22 Frontiers of Microeconomics
ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION <ul><li>A difference in access to relevant knowledge is called  information asymmetry . </li></ul>
Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard <ul><li>Moral Hazard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral hazard  refers to th...
Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard <ul><li>Moral Hazard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An  agent  is a person who...
Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard <ul><li>Adverse Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverse selection  re...
Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard <ul><ul><li>Example of Adverse Selection: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Signaling to Convey Private Information <ul><li>How do Markets respond to Asymmetric Information? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Si...
Asymmetric Information and Markets <ul><li>The study of asymmetric information gives us new reason to be wary of markets. ...
Asymmetric Information and Public Policy <ul><li>When some people know more than others do, the market may fail to put the...
Asymmetric Information and Public Policy <ul><li>Although asymmetric information may call for government action, three fac...
POLITICAL ECONOMY <ul><li>Political economy   ( public choice  ) is the application of economic methods to the study of ho...
POLITICAL ECONOMY <ul><li>Problems Associated with How Government Determines Public Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Condo...
The Condorcet Voting Paradox Third choice Second choice First choice Percent of electorate Type 3 Type 2 Type 1 Voter Type...
The Condorcet Voting Paradox <ul><li>The  Condorcet Paradox  occurs when the majority rule fails to produce transitive pre...
Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem <ul><li>Arrow’s impossibility theorem  is a mathematical result which shows that, under cert...
Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem <ul><li>No Voting System Can Satisfy All of the Following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unanimity </...
Median Voter Theorem <ul><li>The  median voter theorem  is a mathematical result that shows that if voters are choosing a ...
BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS <ul><li>Recently, a field called behavioral economics has emerged in which economists make use of bas...
Politicians Are People Too <ul><li>Some politicians are motivated by self-interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Some politicians sac...
BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS <ul><li>People aren’t always rational: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are overconfident </li></ul></ul>...
Summary <ul><li>In many economic transactions, information is asymmetric.  When there are hidden actions, principals may b...
Summary <ul><li>Although government policy can sometimes improve market outcomes, governments are themselves imperfect ins...
Summary <ul><li>Individuals who set government policy may be motivated by self-interest rather than the national interest....
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

22

338

Published on

Published in: Economy & Finance, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
338
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

22

  1. 1. 22 Frontiers of Microeconomics
  2. 2. ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION <ul><li>A difference in access to relevant knowledge is called information asymmetry . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard <ul><li>Moral Hazard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral hazard refers to the tendency of a person who is imperfectly monitored to engage in dishonest or otherwise undesirable behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers can respond to the moral-hazard problem in various ways: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better monitoring. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High wages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed payment. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard <ul><li>Moral Hazard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An agent is a person who is performing an act for another person, called the principal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The principal is a person for whom another person, called the agent, is performing some act. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard <ul><li>Adverse Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverse selection refers to the tendency for the mix of unobserved attributes to become undesirable from the standpoint of an uniformed party. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard <ul><ul><li>Example of Adverse Selection: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many time potential buyers may not even consider used cars because they surmise that the sellers know something bad about the cars. This is also known as the lemons problem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance—People with hidden health problems are more likely to want to buy health insurance than those with good health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In certain labor markets, if a firm reduces the wage it pays, high productivity workers tend to quit. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Signaling to Convey Private Information <ul><li>How do Markets respond to Asymmetric Information? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling refers to an action taken by an informed party to reveal private information to an uninformed party. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Screening occurs when an action taken by an uniformed party induces an informed party to reveal information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Asymmetric Information and Markets <ul><li>The study of asymmetric information gives us new reason to be wary of markets. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Asymmetric Information and Public Policy <ul><li>When some people know more than others do, the market may fail to put the resources to their best uses. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Asymmetric Information and Public Policy <ul><li>Although asymmetric information may call for government action, three facts complicate the issue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private markets can sometimes deal with information asymmetries on their own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The government rarely has more information than the private parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The government itself is an imperfect institution </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. POLITICAL ECONOMY <ul><li>Political economy ( public choice ) is the application of economic methods to the study of how government works. </li></ul>
  12. 12. POLITICAL ECONOMY <ul><li>Problems Associated with How Government Determines Public Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Condorcet Paradox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Median-Voter Theorem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-interested Politicians </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Condorcet Voting Paradox Third choice Second choice First choice Percent of electorate Type 3 Type 2 Type 1 Voter Type B A C A C B C B A 20 45 35
  14. 14. The Condorcet Voting Paradox <ul><li>The Condorcet Paradox occurs when the majority rule fails to produce transitive preferences for society. </li></ul><ul><li>Transitive preferences imply that if A is preferred to B, and B is preferred to C, then A is preferred to C. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem <ul><li>Arrow’s impossibility theorem is a mathematical result which shows that, under certain conditions, there is no scheme for aggregating individual preferences into a valid set of social preferences. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem <ul><li>No Voting System Can Satisfy All of the Following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unanimity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence of irrelevant alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No dictators </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Median Voter Theorem <ul><li>The median voter theorem is a mathematical result that shows that if voters are choosing a point along a line and each voter wants the point closest to his most preferred point, then majority rule will pick the most preferred point of the median voter. </li></ul>
  18. 18. BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS <ul><li>Recently, a field called behavioral economics has emerged in which economists make use of basic psychological insights to examine economic problems. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Politicians Are People Too <ul><li>Some politicians are motivated by self-interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Some politicians sacrifice the national interest to solidify their base of voters. </li></ul>
  20. 20. BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS <ul><li>People aren’t always rational: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are overconfident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People give too much weight to a small number of vivid observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are reluctant to change their minds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People care about fairness as demonstrated by the ultimatum game </li></ul><ul><li>People are inconsistent over time. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Summary <ul><li>In many economic transactions, information is asymmetric. When there are hidden actions, principals may be concerned that agents suffer from the problem of moral hazard. When there are hidden characteristics, buyers may be concerned about the problems of adverse selection among sellers. Private markets sometimes deal with asymmetric information with signaling and screening. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Summary <ul><li>Although government policy can sometimes improve market outcomes, governments are themselves imperfect institutions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Condorcet paradox shows that majority rule may fail to produce transitive preferences for society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrow’s impossibility theorem shows that no voting scheme will be perfect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In many situations, democratic institutions will produce the outcome desired by the median voter, regardless of the preferences of the rest of the electorate. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Individuals who set government policy may be motivated by self-interest rather than the national interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The study of psychology and economics reveals that human decisionmaking is more complex than is assumed in conventional economic theory. </li></ul><ul><li>People are not always rational, they care about the fairness of economic outcomes, and they can be inconsistent over time. </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×