Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Act.8 powerpoint
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Act.8 powerpoint

409

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
409
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. By: Alexandra tome, areejmhawi,<br />ANTHONY MAGANJA-SMITH <br />FREE WILL<br />
  • 2. Order Of Presentation<br />Definition of Free Will<br />Philosophers’ bibliographies and main ideas<br />Debate <br />
  • 3. What is free will?<br /> Free will can be many things. In the Oxford Dictionary, free will is defined as “the power of acting without the constraint of necessity or fate; the ability to act at one&apos;s own discretion”. It is basically making choices and taking actions without being told to do so or by some higher worldly being. To be able to move around your own room or to go outside without being told to do so is an example of what free will is considered to be. <br />
  • 4. Socrates<br />Socrates (469-399), despite his ideas, actually wrote nothing because he believed knowledge was a living, interactive thing. Most of our knowledge of him comes from the works of Plato (427-347), however, historical accuracy was not one of his concerns and so it is impossible to determine how much of his thinking actually derives from Socrates.<br />
  • 5. Socrates Continued<br />Philosophical ideas:<br />-The necessity of doing what one thinks is right even in the face of universal opposition<br />-The need to pursue knowledge even when opposed<br />
  • 6. René Descartes <br /> René Descartes was a mathematician and philosopher who lived between 1596 and 1650. One of the most famous philosophy quotes, “I think therefore I am” was introduced by René Descartes. He is considered to be the “Father of Modern Philosophy”. <br />
  • 7. René Descartes Continued<br />Philosophical Ideas:<br />Free will is evident and if we are able to reject or doubt ideas that means we can disbelieve thus we do have free will.<br />The mind is not physical in nature, because all things are subject to the laws of physics ergo physically we do not have free will but mentally we do.<br />
  • 8. William James<br />William James-simply asserted that his will was free-encouraged to do this by reading Charles Renouvier, whose work convinced James to convert from monism to pluralism-1884 described a two-stage model of free will -In the first stage the mind develops random alternative possibilities for action -in the second the mind will select one option  -Other thinkers have refined the idea, including Henri Poincaré, Arthur Holly Compton, Karl Popper, Henry Margenau, Daniel Dennett, Robert Kane, Alfred Mele, and Martin Heisenberg.-two-stage model separates chance from choice-Each model reconciles free will<br />
  • 9. Debate<br />Free Will vs. Determinism vs. Compatibilism <br />The question of free will vs. determinism vs. compatibilism is one the best known battles in theology and philosophy. Some of which date back to the earliest Greek philosophers. Humans consciously are aware of their daily choices and there is little doubt they do not. We are humans, not puppets controlled by the universe.<br />The question is one between absolute determinism on one side, and the absence of determinism on the other. The term ‘free will’ is used to mean that there exist situations in life where we make genuine, unforced choices. <br />Free will does not mean without influence. It means free and independent choice or voluntary decision. Whether or not there are outside factors affecting the decision. It is still the decision made by the person who chooses it.  <br />
  • 10. Debated Continued..<br />For theologistsfree will have been argued to interfere with God. In the 16th century, this debate was brought up when the philosopher Erasmus argued Luther for his belief that the human will was totally bound to what God wants of them.  <br />Science grew from theology. If God had created the universe, it was argued, the universe would have to follow universal laws. Philosophers and scientists set out to prove these laws. This is the historical reason why the general systematic principles that guides the universe, as described by science, is still called laws. You can break a law of society but you simply cannot break a law of nature. This is what raises the question that a strictly ordered universe poses serious logical problems for a belief in a free will.  <br />
  • 11. Debated Continued..<br />For theologists, free will have been argued to interfere with God. In the 16th century, this debate was brought up when the philosopher Erasmus argued Luther for his belief that the human will was totally bound to what God wants of them.   <br />Science grew from theology. If God had created the universe, it was argued, the universe would have to follow universal laws. Philosophers and scientists set out to prove these laws. This is the historical reason why the general systematic principles that guides the universe, as described by science, is still called laws. You can break a law of society but you simply cannot break a law of nature. This is what raises the question that a strictly ordered universe poses serious logical problems for a belief in a free will.  <br />
  • 12. Debated Continued.<br />These arguments are both flawed for the exact same reason. Whether the calculation is actually done is irrelevant. If it is even theoretically possible to know in advance what you will do tomorrow, then you have no free will. <br />In conclusion, a free will is present in society. Someone doesn’t choose what is done for us, we subconsciously know what we have to do or make our own choices whenever we please. We may follow beliefs or orders from other people but it is with our free will that we don’t rebel against the higher power and comply, knowing that more free will will come of good deeds.<br />
  • 13. The End<br />Thank You Very<br />Much<br />For Your Time<br />
  • 14. Bibliography<br />Perry, Constance. &quot;Rene&apos; Descartes (1596-1650).&quot; Personal Websites - Office of Information Resources and Technology. Web. 05 July 2010. &lt;http://www.pages.drexel.edu/~cp28/descart.htm&gt;.<br />TY - ELECT1 - &quot;free will&quot;. Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010A1 - Oxford Dictionaries UR - http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/free+will?rskey=d7ZXC6&amp;amp;result=1ER <br />http://www.trinity.edu/cbrown/intro/free_will.html<br />http://www.determinism.com<br />http://www.iep.utm.edu/freewill/<br />http://dictionary.reference.com/<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_James<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_will<br />

×