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Hybridization technique in rice

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Hybridization is very much essential for food production

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Hybridization technique in rice

  1. 1. WELCOME TO PRESENTATION ORGANIZED BY : SHAHANAZ PARVEEN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPT. OF GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING SHER-E-BANGLA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. HYBRIDIZATION TECHNIQUE IN RICE
  3. 3. Group name: Gladiolous Prepared by :
  4. 4. DISCUSSION TOPICS •Definition •Objectives •Materials Required •Floral Biology •Steps in Hybridization
  5. 5. What is Hybridization? Hybrid Homozygous parents Genetically Dissimilar Crossing
  6. 6. • The offspring that is obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar homozygous parents is called hybrid and the process of producing hybrid is called hybridization. • Yuan Longping, the "Father of Hybrid Rice", may be the most famous in research on hybrid rice. In the 1970 s, he made his discovery of the genetic basis of heterosis in rice. This was a unique discovery because it had been previously thought that heterosis was not possible for self-pollinating crops such as rice.
  7. 7. Objectives • To create variability • To increase the yield of grain • To increase grain quality • To develop early maturity variety • To develop disease resistant variety • To develop insect and pest resistant variety • To improve cooking characteristics
  8. 8. MATERIALS • Rectified Spirit • Needle • Scissor • Forceps • James Clips • Tags • Polythene Bags • Bamboo Sticks • Conical Flask • Threads
  9. 9. FLORAL BIOLOGY • Terminal panicle which bears perfect flower. • Sessile,bi-sexual,self pollinated flower. • Flower having six stamens. • Flower surrounded by lemma and palea. • Gynocium consists of carpel-1,superior ovary and one chambered hypogynous. • Most of the flowers bloom between 2-4 days. • Blooming of the spikelets starts from panicle apex and proceeds downward. • Pollen shed at the time of flower opening. • Stigma remains receptive for 4-5 days. • Pollen preservation possible for 24 hours at 54 degree F at 95% humidity • Fertilization completes within 3 hours after pollination
  10. 10. Diagrams of Floral Biology
  11. 11. STEPS IN HYBRIDIZATION
  12. 12. 1. Selection of female plants • Insect and disease free healthy plant • Selection of flowers expected to open by next morning • Removal of immature and open flowers
  13. 13. 2. EMASCULATION • Purpose of emasculation to prevent pollination • Selection of panicles expected to open in the morning • Selection of spikelets whose anther length about 60% • Lemma and palea need to cut at a place 20% bellow from the tip • Stamens need to remove one by one with sterized needle or forceps • Best time : afternoon • Bagging of emasculated flowers with polythene
  14. 14. EMASCULATION PROCESS
  15. 15. Diagrams of emasculation process
  16. 16. Mechanical emasculation  Mechanically prevented of pollen transfer  Time saving, extensive,quite cheap  vacuuming of anthers involves an aspirator and high speed suction of pollen from the anthers of flowers with a minimum damage to the stigma.
  17. 17. 3. POLLINATION • Process of collecting anther and pollen grains of desired male parent and putting in the stigma at the emasculated flower of desired female parent • Done in the next morning when the stigma is receptive • Collection of yellow and turgid anthers from desired male plant and putting them in bright sunlight for 15 minutes • Temporary removal of bag from female plants and pollination is done by dusting pollens over stigma surface of emasculated buds • Sometimes whole anther is inserted inside the florets with the help of forceps
  18. 18. BAGGING • Fixation of bamboo stick • Top of the plants with bud inside the bag • Two james clip through holes • Exchanges of gases • Stop the visit of insect
  19. 19. TAGGING • After bagging tag bear following information: Cross combination (BR3 x BRRI dhan 29) Date of emasculation Date of pollination Numbers of buds pollinated Signature of the breeder
  20. 20. • In agriculture, it is vitally important to maintain genetic diversity to obtain the health and longevity of a crop. • As with other types of hybrids, hybrid rice typically displays heterosis • Green Revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to increase yield by creating "high-yielding varieties". • Often the handful of hybridized breeds originated in developed countries and were further hybridized with local varieties in the rest of the developing world to create high yield strains resistant to local climate and diseases

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