Networking Related


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Networking Related

  1. 1. Zunaib Ali Class No. 09 1 Assignment # 02: Solve the following: Question # 52: In a class A subnet, we know the IP address of one of the hosts and the mask as given below: IP Address: Mask: What is the first address (Network Address)? Solution: We can also write: IP = 00011001.00100010.00001100.00111000 Mask = 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 Perform AND operation of IP & Mask we get. 00011001.00100010.00001100.00111000 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 00011001.00100010.00000000.00000000 So the network address is: Network Address: Question # 53: In a class B subnet, we know the IP address of one of the hosts and the mask as given below: IP Address: Mask: What is the first address (Network Address)? Solution: We can also write:
  2. 2. Zunaib Ali Class No. 09 2 IP = 01111101.10000110.01110000.01000010 Mask = 11111111.11111111.11100000.00000000 Perform AND operation of IP & Mask we get. 01111101.10000110.01110000.01000010 11111111.11111111.11100000.00000000 01111101.10000110.01100000.00000000 So the network address is: Network Address: Question # 54: In a class C subnet, we know the IP address of one of the hosts and the mask as given below: IP Address: Mask: What is the first address (Network Address)? Solution: We can also write: IP = 11000000.00101100.01010010.00010000 Mask = 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 Perform AND operation of IP & Mask we get. 11000000.00101100.01010010.00010000 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 11000000.00101100.01010010.00000000 So the network address is: Network Address:
  3. 3. Zunaib Ali Class No. 09 3 Define the following terms: Hub: Hub is common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets. A passive hub serves simply as a conduit for the data, enabling it to go from one device (or segment) to another. So-called intelligent hubs include additional features that enable an administrator to monitor the traffic passing through the hub and to configure each port in the hub. Intelligent hubs are also called manageable hubs. A third type of hub, called a switching hub, actually reads the destination address of each packet and then forwards the packet to the correct port. Figure 1: Hub Representation: Switch: A network switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network (LAN). Technically, network switches operate at layer two (Data Link Layer) of the OSI model. Network switches appear nearly identical to network hubs, but a switch generally contains more intelligence (and a slightly higher price tag) than a hub. Unlike hubs, network switches are capable of inspecting data packets as they are received, determining the source and destination device of each packet, and forwarding them appropriately. By delivering messages only to the connected device intended, a network switch conserves network bandwidth and offers generally better performance than a hub. As with hubs, Ethernet implementations of network switches are the most common. Mainstream Ethernet network switches support either 10/100Mbps Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet (10/100/1000) standards. Different models of network switches support differing numbers of connected devices. Most consumer-grade network switches provide either four or eight connections for Ethernet devices. Switches can be connected to each other, a so-called daisy chaining method to add progressively
  4. 4. Zunaib Ali Class No. 09 4 Router: Routers are small physical devices that join multiple networks together. Technically, a router is a Layer 3 gateway device, meaning that it connects two or more networks and that the router operates at the network layer of the OSI model. Home networks typically use a wireless or wired Internet Protocol (IP) router, IP being the most common OSI network layer protocol. An IP router such as a DSL or cable modem broadband joins the home's local area network (LAN) to the wide-area network (WAN) of the Internet. By maintaining configuration information in a piece of storage called the routing table, wired or wireless routers also have the ability to filter traffic, either incoming or outgoing, based on the IP addresses of senders and receivers. Some routers allow a network administrator to update the routing table from a Web browser interface. Broadband routers combine the functions of a router with those of a network switch and a firewall in a single unit. Figure 3: Router Example. Figure 2: Switch & Hub Difference.
  5. 5. Zunaib Ali Class No. 09 5 Modem: A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line and demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for the digital device. In recent years, the 2400 bits per second modem that could carry e-mail has become obsolete. 14.4 Kbps and 28.8 Kbps modems were temporary landing places on the way to the much higher bandwidth devices and carriers of tomorrow. From early 1998, most new personal computers came with 56 Kbps modems. By comparison, using a digital Integrated Services Digital Network adapter instead of a conventional modem, the same telephone wire can now carry up to 128 Kbps. With Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) systems, now being deployed in a number of communities, bandwidth on twisted-pair can be in the megabit range. Figure 4: Modem Demonstration. Host: A network host is a computer connected to a computer network. A network host may offer information resources, services, and applications to users or other nodes on the network. A network host is a network node that is assigned a network layer host address. Computers participating in networks that use the Internet Protocol Suite may also be called IP hosts. Specifically, computers participating in the Internet are called Internet hosts, sometimes Internet nodes. Internet hosts and other IP hosts have one or more IP addresses assigned to their network interfaces. The addresses are configured either manually by an administrator, automatically at start-up by means of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), or by stateless address auto configuration methods. Every network host is a physical network node (i.e. a network device), but not every physical network node is a host. Network devices such as modems, hubs and network switches are not assigned host addresses (except sometimes for administrative purposes), and are consequently not considered as network hosts. Devices such as network printers and hardware routers have IP
  6. 6. Zunaib Ali Class No. 09 6 addresses, but since they are not general-purpose computers, they are sometimes not considered as hosts. Network hosts that participate in applications that use the client-server model of computing are classified as server or client systems. Network hosts may also function as nodes in peer-to-peer applications, in which all nodes share and consume resources in an equipotent manner. Server: A network server is a computer designed to process requests and deliver data to other (client) computers over a local network or the Internet. Network servers typically are configured with additional processing, memory and storage capacity to handle the load of servicing clients. Common types of network servers include: Web servers proxy servers FTP servers Online game servers Numerous systems use this client / server networking model including Web sites and email services. An alternative model, peer-to-peer networking enables all computers to act as either a server or client as needed. Figure 5: Server & Host/Client Representation.
  7. 7. Zunaib Ali Class No. 09 7 Question: What is fundamental difference between the circuit switching and packet switching? Tabulate their advantages and disadvantages. Packet Switching Vs Circuit Switching: Packet-switched and circuit-switched networks use two different technologies for sending messages and data from one point to another. Each has their advantages and disadvantages depending on what we are trying to do. Packet Switching Circuit Switching 1. In packet-based networks, the message gets broken into small data packets. These packets are sent out from the computer and they travel around the network seeking out the most efficient route to travel as circuits become available. This does not necessarily mean that they seek out the shortest route. 2. Each packet may go a different route from the others. 3. Each packet is sent with a ‘header addresses. This tells it where its final destination is, so it knows where to go. 4. The header address also describes the sequence for reassembly at the destination computer so that the packets are put back into the correct order. 5. One packet also contains details of how many packets should be arriving so that the recipient computer knows if one packet has failed to turn up. 6. If a packet fails to arrive, the recipient computer sends a message back to the computer which originally sent the data, asking for the missing packet to be resent 7. Message is broken up into segments (packets). 8. Each packet carries the identification of the intended recipient, data used to assist in data correction and the position of the 1. Circuit switching was designed in 1878 in order to send telephone calls down a dedicated channel. This channel remained open and in use throughout the whole call and could not be used by any other data or phone calls. 2. There are three phases in circuit switching: Establish Transfer Disconnect 3. The telephone message is sent in one go, it is not broken up. The message arrives in the same order that it was originally sent. 4. In modern circuit-switched networks, electronic signals pass through several switches before a connection is established. 5. During a call, no other network traffic can use those switches. 6. The resources remain dedicated to the circuit during the entire data transfer and the entire message follows the same path. 7. Circuit switching can be analogue or digital 8. With the expanded use of the Internet for voice and video, analysts predict a gradual shift away from circuit-switched networks.
  8. 8. Zunaib Ali Class No. 09 8 packet in the sequence. 9. Each packet is treated individually by the switching centre and may be sent to the destination by a totally different route to all the others. 10. It is easier to double the capacity of a packet switched network than a circuit network – 11. Advantages: Circuit is dedicated to the call – no interference, no sharing Guaranteed the full bandwidth for the duration of the call Guaranteed Quality of Service 12. Dis-Advantages. Under heavy use there can be a delay Data packets can get lost or become corrupted Protocols are needed for a reliable transfer Not so good for some types data streams e.g real-time video streams can lose frames due to the way packets arrive out of sequence. 9. A circuit-switched network is excellent for data that needs a constant link from end-to-end. For example real-time video. 10. A circuit network is heavily dependent on the number of channel available. 11. It is expensive to expand a circuit switching system. 12. Advantages: Security Bandwidth used to full potential Devices of different speeds can communicate Not affected by line failure (re- diverts signal) Availability – do not have to wait for a direct connection to become available During a crisis or disaster, when the public telephone network might stop working, e-mails and texts can still be sent via packet switching 13. Dis-Advantages. Inefficient – the equipment may be unused for a lot of the call, if no data is being sent, the dedicated line still remains open Takes a relatively long time to set up the circuit During a crisis or disaster, the network may become unstable or unavailable. It was primarily developed for voice traffic rather than data traffic.