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Bibliography“. . .a process of dynamic interaction betweenthe personality of the reader and literature-interaction which may be utilized for– personality assessment– Adjustment and– Growth “(Rusell and Shrodes,1950)
Bibliography• Provides a sensitive way for a practitioner oreducator, especially for children, to guidereading to help an individual understandthemselves and the environment, learn fromothers, and possibly find solutions to theirproblems.
Reasons of Bibliotherapy• To develop a more positive sense ofthemselves• To learn about the world• To cope with stress• to provide insight into problems• To affirm thoughts and feelings
• To stimulate discussions about problems• To create an awareness of others that havesimilar problems• To provide solutions to problems• To communicate new values and attitudes• To find meaning in life
The Stages of Bibliotherapy1. Identification - a reader associates themselveswith the character or situation in the literarywork.2. Catharsis - the reader shares many of the samethoughts and feelings of the characters in theliterary work.3. insight - the reader realizes that they relate tothe character or situation and learn to dealmore effectively with their own personal issues
How To Use Bibliotherapy1. Identify s needs. This task is done throughobservation, parent conferences, student writingassignments, and the review of school/facility records.2. Match the learner(s) with appropriate materials. Findbooks that deal with divorce, a death in the family, orwhatever needs have been identified. Keep the followingin mind:a. The book must be at the learners reading ability level.b. The text must be at an interest level appropriate tothe maturity of the learner.
c. The theme of the readings should match theidentified needs of the learner.d. The characters should be believable so thatthe learner can empathize with theirpredicaments.e. The plot of the story should be realistic andinvolve creativity in problem solving.3. Decide on the setting and time for sessions,and how sessions will be introduced to thestudent.
4. Design follow-up activities for the reading (e.g.,discussion, paper writing, drawing,drama).5. Motivate the learner with introductory activities(e.g., asking questions to get a discussion goingon the topic).6. Engage in the reading, viewing, or listeningphase. Ask leading questions and start shortdiscussions throughout the reading.7. Periodically, summarize what has occured thusfar (to be sure that "the message" does not getlost in the trivial points).
Take a break or allow a few minutes for thelearner to reflect on the material.8. Introduce the follow-up activities:-Retelling of the story-In depth discussion of the book (e.g.,discussing right and wrong, morals, thelaw,strong and weak points of the maincharacter, etc.)-Art activities (e.g., drawing map illustratingstory events, creating collage from magazine
photos and headlines to illustrate events in thestory, draw pictures of events)-Creative writing (e.g., resolving the story in adifferent way, analyzing decisions of characters)-Drama (e.g., role playing, reconstructing storywith puppets made during art activity, enactinga trial for the characters)9. Assist the student in achieving closurethrough discussion and a listing of possible-solutions, or some other activity.
Cautions1. Avoid topics (e.g., abortion, drug use,crime) which might draw concerns from parents,community, etc. unless approved with theadministration or those parties.2. Be familiar with the book. Read it andunderstand it before using it.
The Applications of Bibliotherapy1. To develop the individual’s self concept2. To increase an individual’s understanding ofhuman behavior or motivations3. To foster an honest self- appraisal4. To provide a way for a person to find interestoutside of self5. To relieve emotional or mental pressure
6. To show the person that he is not the onlyone with a problem7. To show a person that there is more than onesolution to a problem.8. To help a person discuss a problem morefreely9. To help a person plan a constructive course ofaction to solve a problem.