Digital Mailrooms: Fixing Your Weakest Link in the Customer Value Chain

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This paper makes the case that sluggish, error-prone mailflow processing suppresses revenues from both new and existing customers, diminishing overall satisfaction, brand equity, and loyalty.

The digital, online, pan-regional processing of customer-generated paper-based communications—a function of DIGITAL MAILROOMS—speeds an organization’s overall time to satisfy customer criteria for timely and more personal service fulfillment.

Faster time to satisfy customers unlocks revenues already in engagement-revenue pipelines, adding the equivalent of 2.9 days of revenues to the firm.

This paper demonstrates how other productivity dividends (cost and labor savings) fund enterprise wide digital mail processing and paperless business processes.

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Digital Mailrooms: Fixing Your Weakest Link in the Customer Value Chain

  1. 1. ........................ .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .......... Executive White Paper Digital Mailrooms: Fixing Your Weakest Link in the Customer Value Chain Business case for the centralized digital processing of paper- KEY TOPICS ADDRESSED • Lifecycle costs of paper-based mail and customer-generated based mail, business forms, faxes, and email, speeding an documents organization’s overall time to satisfy customer requests for • Exhaustive inventory of compound documents by industry • Distributed fast-cycle collaboration with virtual customer information, order processing, and service fulfillment engagement files • Featured use-case productivity models: - Loan processing Business process benchmarks analyzing faster cycle-time contributions - Order processing to the customer engagement and revenue pipeline of new customers - Accounts receivable and existing accounts - Mortgages TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 3 Summary 4 Executive Primer: Digital Mailrooms 11 Digital Mail Processing 19 Strategic Use Cases and Payback Scenarios 34 Enterprise Content Processing Infrastructure
  2. 2. ECM | Business case for speeding the time to satisfy customer requests for information and service fulfillment with digital mail processing systemsWho helped produce this white paper? Who is GISTIcS?AuTHor coNTrIbuTorSmIChael moon alex marTInezPresident, CEO Product Marketing ManagerGISTICS Incorporated Open Textmoon@gistics.com amartine@opentext.com THINK TANK For EArLY STAGE-MArKETS mIChael Cybala GISTICS constitutes a think tank that speeds the adoption of new technology and disruptiveANALYST Director, Program and innovations among enterprises and consumers. Founded in 1987, GISTICS Incorporatedjoel warwICk Product ManagementPrincipal SAP Solutions Group minimizes the risk of potential buyers through the following:JAW Consulting mcybala@opentext.com • Interviews with successful early adopters of new technologiesjoel@joelwarwick.com • Definition of the critical success patterns of successful early adopters roland jaGerDESIGN, LAYouT, Product Manager • Activity-based analyses of adoption benefits on supply chains, workflows, and userEDITING, ProDucTIoN Open Text activities rjaeger@opentext.comlIanne mUeller • Visual explanations of how new technologies produce economic valueArt Director johanneS SChaChT • Investment analyses that justify the purchase of new technical systemsFly Design Media Director of Marketing Open Text Document Technology • Project roadmaps that break down large-scale organizational changes into smaller two-lianne@flydesignmedia.com johannes.schacht@opentext.com week to two-month projectsIrIS alroy • Practitioner portals that clarify the next steps in rapid deployment and paybackProduction Artist Gerhard deTzelGISTICS Incorporated Strategic Planning • Certified consultants that provide essential skills and resourcesresearch@gistics.com Open Text GISTICS drives the emergence of shared vocabularies, the adoption of effective problem- gerhard.detzel@opentext.comkaThleen mCFadden determination methods, and the development of unassailable investment analyses that justifykmcfadden@writetools.com jaSon weIr purchases of new technologies or disruptive innovations. Senior Manager, Product MarketingSTeve TUrner Open Text GISTICS attracts early adopters and pace-setting solutioneers, demonstrating how they canTurner Associates jweir@opentext.com use new technologies or disruptive innovations to make money by delivering new complex,steve@turnersf.com integrated solutions to enterprise or consumer clients. GISTICS develops breakthrough market-making strategies for vendors of new technologies or disruptive innovations, using industry thought leadership, executive white papers, Webcasts,GISTICS InCorporaTed4171 Piedmont Avenue, specialized Websites, and a global trust network of advanced project managers within largeSuite 210 enterprises, independent consultants, and small master-class solution providers.Oakland CA 94611 USAwww.gistics.com+1.510.450.9999 tel+1.510.450.0954 fax WHAT’S IN THE NAME? gist ’jist n -s [AF, it lies (said of©2009 GISTICS Incorporated. All a legal action), fr. MF, 3d pers.rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. sing. pres. indic. of gesir to lie, fr. L jacére to lie, fr. jacere to throw — more at jet (to spout)]GISTICS and its agents have used 1: the main point or material parttheir best efforts in collecting andpreparing information published in (as of a question or debate) : thethis executive white paper, Digital pith of a matter : essence (the ~Mailrooms: Fixing Your Weakest Link of a question) <the ~ of all thatin the Customer Value Chain. GISTICS can be said upon the matter—R.does not assume, and hereby dis- L. Stevenson> 2: the ground orclaims, any liability for any loss or foundation of a legal action withoutdamage caused by errors and omis- which it would not be sustainablesions in this white paper, whethersuch errors or such omissions —Webster’s Third New Internationalresulted from negligence, accident, or Dictionary Unabridgedother causes. GISTICS | EXECUT IVE W HITE PA P ER | Digit al Mailroom s : F i x i n g Yo u r We a ke s t Li n k i n t h e C u s t o m e r Va l u e C h a i n 2
  3. 3. ECM | Business case for speeding the time to satisfy customer requests for information and service fulfillment with digital mail processing systemsWhat summarizes the business case for digital mail processing and the deployment of digitalmailrooms? DigitalMailrooms.2.5 ©2009 GISTICS Incorporated, All rights reservedWEAKEST LINK OF CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT SERVICE-FULFILLMENT CYCLES TIME TO SATISFY CUSTOMERSMost large business-to-consumer and public In the course of interacting with customers, This paper makes the case that sluggish,sector organizations seek better and less hundreds to thousands of organizational staff, error-prone mailflow processing suppressescostly ways of serving customers, growing as well as partners, must satisfy a diverse revenues from both new and existingrevenues, and reducing exposure to risk. range of customer criteria for information customers, diminishing overall satisfaction, or service fulfillment, using all available brand equity, and loyalty.This paper makes the case that automating information sources, including paper-basedphysical mailroom operations supports all three The digital, online, pan-regional processing correspondence, forms, and documents.strategic aims, shoring up one of the weakest of customer-generated paper-basedlinks of customer engagement: cycle times and The inbound handling and distribution of communications—a function of DIGITALmistakes in physical mailflows. individual pieces of mail—letters, orders, MAILROOMS—speeds an organization’s contracts, etc.—often represents the weakest overall time to satisfy customer criteria forCUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT link in the customer value chain, adding timely and more personal service fulfillment.The growing preference of customers for significant time delays, paper management Faster time to satisfy customers unlocksonline, interactive services continues to drive costs, and barriers to fast-cycle collaboration revenues already in engagement-revenueoverall expectations of value and satisfaction, among decision-making teams. pipelines, adding the equivalent of 2.9 days ofdemanding that enterprises improve all The manual, duplicated, and physical revenues to the firm.customer-facing business processes. logistics workflows or mailflows consist This paper demonstrates how otherThe relatively new term, customer of receiving, sorting, distributing, and productivity dividends (cost and labor savings)engagement, conveys a new strategic priority using customer-generated paper-based fund enterprise wide digital mail processingand operational capability of the enterprise: communications. and paperless business processes.how to attract, serve, and keep customers for Mailflow processing that includes orders,life. change orders, complaints, requests for SUMMARYNetworked customers demand faster, information, and contract amendments Digital mailrooms increase revenues,more cogent, and transparent fulfillment of (especially compound, multipart documents speeding an organization’s overalltheir requests for information, service, and that require two or more people to review and contribute to an appropriate response to the time to satisfy customers in thesatisfaction. customer) slows an organization’s overall time engagement-revenue pipeline and,Digital mailroom processing marks the next to satisfy customers and potential buyers. thus, funding enterprise wide digitallogical step in improved customer engagement. mail processing. GISTICS | EXECUTIVE W HITE PA P ER | Digit al Mailroo m s : F i x i n g Yo u r We a ke s t Li n k i n t h e C u s t o m e r Va l u e C h a i n 3
  4. 4. ECM | Business case for speeding the time to satisfy customer requests for information and service fulfillment with digital mail processing systems Section 2 Executive Primer: Digital Mailrooms PAGE ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS ADDRESSED 5 What’s the strategic case for Digital Mailrooms, automating the digitization and process orchestration of in-bound physical mail, email, business forms, faxes, and compound documents? 6 What assumptions support the case for digital processing of in-bound mail, business forms, compound documents, and emails with attachments? 7 What areas of a customer value chain benefit from digital mail processing? 8 What constitutes a service-fulfillment cycle, framing the productivity contribution of digital mail processing? 9 What types of mail drive the business case for digital mail processing and centralized digital mail rooms? 10 How do faster cycle-times of digital mail processing contribute to major launches, customer engagement, and revenue pipelines? GISTICS | EXECUT IVE W HITE PA P ER | Digit al Mailroom s : F i x i n g Yo u r We a ke s t Li n k i n t h e C u s t o m e r Va l u e C h a i n 4
  5. 5. ECM | Business case for speeding the time to satisfy customer requests for information and service fulfillment with digital mail processing systemsWhat’s the strategic case for digital mailrooms, automating the digitization and process orchestration of inbound physical mail,email, business forms, faxes, and compound documents? DigitalMailrooms.2.5 ©2009 GISTICS Incorporated, All rights reservedLIFEBLOOD OF ORGANIZATIONS Greater asset-utilization rates FASTER CYCLE TIME INCREASES SALES, LOWERS COST, AND ADDS represent handling higher PROCESS AGILITYFinding and serving customers define the volumes of more diverse andpurpose of all organizations, commercial or complex interactions with buyers TIME TO SATISFY CUSTOMER REQUESTS FOR SERVICE OR INFORMATIONpublic sector. and customers—how firms satisfy Manual Mail Processing 4.5 Days Days 4.5If customers represent the lifeblood of evolving customer requirements,organizations, then communication serves as especially among networkedthe heart and workflows as the arteries. buyers. DIGITAL MAIL PROCESSINGALL ABOUT CYCLE TIME Greater business process transparency gives management 1.6 Days 2.9 Day Cycle-time GainThis paper makes the case that digital new operational and data-basedprocessing of inbound mail, customer insights—how firms can focus on Productivity Drivers Productivity Dividendscorrespondence, and compound documents higher value-added opportunities • Centralized mail-item processing: • Sales pipeline accelerationspeeds the fulfillment of requests for service and challenges. -Extended operation hours / shifts -Peak level loading with subcontractors • Incremental closings of opportunistic dealsand information, creating productivity • Faster processing of complex • Lower lifecycle costs of business records,dividends. Better visibility of high-priority workflows: forms, and compound documents accounts means senior managers -Loans • Greater asset-utilization rates through -Leases consolidated mailrooms and teamsPRODUCTIVITY DIVIDENDS can track and expedite delays in -Multivendor systems • Greater business process transparency establishing new major accounts -Statements of work and monitoringThis paper shows that greater productivity in or the handling of nonstandard • Faster problem determination: -Customer complaints • Better visibility and handling of high-mail workflows returns its investment in several customer requests—how firms can -Change orders and expedited priority accounts and situationsareas: backorders make their quarterly goals without -Disrupted vendor supply chain flowsSales pipeline acceleration represents faster creating a big mess or breaking • Faster receivables workflow: -Outstanding item resolutionbuying cycles—the result of faster, more the system. -Proof of receipt or acceptance • Instant multiparty collaboration: -Subcontracted work -Instant bill presentationinformed interactions with new and existing Digital mail processing can deliver • Instant online status: -Multiproduct / multivendor configurationscustomers. additional dividends, emphasizing -Rerouting -Ad hoc “Huddles” -Risk, compliance, or clearance -Remote office / call centerIncremental closings represent opportunistic the particular aspects of individual -Peer-to-peer handoffs -Quick approvals decision makingsales—often the result of faster approvals and organizations, industry norms, and -Fast escalation / triageexpedited order processing. statutory requirements. Time_to_Satisfy_RFI.A.1.5 © 2009 GISTICS All rights reserved.Lower lifecycle costs represent going digital Faster processing of inbound physical mail and documents saves an average of 2.9 days in the time it takes to receive,earlier in the document lifecycle, lowering costs sort, and route customer communications to the appropriateof administrative labor, interim paper storage, internal staff or department, producing a number of immediateand long-term business records archives. economic benefits and longer term process management options. GISTICS | EXECUTIVE W HITE PA P ER | Digit al Mailroo m s : F i x i n g Yo u r We a ke s t Li n k i n t h e C u s t o m e r Va l u e C h a i n 5
  6. 6. ECM | Business case for speeding the time to satisfy customer requests for information and service fulfillment with digital mail processing systemsWhat assumptions support the case for digital processing of inbound mail, business forms, compound documents, and emailswith attachments? DigitalMailrooms.2.5 ©2009 GISTICS Incorporated, All rights reservedNEXT STEP IN THE JOURNEY OF AUTOMATION Faster cycle times in customer- FIXING THE WEAKEST LINK OF CUSTOMER VALUE CHAINS facing communications, interaction,Business IT history reveals that automation and handoffs accelerate the coreof seemingly small units of work throughout a Digital business process of finding and Maillarge organization often produces significant, keeping customers. Processinglong-reaching effects. AUTOMATES Time to SatisfyThe figure to the right depicts the core TIME TO SATISFY REQUESTS Requests for Service SPEEDINGassumptions that support the case for digital Centralized mailroom operations Centralized or Information Mailroommailrooms, emphasizing three immediate, speed the routing of digitized Operations BY WAY OFlong-lasting benefits: items, using workflow engines and Handoff Delays, Monolinear Queues, REDUCING • Increased productivity of frontline business records managers—how and Manual Searches knowledge workers and trade partners— firms integrate digital mailflows into especially those parties that contribute to their core business applications and Throughout a Customer Value Chain revenues and customer satisfaction business records management. Communications, Interactions, and Handoffs among • Improved satisfaction of customers Staff, Trade Partners, Customers, and Regulators Digital mail processing automates through faster service-fulfillment cycles and Greater the digitization, profiling, and better, more informed answers by frontline ADDING ACTIVITIES PRIMARY VALUE- Manufacturing MA cataloging of all inbound mail and Development New Product Service and Distribution Operations/ Leadership workers Marketing DIF F ERENTIATION Logistics/ and Sales Logistics RG Inbound Support faxes, including email with attached Digital_Mailroom_Case_A.2.3 ©2009 GISTICS Incorporated, All rights reserved. IN • Enhanced orchestration of complex, pan- R&D documents or images, business regional business processes—important in Organizational Infrastructure SUPPORT ACTIVITIES forms, and complex multipart Finance and Legal the era of consolidation and globalization of documents. Human Resources a workforce ICT Infrastructure Procurement and Vendor Management Lower This paper explains each of these IT THEN FOLLOWS THATSERVING CUSTOMERS key assumptions, quantifying D I G I TA L MAILROOMS PROVIDE THE MISSING LINK, the business value of bottom-upAs wryly noted by Peter Drucker, the guru automation.on management and knowledge worker INCREASING IMPROVING and ENHANCINGproductivity, “A firm has no other purpose thanto find and keep customers.” Digital mail processing Productivity of Front Customer Satisfaction, Orchestration ofCustomer value-chain models depict the constitutes the next logical- line Knowledge Workers Loyalty, and Share-of- Complex, Pan-regionalprimary and support activities of a firm, step in enterprise automation and Trade Partners Wallet Revenues Business Processescalling attention to the central role that and business process • Customer service • Better informed answers • Innovating new services management, speeding the • Account development by staff • Launching new offeringscommunications, interaction, and handoffs play time-to-satisfy requests for • Contract administration • Risk or compliance • Faster fulfillment of customer needs • Processing new accounts and complex ordersin finding and keeping customers. • Fewer defects, mistakes, • Servicing customer requests service and information by and do overs customers and trade partners. • Greater visibility of priority customer accounts GISTICS | EXECUTIVE W HITE PA P ER | Digit al Mailroo m s : F i x i n g Yo u r We a ke s t Li n k i n t h e C u s t o m e r Va l u e C h a i n 6
  7. 7. ECM | Business case for speeding the time to satisfy customer requests for information and service fulfillment with digital mail processing systemsWhat areas of a customer value chain benefit from digital mail processing? DigitalMailrooms.2.5 ©2009 GISTICS Incorporated, All rights reservedVALUE-CHAIN INTERACTIONS SERVICE-FULFILLMENT CYCLES It then follows that faster inputs to those service-fulfillment cycles, coupled with moreEach organization within an industry or Over the span of any business day, a larger complete and accessible “answers” increasesbusiness ecosystem incorporates the value- enterprise will start and complete a multitude of overall productivity in the customer valueadded products or services of upstream tasks in service of customers. chain: increased revenues!suppliers, adding distinctive value to its Service fulfillment describes the basic workown products or services that downstream of serving customers and serving those whocustomers incorporate and pass along to the service customers. The faster a firm completesend-chain customer. service-fulfillment cycles represents a primaryThe figure on the right depicts a value-chain source of revenue: satisfied customers.business entity, suggesting how digital mailprocessing might spread throughout many ANY AREA THAT RECEIVES EXTERNAL MAIL OR DOCUMENTS BENEFITS FROM DIGITAL MAIL PROCESSINGareas of the enterprise. Communications, Interactions, and Hand offs among Staff,VALUE CHAIN BUSINESS ENTITY Trade Partners, Customers, and RegulatorsMichael Porter, the international authority oncompetition, first introduced the concept of avalue chain business entity, emphasizing the Greater ADDING ACTIVITIES PRIMARY VALUE-value-adding activities of the firm. Manufacturing Marketing and MA Development New Product Service and Distribution Operations/In the example shown to the right, the higher Leadership Logistics/ DI FFERE NT IATI ON Logisticsvalue-adding activities start with R&D and RG Inbound Supportnew product development and conclude with Sales IN R&Dservice, support, and leadership.However, every firm must build and maintain Organizational Infrastructure SUPPORT ACTIVITIES SERVICE(or access a partner’s) organizational FULFILLMENTinfrastructure—support activities. Finance and Legal CYCLE SS F E ASS In particular, the ICT infrastructure UL Human Resources FILL(computers, telecommunications, data centers,etc.) supports digital mailrooms, integrating ICT Infrastructureautomated mail processing with existing or PLAN Procurement and Vendor Management Lowernewly developed workflow platforms and Value_Chain_Entity.E.1.2 © 2009 GISTICS Incorporated, All rights reserved.records management systems. The elimination of one communication or interaction cycle (follow-up telephone call, fax, email) in the time to satisfy ALL paper-based requests for service or information can add up to tens of millions of dollars in savings and increased revenues. GISTICS | EXECUTIVE W HITE PA P ER | Digit al Mailroo m s : F i x i n g Yo u r We a ke s t Li n k i n t h e C u s t o m e r Va l u e C h a i n 7
  8. 8. ECM | Business case for speeding the time to satisfy customer requests for information and service fulfillment with digital mail processing systemsWhat constitutes a service-fulfillment cycle, framing the productivity contribution of digital mail processing? DigitalMailrooms.2.5 ©2009 GISTICS Incorporated, All rights reservedSERVICE-FULFILLMENT CYCLES BRAND VALUE • Permanent collections of all related information objects and feeds—digitalIndustry benchmarks of business response Customer satisfaction represents many customer files—enable faster completion oftimes to customers using telephone, email, aspects of a complex business operation service-fulfillment cycles.website, online contact center, fax, and coming together to meet or exceed thephysical mail services reveal significant delays customer’s expectations and criteria for value • Online service-fulfillment cycles enablefor physical mail and faxes. and quality. account managers and executives to monitor the number of completion rates of service-The figure on the right depicts the common Fast, courteous, well-informed, and effective fulfillment cycles by account, workgroup, andelement of all customer requests, a service- answers, fulfilled correctly on the first time region—a way to manage by exception andfulfillment cycle. represent the ideal. marshal resources to achieve a strategicCurrent condition represents a status quo Digital mail processing moves an win.until a precipitating event occurs, initiating a enterprise closer to that ideal in four FASTER TIME TO SATISFY REQUESTS CREATES NEW BRAND VALUEservice-fulfillment cycle. ways:The clarity, succinctness, and form of requests • Digitization of physical mail, Current Condition B ra n doften vary, ranging from hysterical complaints forms, faxes, and compound REWORK START HERE documents creates more SUB-CYCLE(S)(weak, ill-formed requests) to well-reasoned ! 1 potential answer-making 2and comprehensive descriptions of the 3 PRECIPITATINGproblem, likely causes, and possible solutions. resources. Affirm Equity INCIDENT • Secure, searchable, onlineAssessment may entail a single staff member global repositories enable Detract Complainresponding to a customer’s need, applying a any number of authorizedknown policy (or policies) and resources at participants to use answer- Satisfaction Requesthand (information and applications) to satisfy making resources.the customer—clearly the ideal situation. Insufficient Keeping customers AssessHowever, many service-fulfillment cyclesrequire internal or external multiparty, entails answering Confirm S questions and TION Smultistep workflows, delaying cycle IE RT provisioning PA ORA ALtimes and contributing to the heightened services. Faster RN LAB E INT OLdissatisfaction of customers. service-fulfillment YC RT PA cycles of customers’ LTIThese multistep workflows may include requests increase EP, MU TIST S IEmany iterative cycles and a changing cast of satisfaction and Fulfill MUL RT PA Plan NA Lworkflow participants across the phases of the likelihood of EX TE Rassess, plan, fulfill, and confirm of the service- retaining loyal customers. SERV ICE-FULFILLMENT CYCLEfulfillment cycle. Service_Fulfillment_Cycle.A.2.2 ©2009 GISTICS All rights reserved GISTICS | EXECUTIVE W HITE PA P ER | Digit al Mailroo m s : F i x i n g Yo u r We a ke s t Li n k i n t h e C u s t o m e r Va l u e C h a i n 8
  9. 9. ECM | Business case for speeding the time to satisfy customer requests for information and service fulfillment with digital mail processing systemsWhat types of mail drive the business case for digital mail processing and centralized digital mailrooms? DigitalMailrooms.2.5 ©2009 GISTICS Incorporated, All rights reservedCRITICAL MAIL ITEMS IN COMPLEX MAILFLOWS TIME TO SATISFY CUSTOMER REQUESTS Complex workflows also emphasize what we call service-fulfillment cycles—demand byHow many important pieces of mail get lost The bottom figure on the right depicts a customers for information related to a buyingin the daily shuffle of mailrooms and Website category of critical mail items in complex decision, support related to using a product orcommunications, delaying sales cycles, workflows—a small, often quite diverse, and service, and service of an account or program.creating higher-cost personal interventions meaningful portion of all inbound mail thatby field sales or customer service staff, or represents considerable value: new accounts, High volumes of inbound mail can obscureputting the firm at risk of noncompliance with orders, and service requests. critical mail items. Complex workflowsregulations? with multiple parties and hand offs entail The number of decision-making variables additional risks: delay, mistakes, and customerThe sheer volumes of mail and the diverse or items to consider in taking well-informed dissatisfaction.types of mail make it difficult to answer that actions and the number of participants whoquestion. engage in two or more decision points all contribute to the complexity of core businessIn this paper, we make the case that the digital processes.processing of higher added-value mail willdeliver sufficient short-term value that the firmwill recoup the total investment in a centralizeddigital mailroom.The top figure on the HIGH VOLUME MAILFLOWS OFTEN HIDE CRITICAL MAIL ITEMSright depicts how greatervolumes of mailed and GREATER GREATER GREATER GREATERemailed items and a greater High-risk Critical Mail Number of unique types of mail and documents processednumber of unique types of Mailflows Items in and authorizers per service-fulfillment cycle making variables, and service-fulfillment steps Number of variables or items to considermail and documents can Complex Number of workflow participants, decision- Number of decision-makers, reviewers in taking a well-informed actionmask inherent business Workflows DECISION POINTS PARTICIPANTSrisks—communications and ENTAILMENTSdocuments that entail a TYPESgreater number of workflowparticipants, decision-makingvariables, and service-fulfillment steps. FEWER FEWER FEWER FEWER Doc_Volume_Decisions_Participants.B.1.3 © 2009 GISTICS, All rights reserved. LOWER VOLUME GREATER LOWER VALUE GREATER Number of mailed and emailed items processed GISTICS | EXECUTIVE W HITE PA P ER | Digit al Mailroo m s : F i x i n g Yo u r We a ke s t Li n k i n t h e C u s t o m e r Va l u e C h a i n 9

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