark
WEST (Entrance) WALL- Congregation Emanu-El, NYC, NY, 1930 Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli The design was developed from Romanesque influenced by Moorish Imagined as an intermingling of Occidental and Oriental thought The enormous scale is unmatched in any other synagogue
PARK SYNAGOGUE- Eric Mendelsohn, Cleveland, Ohio, 1953 Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli A modern aesthetic was developed after World War II It provided for expansion of the sanctuary and multiple use of space One leading architect was Eric Mendelsohn (1887-1953) He was born and trained in Europe He arrived in the United States in 1942 He designed synagogues with expansion and multiple use in mind The Park Synagogue is just such an edifice It was dedicated in 1953 Its dome Begins just above the congregants line of vision This places them at the intersection of earthly and heavenly space Mendelsohn’s ideas were extremely influential For decades, American synagogues reflected his designs
TEMPLE BETH SHOLOM- Percival Goodman, Miami Beach, Florida, 1956 Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli Mendelsohn’s greatest competitor was Percival Goodman (1904-1989) He became the most prolific synagogue architect in history Goodman said that it was the Holocaust that made him a Jew However, he never belonged to a synagogue Brightly colored glass fills the parabolic arches These are located at the lower part of the dome These create interlocked Stars of David
BETH SHOLOM (facade)-Frank Lloyd Wright, Elkins Park, Pa, 1957 Gruber, S. (1999). Synagogues. New York: Metro Books The world’s pre-eminent architect designed this synagogue Frank Lloyd Wright was a modernist and world-renowned architect Plastics and resins make the structure look solid on the outside Wright designed an angular, almost crystalline form It is covered with tinted glass and plastics
BETH SHOLOM (interior)-Frank Lloyd Wright, Elkins Park, Pa, 1957 Gruber, S. (1999). Synagogues. New York: Metro Books It shimmers with colored light within Rabbi requested a “mountain of light” and the architect responded The multicolored triangular glass chandelier hangs in the center Wright was a modernist but not a rationalist He included expressionistic and symbolic motifs into his design. Rabbi Cohen gave Kabbalistic meaning to the colors: Blue is for wisdom Green is for insight or understanding Yellow and gold are for beauty Red is for strength, courage, and justice White is for mercy and lovingkindness. Wright said: “ We want to create the kind of building that people, on entering it, will feel as if they were resting in the very hands of God.”
CHICAGO LOOP SYNAGOGUE- Chicago, Illinois, 1958 Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli Abraham Rattner (1895-1978) designed the stained-glass windows They allow maximum light into the sanctuary His windows were extremely successful Subsequently, hundreds of American synagogues used stained glass This was in the 1960s and 1970s This glass wall is based on the biblical citation from Genesis 1: 3 “ Let there be Light, and there was Light” Rattner paved the way for new approaches in synagogues, such as:
ARK- Luise Kaish-Temple B’rith Kodesh-Rochester, New York, 1962 Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli This massive bronze Ark is by sculptor Luise Kaish She was born in1925 It is the most prominent artistic statement in the synagogue complex Figural panels are gleaned from scriptural passages They represent key moments of human’s confrontation with God It is one of the major works of Judaica in the past half-century The doors are related to traditional Italian medieval bronze doors
NORTH SHORE CONGREGATION ISRAEL - Minoru Yamasaki, Glencoe Illinois, 1964 Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli This sanctuary wall shows technical innovation It is also a startling aesthetic The architect, Yamasaki, was born in 1912 and died in 1985 It is at link of the sanctuary to the natural landscape This architect also designed the World Trade Center in New York The original families were from the Classical Reform Sinai Cong. It held services on Sundays, as did most reform temples in Chicago Large sanctuary is a modern version of the “cathedral synagogue” It is heir to such sites as Emanu-El in New York
B’NAI JEHUDAH - Kansas City, MO, 1967 Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli This congregation helped found the UAHC That was in 1873 The tent motif is the basis of this enormous sanctuary Norman Brunelli, designed the eternal light, menorah and the Ark
TEMPLE BETH ZION -Buffalo, New York, 1967 Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli This synagogue reflects a cool, clear modernist style Ben Shahn designed the stained glass, which serves as a façade It depicts Psalm 150 through colored calligraphy This Psalm was sung at the dedication of the first Temple in 1890 The sanctuary ceiling rises to over 60 feet It hovers, as a taut canopy across the bowl of the worship space Hidden skylights filter light through the open spaces Shahn also designed the Hebrew mosaics adjacent to the Ark These towers frame huge stained-glass windows Shahn combined CREATION symbols and job 38:4-7 This text expresses the creation of the universe It also supports the architectural creation of this building Shahn’s large glass and brass menorah shines on the bimah
TEMPLE BETH EL -Great Neck, New York. 1970 Gruber, S. (2003). American Synagogues. New York: Rizzoli The Temple was designed by Armand Bartos He, with Frederic Kiesler, also designed the Shrine of the Book That museum is at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem The congregation is a Reform one The congregation commissioned work from several leading artists Louise Nevelson designed The White Flame of the Six Million It is a large wall sculpture Ina Golub designed the covers of the Torah scrolls
SOUNDING THE SHOFAR- Amsterdam, 1723 Snyder, J. (2004). The Jewish World 365 Days. NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc This woodcut is from the Sir Isaac and Lady Wolfson Museum It is located in Hechal Shlomo, Jerusalem The print is from an 18 th century Dutch book of customs It depicts the sounding of the shofar for the High Holidays
SHOFAR BLOWING , 20 th c. Oheb Shalom, Baltimore, MD 250 years separate the woodcut from this etched glass image Yet the same subject is depicted This shows the continuity of Jewish ritual
SH’MA -Daniel Bomberg, 1958 Korn, I. (1996). A Celebration of Judaism in Art . NY: Todtri And so we move to the “Sh’ma” This is the watchword of Judaism It comes from 3 biblical daily prayers recited morning and evening It is also recited at other times It is an affirmation of monotheism and proscribes specific rituals
KOL NIDRE -Jacob Weinles Kaniel, M. (1989). A Guide to Jewish Art . New York: Allied Books This painting is a traditional view of Jewish men in the synagogue The artist faithfully depicts the men singing Kol Nidre
DAY OF ATONEMENT- Jacob Kramer, 1919 Korn, I. (1996). A Celebration of Judaism in Art . NY: Todtri This painting was created in 1919 Flat shapes, strong contrasts, & stylized figures are modernist Still, the viewers recognize men wrapped in their tallitot
ONEMENT- Barnett Newman, 1948 Hess, T. (1971). Barnett Newman , The Museum of Modern Art In our quest for completion and harmony, honor the essence of life This painting is by Barnett Newman He aimed to touch elemental cosmic forces He wanted to penetrate the universe
RAM’S HORN, MENORAH AND DIVINE HAND -Ben Shahn, 1958 Jacob Shulman collection This is the preliminary painting for a synagogue mosaic T he mosaic is in Temple Ohef Shalom in Nashville, TN As we approach the High Holidays, from Rosh Hashonah to Yom Kippur from our inner search to our resulting outer actions May we increase our knowledge of the Jewish world One approach is through its visual arts for these art objects speak to us They inform us of the life experiences of our worldwide Jewish Family
APPLES AND HONEY I thank you for the opportunity to share some High Holiday images Like this slice of apple dipped in honey— I wish you and all those you love, SHANA TOVAH TIKATAVU! A SWEET AND HAPPY NEW YEAR!
<ul><li>THE ART OF THE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH HOLIDAYS </li></ul><ul><li>Elul 29/Tishri 1-10, 5771 </li></ul><ul><li>ROSH HASHONAH </li></ul><ul><li>רראשהשנה </li></ul><ul><li>September 8/9 and 10/11, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>YOM KIPPUR </li></ul><ul><li>ייוםכיפור </li></ul><ul><li>September 17/18, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Myrna Teck, Ph. D. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Scholar </li></ul>