Meteorology <br />It is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather and its daily, seasonal, and annual patterns, weather processes and forecasting.<br />
Meteorologist<br /> A specialist or a person who studies processes in the earth's atmosphere that cause weather conditions<br />
History of Meteorology<br /> The word 'meteorology' was coined from a research book called 'Meteorologica' which was written by Aristotle, a Greek scientist and philosopher. This early work described the science of earth like its geology, elements, hydrology, seas, wind and weather. In the modern term, the term meteorology explains a complete science. It is for understanding the dynamics of atmosphere and forecasting weather phenomena like hurricanes and thunderstorms.<br /> Weather forecasting was practiced since the beginning of time with more or less accuracy. Historical records show several examples of weather predicting methods based on observing surrounding elements.<br />
During the 17th century, several discoveries tipped in favor of scientific meteorology. A device to measure temperature was invented by Galileo Galilei and the factor that atmospheric pressure was linked to altitude was discovered by Blaise Pascal. The invention of barometer by Evangelista Torricelli is significantly the most important discovery. It is still in use today which indicates atmospheric pressure changes that are linked with the future weather changes.<br /> There are also other methods which have been evolved. Meteorology is a lot related with cycles and their analysis which was what Fernando II de Medici wanted to prove. He carried out a very determined program in 1654 for recording weather patterns in different European cities with a view to compile data and make their analysis.<br />
Other breakthroughs were followed in the 18th century and science was taken to a new level. A modern mercury based thermometer was invented by Gabriel Fahrenheit. Theories about hydrodynamics were devised by Daniel Bernoulli and those theories had helped greatly in understanding the atmospheric changes.<br /> Meteorology is a part of our everyday lives. People are kept updated about the changing weather with dedicated channels and mobile devices. The science is still progressing and is an important element of the economy with many industries like agriculture and civil aviation depending on it.<br />
Weather<br /> is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere, and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Popularly, weather is thought of as the combination of temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility, and wind.<br />Climate<br /> is defined as statistical weather information that describes the variation of weather at a given place for a specified interval. In popular usage, it represents the synthesis of weather; more formally it is the weather of a locality averaged over some period (usually 30 years) plus statistics of weather extremes.<br />
Weather Forecasting<br /> Prediction of the weather through application of the principles of physics and meteorology. Weather forecasting predicts atmospheric phenomena and changes on the Earth's surface caused by atmospheric conditions (snow and ice cover, storm tides, floods, etc.). Scientific weather forecasting relies on empirical and statistical techniques, such as measurements of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, and precipitation, and computer-controlled mathematical models.<br />
Invention of Weather Instruments<br /> Weather instruments have a long, rich history that may be charted against the growth of science itself. The advent of weather instruments was a time when inventors could be experts in many scientific fields---Galileo, for example, helped lay down the framework for modern astronomy but also found the time to experiment with thermometers. Starting with a mere idea, the design of these specialized instruments graduated to robust theory, experimental application and progressive refinement over time.<br />
Different Weather Instruments<br /> Anemometer – measures the speed or force of the wind. <br /> Barometer – measures air pressure. <br /> Hygrometer – measures the amount of moisture in the air. <br /> Rain Gauge – shows how much precipitation <br /> (rain, snow or hail) that falls in a day.<br />
Sundial – is used to tell what time of day it is using the shadows cast by the sun. <br />Thermometer – measures temperature in degrees centigrade (°C) or degrees Fahrenheit (°F) using a liquid such as mercury that expands when it warms up. <br />Wind Sock – shows the speed and direction of the wind. <br />Weather Vane – measures wind direction. <br />
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