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The slides were prepared to fulfill the task for Language Learning Strategies and Instructions at National University of Malaysia, UKM. The slides include information on factors affecting LLS usage. All the works have been credited to the writers. All the images are credited to the original sources which are available publicly through Google Search.

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  1. 1. GGGE6533 Language Learning Strategies & Instructions FACTORS AFFECTING LLS USAGE ZULAIKHA BINTI ZULKFLEE |P73949|TESL
  2. 2. Language Learning Strategies • Behaviours, techniques or actions used by a language learner to help them develop proficiency in the target language. (Oxford, 1990; Ellis, 1994; MacIntyre, 1994, among others) cited in Gowans (1999).
  3. 3. AGE • Oxford (1990): Older and younger learners use different strategies. Their cognitive level, which is interdependent to biological development and social experiences, plays an immense role in their preference of strategy choice. Cited in Aslan (2009) • Young children tend to use strategies in task specific manner, whereas older ones use generalized and more sophisticated strategies (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990) cited in Karami (2012).
  4. 4. • Comparative study between matured (23 years or more) and younger university students (22 years or less) done by Devlin (1996) cited in Chen (2014): – Mature age students employed metacognitive strategy more efficiently than younger ones. • Lee & Oxford (2008) in Chen (2014): – Young learners tend to use social strategies.
  5. 5. GENDER • Aslan (2009): Males and females employ different strategies in relation to their gender characteristics. – Female students used Social and Metacognitive strategies most, Memory strategy least – Males favored the use of Metacognitive and Compensation strategies most, Affective strategy least Hong-Nam & Leavell (2006) cited in Khamkien (2010)
  6. 6. • However, different conclusions were made by several researchers: i. Oxford & Nyikos (1989) and Dreyer & Oxford (1996) reported that females used a greater number of strategies than males. Cited in Taguchi (2002) ii. Ehrman & Oxford’s (1990) study did not discover any evidence of differing LLS use between the genders. Cited in Aslan (2009) iii. Tran, 1998; Wharton, 2000 designated that males used learning strategies more than females when learning a language. Cited in Khamkien (2010)
  7. 7. PROFICIENCY LEVEL • Oxford and Crookall (1989) reported that high- proficiency learners tended to use a wider range of strategies than low-proficiency learners. Cited in Taguchi (2002) • Wharton’s (2000) study on students learning Japanese & French as foreign language pointed out that more proficient learners used diverse strategies to succeed. Cited in Khamkien (2010)
  8. 8. • A high level of proficiency has been associated with an increased use of both direct and indirect strategies (Chang, 1990; Green and Oxford, 1995; Park 1997; Chen, 2002). • More specifically, cognitive and metacognitive strategies show high relations with high language proficiency levels. (Ku, 1995; Peacock and Ho, 2003) cited in Rahimi et. al (2008). • O’Malley et. al (1985) studied beginning and intermediate high school L2 learners: translation strategy used more by beginners, contextualization used more by intermediate levels – cited in Rahimi et. al (2008)
  9. 9. LEARNING STYLES • Individual’s learning style preferences influence the type of LLSs they use (Ehrman and Oxford, 1990; Rossi-Le, 1995) cited in Rahmi et.al (2008). • Extroverts prefer social strategies while introverts use metacognitive strategies (Ehrman & Oxford, 1990) in Rahimi et.al (2008). • Learners who prefer group study used social and interactive strategies (working with peers or requesting clarification (Rossi-Le, 1995) in Rahimi et.al (2008).
  10. 10. • Example of learning styles according to Oxford & Ehrman, 1995) cited in Gowans, 1999: – Sensory/ perceptual styles, tolerance of ambiguity, risk-taking, persistence, etc. • E.g.: Sensory: – Auditory – Visual – Kinesthetic
  11. 11. MOTIVATION • Oxford & Nyikos (1989) stated that motivation is an important factor influencing LLS Usage. Cited in Mohammad Rahimi et. al (2008) • Gardner & MacIntyre (1993) reported that their undergraduate foreign language participants, who were substantially motivated tended to adopt MORE learning strategies and use them MORE frequently when compared to those relatively less motivated. Cited in Sadighi & Zarafshan (2006)
  12. 12. Motivation by Gardner & Lambert (1972) cited in Kamarul Shukri Mat Teh & Mohamed Amin Embi (2010) Integrative • Universal • Purpose: to integrate oneself into the language community or the country of the language • Positive attitude towards elements of the target language Instrumental • Concrete • Purpose: Other than integration (e.g.: to pass the exam, for career advancement, to be able to read in the target language) • Focus on the functional aspect of the language
  13. 13. CONCLUSION • LLS is influenced by several factors • Each researcher focused on different aspect of language learning strategies • Resulted in various findings • According to a lot of other factors
  14. 14. REFERENCES Aslan, O. 2009. The Role of Gender and Language Learning Strategies in Learning English. M.A Thesis The Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle East University. Chen, M. L. 2014. Age Differences in the Use of Language Learning Strategies. Cadanian Center of Science and Education. 7 (2): 144-151. Gowans, C. J. 1999. Second Language Learning Strategies and Factors Affecting Their Use: A Qualitative Study of Missionaries in Nepal. M.A. Thesis, Victoria University of Technology. Kamarul Shukri Mat Teh & Mohamed Amin Embi. 2010. Strategi Pembelajaran Bahasa. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya Karami, S. 2012. Vocabulary Learning Strategies: the Effect of Level of Proficiency on the Strategy Use. Trends in Advanced Science and Engineering. 6 (1): 79-87. Khamkhien, A. 2010. Factors Affecting Language Learning Strategy Reported Usage by Thai and Vietnamese EFL Learners. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching. 7 (1): 66-85 Mohammad Rahimi, Abdolmehdi Riazi & Shahrzad Saif. 2008. An Investigation on Factors Affecting the Use of Language Learning Strategies by Persian EFL Learners. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics. 11 (2): 31-60 Sadighi, F. & Zarafshan, M. 2006. Effects of Attitude and Motivation on the Use of Language Learning Strategies by Iranian EFL University Students. Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities of Shiraz University. 23 (1): 72-80 Taguchi, T. 2002. Learner Factors Affecting the Use of Learning Strategies in Cross-Cultural Contexts. Prospect Journal. 17 (2): 18-34