Female and Male Sex Offenders : AComparison of Recidivism Patterns and Risk Factors By: Kayla Bechtel CJUS-4411-02
Key Words• Here are a few key terms that my article used and I wanted to make you aware of before I used them:• Sex Offender: someone who has been convicted of a sex crime.• Recidivism rate: The behavior of a repeat or habitual criminal. A measurement of the rate at which offenders commit other crimes, either by arrest or conviction baselines, after being released from incarceration.• Risk Factor: is something thats likely to increase the chances that a particular event will occur.
What it’s all about:• Using 780 matched female and male sex offenders in the state of New York, this study explored the similarities and differences between recidivism patterns and risk factors for the two offender groups.• This study went out trying to prove the differences between female sex offenders and male sex offenders, even though through most studies there has been no evidence to back these claims.
Comparisons and Differences Between Female and Male Sex Offenders:• Female Sex offenders were more likely to victimize strangers were males were more likely to victimize extended family.• Females were more likely to admit to being abused as a child and having poor relationships with their parents• Females were more likely to victimize males, and males were more likely to victimize females.• The one comparison: age, ethnicity, educational level, job stress, and other life stressors.
Recidivism Risk Factors:• Consistent research has suggested that male offenders who sexually reoffend are likely to be young in age, strangers to their victims, single, unemployed, less educated, and to select male victims• Things that cause a recidivism rate to skyrocket: deviant sexual interest, antisocial personality traits, prior sexual crimes and engagement in a diversity of sexual crimes, previous adult convictions, numerous victims in one incident, and sexually offending at an early age are related to an increased risk of sexual recidivism for male sex offenders
Method to their madness:• Data was retrieved from the New York Sex Offender database. This included demographics, offense characteristics, and victim information.• Criminal histories were given by the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services.• Things that were also used to help determine similarities and differences: characteristics related to arrest, conviction, disposition, and sentencing events.
Results• Males were more likely to resemble general offenders than females were.• Females were less like than males to have served a sentence before this.• Female sex offenders were more like to victimize a child under the age of 12, where as males were more likely to victimize females between the ages of 13-17.
Results Continued• Females were less likely than males to get rearrested after they committed the 1st offence.• Males were more likely to get arrested for nonsexual offenses than females as well.
Summing It Up• It was suggested that there are numerous differences between female and male sex offenders in terms of offender demographics and offense characteristics.• Male sex offenders were significantly more likely to be rearrested for both sexual and nonsexual offenses and to have extensive criminal histories that included prior drug, violent felony, and sexual offense arrests, as well as prior incarceration terms and prior supervision violations.• Females were more likely to victimize males and males were more likely to victimize females as I stated earlier on.
Tying it all Together• What does this have to do with our book and the theories we have learned you may ask?• The labeling theory: is the view of deviance according to which being labeled as a "deviant" leads a person to engage in deviant behavior.• Once a criminal is labeled a criminal, depending on the crime, and how one was treated during their time spent in prison, it is said that if they will be treated like a criminal why not act like one.• “Being adjudicated a felon significantly and substantially increases the likelihood of recidivism in comparison with those who have adjudication withheld” (Lilly, Cullen & Ball, 151).• This article only proves that whether you are a man or a woman, if you are going to be treated like a criminal and if you do not receive the proper treatment for you “disease” then whether it’s a sexual offense or not the recidivism rate will only continue to go up.
Works Cited• Freeman, N. J., & Sandler, J. C. (2008). Female and male sex offenders: a comparison of recidivism patterns and risk factors. Retrieved from http://jiv.sagepub.com/content/23/10/1394• Lilly, J. R., Ball, R. A., & Cullen, F. T. (2011). Criminological theory, context and consequences. (5 ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.