Geologic time scale

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The Earth's history.

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Geologic time scale

  1. 1. Earth’s HistoryGeologic Time Scale<br />Zach Waters<br />Ph Sc 107<br />Summer 2011<br />
  2. 2. The Earth is 4.6 billion years old<br />The Earth’s history can be divided into major units of time<br />-Eon<br />-Era<br />-Period<br />-Epoch<br />
  3. 3. How it all started<br />Precambrian Super Eon: “time before life”<br />Hadean Eon* 4.6 – 3.8 billion years ago (BYA)<br />Heavy bombardment of meteorites<br /> Earth’s surface molten lava<br />*Note: Not considered a part of the geological time scale (no evidence)<br />
  4. 4. Precambrian Super Eon<br />Archean Eon: 3.8 – 2.5 BYA<br />Earth starts cooling from molten state<br />Crust forms – Continental building<br /> Surface temperatures still really hot<br /> Oceans emerge<br /> Reducing atmosphere of methane, ammonia, hydrogen,<br /> and other gases.<br /> Earliest bacteria forms<br />
  5. 5. Precambrian Super Eon<br />Proterozoic Eon: 2.5 BYA – 542 million years ago (MYA)<br />Continued accretion of continental landmasses<br />Build up of oxygen thanks to bacteria algae etc…<br />Many glaciations occurred (Snowball Earth)<br />Evidence of earliest marine life<br /> Rodinia<br />
  6. 6. Phanerozoic Super Eon542 MYA - Present<br /> “Beginning of life”<br />Paleozoic Era: 542 MYA– 251 MYA <br />Cambrian Period 542 MYA – 488 MYA<br /> Ordovician Period 488 MYA – 443 MYA<br />Silurian Period 443 MYA – 416 MYA<br /> Devonian Period 416 MYA – 359 MYA<br />Carboniferous Period 359 MYA – 299 MYA<br /> Permian Period 299 MYA – 251 MYA<br />
  7. 7. Cambrian Period<br />542 MYA – 488 MYA<br />Climate: Moderately warm, not entirely without glaciations <br />Flora: No land plants, abundant fungi, algae <br />Fauna: Explosion of marine invertebrates<br />Continental Masses:<br /> trilobite fossil<br />
  8. 8. Ordovician Period<br />488 MYA – 443 MYA<br />Climate: Moderately warm, not entirely without glaciations <br />Flora: Evidence of primitive land plants<br />Fauna: Marine invertebrates, some early vertebrates jawless fish<br />Continental Masses:<br />Super-Continent Gondwana<br />Ice-age at end of period<br />Mass extinction of <br />organisms<br />
  9. 9. Silurian Period<br />443 MYA – 416 MYA<br />Climate: Moderately warmer, stable temps. Less glaciations<br />Flora: Primitive plants found on land<br />Fauna: Marine invertebrates, vertebrates fish with jaws<br />Continental Masses:<br />Super-Continent Gondwana<br />Couple minor mass <br />extinction of <br />organisms due to rapid<br />changes in sea level <br />
  10. 10. Devonian Period<br />416 MYA – 359 MYA<br />Climate: Relatively warmer, stable temps. Lacked glaciers<br />Flora: Widespread shrubs & trees<br />Fauna: Widespread marine life “The Age of Fish” sharks, fish crawling out of water, early evidence amphibians<br />Continental Masses:<br />Super-Continent Gondwana<br />Continent Siberia<br />Continent Euramerica<br />Panthalassa (universal ocean)<br />Some extinction of marine life<br />Glacial conditions start<br />
  11. 11. Carboniferous Period<br />359 MYA – 299 MYA: Two sub-periods<br />Mississippian Period 359 – 318 MYA<br />Pennsylvanian Period 318 – 299 MYA<br />Climate: Mostly warm early, later cooled to glaciations in southern Gondwana<br />Flora: Widespread shrubs & small trees, rainforest<br />Fauna: Amphibians, many fish & marine, insects<br />Continental Masses:<br />Rainforest Collapse<br />Period ending Ice-age<br />Appalachian Mountains form<br />
  12. 12. Permian Period<br />299 MYA – 251 MYA<br />Climate: Varied, cycled between warm & cool cycles<br />Flora: Diverse plants<br />Fauna: Reptiles, fully terrestrial, more insects<br />Continental Masses:<br />Pangaea forms<br />Era ended with <br />mass extinction<br />
  13. 13. Phanerozoic Super Eon542 MYA - Present<br />Mesozoic Era: 251 MYA– 65 MYA <br /> “Middle Life”<br />Triassic Period 251 MYA – 199 MYA<br /> Jurassic Period 199 MYA – 145 MYA<br />Cretaceous Period 145 MYA – 65 MYA<br />
  14. 14. Triassic Period<br />251 MYA – 199 MYA<br />Climate: Hot and dry, Seasonal hot summers/cold winters, no evidence of glaciations<br />Flora: Full recovery of woody trees<br />Fauna: First dinosaurs, first flying vertebrates, first mammals, new corals/reefs<br />Continental Masses:<br />Pangaea rifting <br />Period ended with <br />mass extinction severe in<br />oceans<br />
  15. 15. Jurassic Period<br />199 MYA – 145 MYA<br />Climate: Warm, humid<br />Flora: Large forests and jungles<br />Fauna: Larger dinosaurs <br />Continental Masses:<br />Pangaea breaks apart into northern (Laurasia) &<br />southern (Gondwana) supercontinents<br />Rocky Mts. starting to uplift<br />
  16. 16. Cretaceous Period<br />145 MYA – 65 MYA<br />Climate: Warm<br />Flora: Flowering plants spread, many leafy trees<br />Fauna: Dinosaurs, reptiles, mammals, birds, marine<br />Continental Masses:<br />Pangaea completely breaks up into today's continents<br />High sea levels<br />Ended with largest mass <br /> extinctions in Earth history<br />Demise of land dinosaurs, <br />much other fauna & flora <br />
  17. 17. Phanerozoic Super Eon542 MYA - Present<br />Cenozoic Era: 65 MYA– Present “Age of mammals”<br />Paleogene Period 65 MYA – 23 MYA<br /> Neogene Period 23 MYA – 2.6 MYA<br />Quaternary Period 2.6 MYA – Present<br />
  18. 18. Paleogene Period<br />65 MYA – 23 MYA<br /> Paleocene Epoch 65 MYA – 56 MYA<br />Eocene Epoch 56 MYA – 34 MYA<br /> Oligocene Epoch 34 MYA – 23 MYA<br />
  19. 19. Paleogene Period<br />Paleocene Epoch: 65 MYA – 56 MYA<br />Climate: Cooler & dryer, became warm & humid<br />Flora: Ferns, tropical forest, rain forest<br />Fauna: Small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, insects<br />Continental Masses:<br />Continents continue to drift<br />Himalayas begin forming<br />Warm oceans<br />
  20. 20. Paleogene Period<br />Eocene Epoch: 56 MYA – 34 MYA<br />Climate: Global temps. high, tropical climates<br />Flora: Covered in large forests apart from deserts<br />Fauna: First modern mammals<br />Continental Masses:<br />Continents continue to drift<br />Himalayas form<br />Warm oceans<br />
  21. 21. Paleogene Period<br />Oligocene Epoch: 34 MYA – 23 MYA<br />Climate: Global cooling, increase in ice volume<br />Flora: Expansion of grasslands, regression in tropical<br />Fauna: Larger mammals, modern marine animals<br />Continental Masses:<br />Continents continue to drift<br />Alps rising<br />Sea levels decrease<br />Oceans cooling<br />First Antarctic<br /> permanent ice-sheets<br />
  22. 22. Neogene Period<br />23 MYA – 2.6 MYA<br /> Miocene Epoch 23 MYA – 5.3 MYA<br />Pliocene Epoch 5.3 MYA – 2.6 MYA<br />
  23. 23. Neogene Period<br />Miocene Epoch: 23 MYA – 5.3 MYA<br />Climate: Global cooling<br />Flora: Fairly modern<br />Fauna: Land and marine fairly modern<br />Continental Masses:<br />Continents continue to drift<br />Himalayas rising<br />Andes rising<br />Mtn. building widespread<br />
  24. 24. Neogene Period<br />Pliocene Epoch: 5.3 MYA – 2.6 MYA<br />Climate: Seasonal cooler & drier average temperature<br />Flora: Tropical forest limited to equator, grasslands spread <br />Fauna: Modern marine, animals, and mammals<br />Continental Masses:<br />Continents continue to drift<br />End of period <br /> glaciations began into<br /> the Ice-age<br />
  25. 25. Quaternary Period<br />2.6 MYA – Recent<br /> Pleistocene Epoch 2.6 MYA – .0117 MYA<br />Holocene Epoch .0117 MYA – Recent<br />
  26. 26. Quaternary Period<br />Pleistocene Epoch: 2.6 MYA – .0117 MYA<br />Climate: Moderately cooler/cold<br />Flora: Modern<br />Fauna: Essentially modern<br />Continental Masses:<br />Ice-Age – 30% Earth’s surface<br />Evidence of early Humans<br />Extinction of large<br /> mammals<br />
  27. 27. Quaternary Period<br />Holocene Epoch: .0117 MYA – Recent<br />Climate: End of Ice-Age, warm, modern temperatures<br />Flora: Modern, not evolved much<br />Fauna: Modern, not evolved much<br />Continental Masses:<br />Human species world-wide<br />Human development<br />Large animals disappeared<br />

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