Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Respiration and Cellular Activities: 5.8, 5.9, 5.10
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Respiration and Cellular Activities: 5.8, 5.9, 5.10


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Respiration and Cellular Activities
  • 2. 5.8:The Krebs Cycle in Fat and Protein Metabolism
    • Cells use the fatty acids of fats for energy
      • Enzymes in the mitochondria break down the fatty acids to acetate
        • (transported to the K-Cycle by CoA)
      • The K Cycle breaks down the acetate in the same way as sugars
      • Without oxygen, most of the energy in fat can NOT be transferred to ATP because the fatty acids bypass glycolysis
  • 3. 5.8 (cont.)
    • Proteins in respiration
      • Digestive enzymes first break down protiens to amino acids  removed by other enzymes (produces ammonia  converted to safer N-compounds  recycled/excreted)
        • Left over C-skeletons undergo reactions to form 4- or 5-C acids (oxaloacetate/ketoglutarate  K Cycle)
  • 4. carbohydrates glycolysis C-C-C (pyruvate) C-C CoA lipids fatty acids C-C-C-C-C C citrate C-C-C-C-C ketoglutarate C-C-C-C oxaloacetate Krebs Cycle
  • 5. 5.8 (cont)
    • The K Cycle and glycolysis provide building blocks for biosynthesis
        • Autotrophs: the pathways + the Calvin cycle lead to the synthesis of every organic compound the organism needs
        • Heterotrophs: the pathways lead to most of the necessary organic compounds (must consume organic compounds they can’t synthesize: vitamins, certain amino acids, certain fatty acids)
  • 6. 5.8 (cont)
    • Most synthesis pathways are not the reverse of decomposition pathways
      • Separate enzymes and pathways lead to more efficient operation (cells synthesize proteins by a very precise system)
        • Digestion is NOT precise: enzymes break the bonds b/w amino acids until the protien is completely decomposed ( hydrolysis : the components of water (H and OH) are inserted into the bonds to break them)
  • 7. 5.8 (cont)
    • Most biological decomopositions involve hydrolysis
      • Enzymes hydrolysis simple sugars and fats  fatty acids and glycerol
      • Cells in the intestines use active transport to get the amino acids, sugars, and nutrients into the bloodstream
  • 8. 5.9: Respiration and Heat Production
    • All chemical reactions release heat energy
      • Respiration keeps us warm (homeostatic mechanism)
    • Some mammals have “brown fat”
        • Contains more mitochondria than other tissue  adapted for rapid production of thermal energy (stored fat is used in respiration, producing little ATP and lots of heat energy: important for hibernation/hairless animals)
  • 9. 5.9 (cont)
        • Brown fat is located on the neck and between the shoulders
    • Some plants have evolved a form of respiration that produces lots of heat energy
      • Mitochondria have an alternate branch of the e - ts
        • Some of the energy of electron flow results in more heat energy and less ATP
          • Become too hot to touch  organic compounds evaporate  give off the odor of rotting meat  attracts flies and beetles, used to pollinate the flower
            • Ex. Skunk cabbage
  • 10. 5.10: Control of Respiration
    • Rate of respiration must be controlled to direct energy and C-skeletons accurately to the pathways and cells where they are needed
      • Control  organization  survival
    • Is glucose broken down in respiration or converted to starch/fat?
      • Mechanisms decide by supply-and-demand
  • 11. 5.10 (cont)
    • If animals use energy rapidly (high demand for energy)  cells absorb glucose from blood to produce ATP=low blood sugar
      • Liver breaks down stored glycogen to restore blood sugar levels
    • Low demand for energy  cells use excess glucose synthesize glycogen  fat