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Respiration and Cellular Activities: 5.8, 5.9, 5.10
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Respiration and Cellular Activities: 5.8, 5.9, 5.10

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  • 1. Respiration and Cellular Activities
  • 2. 5.8:The Krebs Cycle in Fat and Protein Metabolism
    • Cells use the fatty acids of fats for energy
      • Enzymes in the mitochondria break down the fatty acids to acetate
        • (transported to the K-Cycle by CoA)
      • The K Cycle breaks down the acetate in the same way as sugars
      • Without oxygen, most of the energy in fat can NOT be transferred to ATP because the fatty acids bypass glycolysis
  • 3. 5.8 (cont.)
    • Proteins in respiration
      • Digestive enzymes first break down protiens to amino acids  removed by other enzymes (produces ammonia  converted to safer N-compounds  recycled/excreted)
        • Left over C-skeletons undergo reactions to form 4- or 5-C acids (oxaloacetate/ketoglutarate  K Cycle)
  • 4. carbohydrates glycolysis C-C-C (pyruvate) C-C CoA lipids fatty acids C-C-C-C-C C citrate C-C-C-C-C ketoglutarate C-C-C-C oxaloacetate Krebs Cycle
  • 5. 5.8 (cont)
    • The K Cycle and glycolysis provide building blocks for biosynthesis
        • Autotrophs: the pathways + the Calvin cycle lead to the synthesis of every organic compound the organism needs
        • Heterotrophs: the pathways lead to most of the necessary organic compounds (must consume organic compounds they can’t synthesize: vitamins, certain amino acids, certain fatty acids)
  • 6. 5.8 (cont)
    • Most synthesis pathways are not the reverse of decomposition pathways
      • Separate enzymes and pathways lead to more efficient operation (cells synthesize proteins by a very precise system)
        • Digestion is NOT precise: enzymes break the bonds b/w amino acids until the protien is completely decomposed ( hydrolysis : the components of water (H and OH) are inserted into the bonds to break them)
  • 7. 5.8 (cont)
    • Most biological decomopositions involve hydrolysis
      • Enzymes hydrolysis simple sugars and fats  fatty acids and glycerol
      • Cells in the intestines use active transport to get the amino acids, sugars, and nutrients into the bloodstream
  • 8. 5.9: Respiration and Heat Production
    • All chemical reactions release heat energy
      • Respiration keeps us warm (homeostatic mechanism)
    • Some mammals have “brown fat”
        • Contains more mitochondria than other tissue  adapted for rapid production of thermal energy (stored fat is used in respiration, producing little ATP and lots of heat energy: important for hibernation/hairless animals)
  • 9. 5.9 (cont)
        • Brown fat is located on the neck and between the shoulders
    • Some plants have evolved a form of respiration that produces lots of heat energy
      • Mitochondria have an alternate branch of the e - ts
        • Some of the energy of electron flow results in more heat energy and less ATP
          • Become too hot to touch  organic compounds evaporate  give off the odor of rotting meat  attracts flies and beetles, used to pollinate the flower
            • Ex. Skunk cabbage
  • 10. 5.10: Control of Respiration
    • Rate of respiration must be controlled to direct energy and C-skeletons accurately to the pathways and cells where they are needed
      • Control  organization  survival
    • Is glucose broken down in respiration or converted to starch/fat?
      • Mechanisms decide by supply-and-demand
  • 11. 5.10 (cont)
    • If animals use energy rapidly (high demand for energy)  cells absorb glucose from blood to produce ATP=low blood sugar
      • Liver breaks down stored glycogen to restore blood sugar levels
    • Low demand for energy  cells use excess glucose synthesize glycogen  fat