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emerging issues in educational leadership and management


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emerging issues in educational leadership and management

  1. 1. Presented By: Aliza Zaina
  2. 2. 9.1 Gender Issues 9.2 Ethical Issues and Dilemmas 9.3 Leadership of Educational Transformation 9.4 Strategic Leadership and Educational Improvement 9.5 Other Emerging Issues in Leadership and Management
  3. 3. The sociocultural phenomenon of the division of people into categories of male and female, each having associated clothing, roles, stereotypes, etc. Some examples of gender characteristics : • In the most countries, women earn significantly less money than men. • In most of the world, women do more housework than men. • Caring for children is often considered best done by women than men. • household repairs are often considered best done by men instead of women.
  4. 4. SOURCE: The Global Gender Gap Index 2014
  5. 5. SOURCE: The Global Gender Gap Index 2014 Ranking by region, 2014
  6. 6. Only about 3% of the top CEOs are women. e.g. Mary T. Barra, General Motors Co. (GM) Meg Whitman, Hewlett- Packard Co. (hp)
  7. 7. SOURCE: The Global Gender Gap Report 2014  According to the report, Pakistan is ranked 141 in terms of economic participation and opportunity for women, 132 in terms of education attainment, 119 for health and survival and 85 for political empowerment  women are rapidly closing the gender gap with men in areas like health and education, inequality at work is not expected to be erased until 2095,
  8. 8. SOURCE: The Global Gender Gap Report 2014
  9. 9. • One is that females' life aspirations are diminished by their early childhood socialization in the nuclear family. Generally the nuclear family transmits definitions of appropriate gender behavior to children. For girls, this includes passivity, avoidance competition and take risk, and the boys receive more parental encouragement to pursue their goals. • Secondly, Several studies have shown that successful managers to have the characteristics typically associated with men. successful managers qualities are a combination of masculine (e.g., forcefulness, self-confidence, task orientation, initiative) and feminine (e.g., concern for people, feelings, and relationships) traits.
  10. 10. Three main types of managerial behavior examined in male/female differences • The first is task accomplishment style • how much the leader initiates, organizes, and defines work activities and processes • The second is interpersonal style • how much the leader builds morale, relationships, satisfaction, and commitment in the organization. • The third is decision-making style • how much the leader encourages a participative .(democratic approach or autocratic approach)
  11. 11. Women Men More relationship-oriented More task-oriented More democratic, participative style More autocratic, directive approach More risk takers More optimistic React by feeling React by action Encourage, motivate Give orders, have them followed Friendly, caring and selfless Conclusive, aggressive and independent Cooperative Competitive Indirect communication style Direct communication style
  12. 12.  A problems, situations, or opportunities requiring an individual to choose among actions that may be evaluated as right or wrong, ethical or unethical.  Ethical issues arise because of:  Conflict among personal/organizational values  Conflicts with societal values e.g. Lying to supervisors Favoritism Taking credit for others work Terminating employees without any reason Misuse of power Application of personal expenses to official budgets
  13. 13.  A situation in which an individual feels compelled to make a choice between two or more actions that he/she can reasonably and morally justify, or when evidence or an arguments are inconclusive, is called an ethical dilemma (McConnell,2002). You have a student who is from a single parent family. The student must work to attend college. However, the job is interfering with the student’s performance and several assignments have not been turned in. You have determined that a “D” is all the student can make when a counselor informs you that the student needs a “C” to qualify for an academic scholarship.’ What do you do?
  14. 14. Example Sara is very happy on the whole with the project she has just completed for the Candi Cookie Company. Most of her hypotheses were supported by the survey data. There were two hypotheses that did not work out, but she thought she would just leave them out of the report. Is it ethical to omit information which does not tally with your beliefs? Can valuable information be lost through the omission?
  15. 15. Lying  Lying, a form of deception, requires the expression of an actual statement known to be untrue (Buller & Burgoon, 1996). Conflicts of Interest  A conflict between the private interests and the official responsibilities of a person in a position of trust. Bribery  Bribery is the practice of offering something in order to gain an illegal advantage.
  16. 16. Discrimination  Discrimination means unequal treatment.  Discriminates against an individual with respect to hiring, employment terms, promotion etc. Sexual Harassment  Sexual Harassment is a form of abuse that affects one’s performance at work adversely, due to another person’s inappropriate behavior. It disturbs individuals (mentally and physically) during the course of his work performance.” Fraud  Any purposeful communication that deceives, manipulates, or conceals facts in order to create a false impression is fraud.
  17. 17. Leadership of Educational Transformation  Leadership of Educational Transformation has three common capabilities. These are  “Think Ahead” Set the vision and strategy for the education system  “Deliver Within” Manage the education system and build its capabilities among internal stakeholders.  “Lead Across” Reach out to and engage stakeholders within and outside of the education system.
  18. 18.  Transformation leaders must “think ahead” by setting a vision and strategy for education transformation.  This capability involves asking difficult questions about what a society needs, expects from education and how education systems must anticipate economic and technological changes?  Education systems need to be able to adapt accordingly so that they can prepare students to succeed in the 21st-century. Preparing students for the 21st century isn't just about technology or skills. Its all about creativity, cultural awareness, problem solving, innovation, communication, productivity, collaboration and exploration, with the ultimate aim of making the classroom as dynamic as the world around us. Think Ahead
  19. 19.  The second role of transformation leaders is to “deliver within”, overseeing the performance of the organization they are managing during the transformation and build the capabilities of the education system.  This capability also requires transformation leaders to ensure the sustainability of their initiatives, which often operate on timelines that outlast their tenure. Finland and South Korea are successful examples of deliver within. Finland relies on a strategy of decentralized authority and empowers teachers with more autonomy and flexibility. Finland’s national core curriculum serves only as a framework and is not prescriptive. This gives principals and teachers wide latitude and independence to decide what they will teach and how. Deliver Within
  20. 20.  “Leading across” is the third and most important transformation capability. To implement this, transformation leaders must directly engage with stakeholders during the planning and implementation phases of transformations.  This capability can involve ensuring the support of the everyone for the proposed change and will work to help them succeed. Leading across also involves regular dialogue with students and teachers. Alberta, a province of Canada, has an online platform called “Speak Out” for students aged 14 to 19. The province also has a formal student advisory panel that meets the education minister. Leading Across
  21. 21. Strategic Leadership  When leaders engaged in the management processes of analyzing, planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating they were basically considered to be strategic leadership.  For schools, this means achieving the best possible student outcomes now and into the foreseeable future. Nelson Mandela is a living example of strategic leaders. The key to Mandela’s leadership was broad in scope (to encourage racial harmony), change oriented (forgiveness without forgetting), future focused (power sharing and a strong focus on the future, not the past).
  22. 22. Strategic Leaders are Futures Oriented and have a Futures Strategy  Strategic leadership is more than having a vision about an ideal future. It is about acknowledging the complex and unpredictable nature of the future and developing strategies to ‘prepare for the unexpected’ rather than just to ‘plan for the known’.  At educational level, strategic leaders need to determine what future citizens of their society need to learn and to experience in order for their nation to be prosperous and harmonious in the era in which their students will graduate.
  23. 23. Strategic Leaders are Evidence Based and Research oriented  Evidence-based practice is about obtaining strategic data from the social, technological, educational, economic and political environment; analyzing, interpreting and integrating that data into useful information; and the exploration of desirable options.  Evidence-based practice means examining evidence of learning in order to ensure that every learner is achieving improved outcomes.
  24. 24. Strategic Leaders Get Things Done Strategic leaders don’t talk about what they might do, they actually do it. Strategic leaders draw on their knowledge and position in the school to focus action on what is important. They get things done both personally and in collaboration with others. The school leader must be someone who ‘gets things done’.
  25. 25. Strategic Leaders Open New Horizons The strategic work of leaders is to collect and expose possibilities beyond the mundane and to open horizons and new directions for their school. Strategic leaders are always on the look-out for new ways of doing things.
  26. 26. Strategic Leaders Make Good Partners Strategic leaders work effectively with students, parents, other staff, schools and school leaders. Strategic leaders learn together, share point view of the future, communicate freely and respect others Strategic leaders need to be skilled at managing conflict positively’ values.
  27. 27. Strategic Leaders Do the ‘Next’ Right Thing Strategic leaders are ethical and have the habit of ‘doing the next right thing’. Strategic leaders ensure that individual staff accountabilities are clearly defined, understood and agreed. Strategic leaders ensure that their actions match their words.
  28. 28. Globalization  Globalization means expanding business in more than one countries.  Leader/Manager need to lead and motivate a group of people, work across organizational boundaries, improve efficiency, and achieve growth.  They have to manage the requirements of government, keep up with competitors, and meet the expectations of other stakeholders.  And within this global environment, there are many cultural considerations leaders must face to be effective.
  29. 29. Productivity is the relationship between the amount of outputs and amount of inputs needed to produce a product.  In other words, management measures productivity by comparing the amount of a product produced to the amount of raw materials and manpower needed to produce a product. If less raw materials and manpower are used to produce more of a product, then productivity is considered high. e.g. management to determine whether the plant has high productivity rates, they will look: The amount of raw materials, like chicken, eggs, bread crumbs and food additives, used to make the nuggets The amount of time and labor involved in running the machinery and production lines to process and package the nuggets The amount of chicken nuggets produced in a standard timeframe, like every hour. Quality and Productivity
  30. 30.  Quality is the measure of a product's flawlessness and excellence.  Manager continually interact with their customers and various partners, and develop relationships between all levels of management and employees, the levels of productivity and quality should remain high.  Manager aims to collate all of the available resources for how to improve quality and productivity, and develop new evidence to fill gaps. Cont.