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Photon 3rd Thin Film Conference HelioVolt Presentation_16feb11
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Photon 3rd Thin Film Conference HelioVolt Presentation_16feb11


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HelioVolt presents at Photon's 3rd Thin Film Conference: Can CIGS become the savior of Thin FIlm?

HelioVolt presents at Photon's 3rd Thin Film Conference: Can CIGS become the savior of Thin FIlm?

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  • 1. Convergence of Markets: Growth of Distributed Energy BJ Stanbery HelioVolt Founder, Chairman of the Board and Chief Science Officer November 2008© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation
  • 2. Energy Generation and the Terawatt (TW) Challenge • Humanity uses 12 TW of power today – 1 TW = 1,000 GW (Gigawatts) • World will need 15 TW by 2012 • Only 5 known sources of energy are available on a TW scale* – Fossil fuels: Coal, oil, gas – Nuclear fuels – Solar • Only inherently distributed solution • No fuel cost *Prof. Nathan Lewis,© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation
  • 3. Solar Energy Reaching Worldwide Grid Parity California Tier 4(2) California Tier 5(2) Size of electricity Denmark market TWh a year(1) Average power price per household ($/kWh(1)) Netherlands Italy $8.0 Grid Parity as of(3) Cost per watt at peak hours ($/Wp(1)) $0.3 Norway Today Germany Hawaii 2020 Japan $6.0 United Sweden Kingdom Australia $0.2 California $4.0 Finland France New York Spain Texas $0.1 South Korea Greece $2.0 China India $0.0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 Annual solar energy yield (kWh/kWp(1)) Source: McKinsey. (1) kWh = kilowatt hour; kWp = kilowatt peak; TWh = terawatt hour; Wp = watt peak; the annual solar yield is the amount of electricity generated by a south-facing 1 kW peak-rated module in 1 year, or the equivalent number of hours that the module operates at peak rating. (2) Tier 4 and 5 are names of regulated forms of electricity generation and usage. (3) Unsubsidized cost to end users of solar energy equals cost of conventional electricity.© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation
  • 4. Policy Driven Demand YOY Global Demand Growth US % growth 150% 18,000 Spanish 100% German FIT RDC 16,000 US ITC 50% 14,000 Recession 26% 0% 12,000 Installations (MW) 22% 10,000 8,000 17% Historical Trends 6,000 • 49% growth 9% 6% • 45% growth ex-Spain 2008 4,000 42% 25% 2,000 45% 35% 29% 32% 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010E 2011E 2012E Germany Spain Italy ROE Japan S. Korea China ROW US© 2011 HelioVolt CorporationSource: Barclays, IEA, Navigant
  • 5. Global Solar Markets in Transition Utility Scale Commercial Roof Top Systems Solar farm - Germany Google HQ - California Building Integrated Residential roof - California Hong Kong Science Center Austin City Hall© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 5
  • 6. Advantages of thin film PV for Distributed Solar Energy • Efficient and high performing materials – Direct bandgap semiconductors – Better energy output – kWh/KW – CIGS record at 20%+ conversion efficiency • Significantly reduced costs – Less material usage • Not affected by silicon supply shortages – Potential for improving costs throughout value chain • Advanced manufacturing techniques – Fewer processing steps – Monolithic integration of circuits – Automation • Better aesthetics© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation
  • 7. BIPV Applications • Roofing – Most common BIPV application today • Curtain wall / Facades – Emerging market – HelioVolt has a number of established Joint Development partners • Sunshades – Energy conservation and reduced building operating costs – Cooling load mitigation and glare control – Easiest retrofit for PV but also costly • Overhead glazing (canopies, skylights, atriums)© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation
  • 8. BIPV Product Requirements • Aesthetics: – Visual attention – may or may not “blend into building” – Uniform patterns and colors – Must complement building design • Efficiency: – Highest conversion efficiency per application • Physical properties: – Flexibility in size – Flexible and rigid • When glass = High quality flat glass – Thermally or acoustically insulating • Cost: – Smart integration© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation
  • 9. The Challenge to Wide Deployment of Distributed Solar Energy! Builders Developers/ Standards Solar Organizations Communities Government Growth of Trades support BIPV PV Building Manufacturers Materials Mfgrs Architects© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation
  • 10. Opportunities for a More Efficient BIPV Products and Smarter Integration Future Integrated Products Opportunity for Pre-engineered Solutions PV Module Mfgr Builder/ Building Contractor Inverter/ Materials becomes Power Mgmt Manufacturer Installer Mfgr becomes Customer – Integrator/ Building Owner System Designer Mounting & Wiring System Mfgr Opportunity for Integration & System Cost Reduction© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 10
  • 11. Competitive Technology Advantage • FASST® CIGS process advantages Glass In – Two-stage process provides maximum flexibility to optimize precursor deposition method and composition of each layer: higher efficiency – Most rapid synthesis of CIGS from precursors of any method: reduces capital costs Glass – Demonstrated state of the art crystalline quality: higher efficiency Preparation FASST® CIGS – Unique, rapid, flexible optimization of CIGS surface quality: higher Process efficiency Module • Advanced NREL liquid precursor technology Formation – Reduces capital costs and COGS Final Assembly & Test • Monolithic module circuit integration – Reduces module assembly costs compared to discrete cell assembly • Advanced module packaging – Unique, high performance encapsulant, edge sealant, and potting compound supports product lifetime beyond standard 25 year warranty: Module Out reduces cost of electricity (¢/kWh)© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 11
  • 12. Reactive Transfer Processing of Compound Precursors • Two-stage process Se, S 112 = Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 – Low-temperature 247 = Cu2(In,Ga)4(Se,S)7 deposition of multilayer compound precursor Cu2Se3. .(In,Ga)2(Se,S)3 films CuSe. 112 .(In,Ga) (Se,S) 247 247 – RTP reaction of Cu2Se. .(In,Ga)4(Se,S)3 compound precursors to form CIGS Cu In, Ga Intermetallic Plethora© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation
  • 13. FASST® Reactive Transfer Process Non-Contact Transfer (NCT™) Synthesis Process Step Cu, In, Ga, Se • Independent deposition of distinct compound precursor layers on Substrate substrate and source plate Source Plate with Transfer Film • Rapid non-contact reaction Pressure – Turns stack into CIGS with high efficiency structure Heat – Combines benefits of sequential selenization with Close-Spaced Vapor Transport (CSVT) for junction optimization Source Plate • CIGS adheres to the substrate and the source plate is reused Substrate CIGS Layer Rapid manufacturing process reduces capital amortization cost© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 13
  • 14. FASST® CIGS Production Modules 120x60 cm Module 2 Top view with SEM Cross-sectional SEM view Faceted CIGS crystals absorb light efficiently Large grains from all directions from dawn to dusk, giving with no horizontal HelioVolt CIGS its characteristic black color grain boundariessupport high efficiency© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 14
  • 15. Reactive Transfer Processing Compound Precursor Deposition • Two methods have been developed for deposition of compound precursors – Low-temperature Co-evaporation • Equipment requirements similar to conventional single- stage co-evaporation but lower temperatures lead to higher throughput and reduced thermal budget – Liquid Metal-Organic molecular solutions • Proprietary inks developed under NREL CRADA • Decomposition of inks leads to formation of inorganic compound precursor films nearly indistinguishable from co-evaporated films (for some compounds)© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation
  • 16. NREL CRADA – Hybrid CIGS by FASST® XRD SEM  Chalcopyrite CIGS (& Mo)  (220/204) preferred orientation  Exceptionally large grains achieved  Columnar structure© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation
  • 17. Product Scaling and Performance Experience 14% Cell 0.66cm2 Efficiency 1364x scale-up Cell 3% 3 Months Prototype Module 12% 30cmx30cm Efficiency Scalability Proof Prototype 5% 8x scale-up 2 Months 12% Efficiency 8% Module 2% Production Module Progress 4 Months 10 Months 1.2mx0.6m Commercial Production Size© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 17
  • 18. 12% HelioVolt G2 Module Efficiency – NREL Measurement – 12% module independently verified by NREL (11.8±0.6%)© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 18
  • 19. Monolithic Integration is Key to Cost Leadership and Product Reliability HelioVolt Process Competitors’ CIGS Cell-Based Processes Glass In Glass In Additional Costs Stainless steel foil $0.08 Glass Substrate $0.06 $0.06 Preparation Preparation Higher non-material FASST® CIGS CIGS ? $0.07 $0.15 inputs (e.g. labor) Process Process Module $0.01 Contact & Grid $0.01 Formation Higher yield loss ? Formation Final Assembly $0.13 ? Cell Cut & Sort Stringing material $0.12 & Test Total: $0.27/Wp Cell Stringing $0.12 Two encapsulant layers $0.04 and outer frame Final Assembly $0.17 & Test Module Out Add’l: $0.24+/Wp Total: $0.51+/Wp Module Out Note: Input materials cost / Wp in cents.© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 19
  • 20. Roadmap to 16% Module Efficiency 18% 12% Advanced TCO, Enhanced Transmission, Ultrafast Heating, Light Trapping Active Predictive Design Quenching, 6% Advanced Baseline Process Composition Grading Control 0% 2010 2011 2012 2013 • Development work based on HelioVolt patents and trade secrets will drive module efficiency from 10% to 16% • Applied Research – HelioVolt’s partnership with NREL will drive module efficiency from 16% to 21%© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 20
  • 21. HelioVolt Module Rooftop Test Array Factory Rooftop HelioVolt module test array. Array tracks performance of HelioVolt, as well as other thin-film and silicon modules, and inverters© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 21
  • 22. Rooftop Performance – Comparison of All Arrays One Day Comparison, All Arrays HelioVolt CIGS Tier 1 mc-Si Tier 1 CdTe 2nd Glass Laminate CIGS Tubular CIGS • HelioVolt modules have highest yield, followed by Tier 1 mc-Si modules; CdTe & other CIGS lag behind© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 22
  • 23. Product Portfolio Built on Standard Component Platform Commercial Rooftop Systems Utility Scale BIPV – Sunshades BIPV – Spandrels Parking Structures 5’X5’ 1’X1’ 300mm CIGS PVIC 2’X4’ • Front view • 5’x5’ Element • Framing provided by curtain wall manufacturer • Standard or custom element© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 23
  • 24. Solar Markets Expansion Will Drive Transition to Distributed Systems • Capacity expansion to multi-GW scale essential to TW cumulative installation volumes – Primary obstacle to these expansions are capital-efficient manufacturing technology • Manufacturing technology breakthroughs and system integration continuing to drive low cost of solar energy – Product evolution destined to move beyond electronic component integration to end-use systems integration • Grid parity in global mass markets will be achieved in the next 5-10 years© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation
  • 25. Thank You! BJ Stanbery© 2011 HelioVolt Corporation 25