Smoking, drinking and drug use by young people in England, Scotland and Wales HEALTH BEHAVIOUR IN SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN
World Health Organisation – Health Behaviours in School Aged Children“The Health Behaviour of School-aged Children (HBSC) studyprovides key insights into thehealth-related behaviours ofyoung people. Its uniquemethodology has facilitatedengagement with hundreds ofthousands of young people inmany parts of the world since itsinception in 1983, building a database over time that describespatterns and issues relevant totheir health and well-being.”http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/163857/Social-determinants-of-health-and-well-being-among-young-people.pdf
Tobacco is the leading cause of preventable death in the world, imposinga large burden on societies. Previous HBSC research has shown thattobacco use is related to other risk behaviours and negative healthoutcomes in young people, including unhealthy dieting patterns, highlevels of alcohol consumption, bullying, early sexual initiation, poor self-rated health and low life satisfaction, frequent multiple healthcomplaints and injuries.TOBACCO USE
15-year-olds who report first smoking at age 13 or younger252015 Girls10 Boys50 Scotland England Wales
How we compare to Europe15-year-old girls who report first 15-year-old boys who report firstsmoking at age or younger smoking at age or younger
Risky drinking, including frequent drinking and drunkenness, is associatedwith adverse psychological, social and physical healthconsequences, including academic failure, violence, accidents, injury andunprotected sexual intercourse. Alcohol can disrupt brain development inchildhood and adolescence, particularly in the cortical region, whichinfluences cognitive, emotional and social development.ALCOHOL USE
Weekly drinkingBoys Girls40 3535 3030 2525 2020 Wales Wales 1515 England England10 Scotland 10 Scotland 5 5 0 0 11 year 13 year 15 year 11 year 13 year 15 year olds olds olds olds olds olds
How we compare to Europe15-year-old girls who drink 15-year-old boys who drinkalcohol at least once a week alcohol at least once a week
15-year-olds who report first drunkenness at age or younger252015 Girls10 Boys50 Scotland Wales England
Been drunk at least twiceBoys Girls50 604540 5035 403025 Wales 30 Wales20 England England15 20 Scotland Scotland10 10 5 0 0 11 year 13 year 15 year 11 year 13 year 15 year olds olds olds olds olds olds
How we compare to Europe15 -year-old girls who have been 15 -year-old boys who have beendrunk at least twice drunk at least twice
Policy Reflections• School-based intervention programmes focusing specifically on alcohol use and targeting adolescents and their parents have considerable effects. Generic, psychosocial and developmental, school-based prevention programmes focusing on life skills and a healthy lifestyle in general are also effective and could be considered as policy and practice options.• Family interventions are effective in delaying alcohol initiation and reducing frequency of consumption among adolescents. Family treatments focused on change in maladaptive behaviours, multidimensional family therapy and group-administered cognitive behavioural therapies have received considerable empirical support.
Early-onset, heavy and accelerating cannabis use is related to a range ofproblems, including cognitive impairment, deteriorating schoolperformance and dropout, externalizing problems such as risktaking, aggression and delinquency and internalizing problems such asdepression and anxiety.CANNABIS USE
Young people were asked how often they had used cannabis intheir lifetimes, during the last 12 months and during the last 30days.Girls Boys30 2525 2020 1515 Ever used Ever used 1010 Last 30 Last 30 5 5 days days 0 0
How we compare to Europe15-year-old girls who have used 15-year-old boys who have usedcannabis in the last days cannabis in the last days
Cannabis User Groups25 Young people (15-year-olds only) were asked whether they had used cannabis: in their life;20 in the last 12 months; and in the last 30 days. Response options ranged from “never” to “40 times or more”. Based on the frequency of15 use, four user groups were defined as follows: • discontinued users: those who have used10 cannabis at least once in their lifetime but not in last 12 months;5 • experimenters: those who have used cannabis 1–2 times in the last 12 months;0 • regular users: those who have used England Wales Scotland HBSC cannabis 3–39 times in the past 12 average months; • heavy users: those who have used Discontinued Experimenters cannabis 40 times or more in the past 12 Regular users Heavy users months.
Policy Reflections• Interventions in schools that focus on increasing drug knowledge, decision-making skills, self-esteem and resistance to peer pressure effectively reduce cannabis use, and family-based treatments concentrating on cannabis or substance use are similarly effective; indeed, family-based and multisystem approaches have a large effect. Motivational interviewing is also effective.