emerging issues in educational leadership and management
9.1 Gender Issues
9.2 Ethical Issues and Dilemmas
9.3 Leadership of Educational Transformation
9.4 Strategic Leadership and Educational
9.5 Other Emerging Issues in Leadership and
The sociocultural phenomenon of the division of people
into categories of male and female, each having
associated clothing, roles, stereotypes, etc.
Some examples of gender characteristics :
• In the most countries, women earn significantly less money
• In most of the world, women do more housework than men.
• Caring for children is often considered best done by women
• household repairs are often considered best done by men
instead of women.
SOURCE: The Global Gender Gap Index 2014
Ranking by region, 2014
Only about 3% of the top
CEOs are women.
e.g. Mary T. Barra, General
Motors Co. (GM)
Meg Whitman, Hewlett-
Packard Co. (hp)
SOURCE: The Global Gender Gap Report 2014
According to the report, Pakistan is ranked 141 in terms of
economic participation and opportunity for women,
132 in terms of education attainment,
119 for health and survival and
85 for political empowerment
women are rapidly closing the gender gap with men in areas like
health and education, inequality at work is not expected to be
erased until 2095,
• One is that females' life aspirations are diminished by their
early childhood socialization in the nuclear family. Generally
the nuclear family transmits definitions of appropriate
gender behavior to children.
For girls, this includes passivity, avoidance competition and take risk, and the
boys receive more parental encouragement to pursue their goals.
• Secondly, Several studies have shown that successful
managers to have the characteristics typically associated
successful managers qualities are a combination of masculine (e.g.,
forcefulness, self-confidence, task orientation, initiative) and feminine (e.g.,
concern for people, feelings, and relationships) traits.
Three main types of managerial behavior examined in
• The first is task
• how much the leader
and defines work
• The second is
• how much the leader
commitment in the
• The third is
• how much the leader
More relationship-oriented More task-oriented
More democratic, participative
More autocratic, directive
More risk takers More optimistic
React by feeling React by action
Encourage, motivate Give orders, have them followed
Friendly, caring and selfless Conclusive, aggressive and
Indirect communication style Direct communication style
A problems, situations, or opportunities requiring an
individual to choose among actions that may be evaluated
as right or wrong, ethical or unethical.
Ethical issues arise because of:
Conflict among personal/organizational values
Conflicts with societal values
e.g. Lying to supervisors
Taking credit for others work
Terminating employees without any reason
Misuse of power
Application of personal expenses to official budgets
A situation in which an individual feels compelled to
make a choice between two or more actions that he/she
can reasonably and morally justify, or when evidence or
an arguments are inconclusive, is called an ethical
You have a student who is from a single parent family. The student
must work to attend college. However, the job is interfering with the
student’s performance and several assignments have not been turned
in. You have determined that a “D” is all the student can make when a
counselor informs you that the student needs a “C” to qualify for an
What do you do?
Sara is very happy on the whole with the project she has just completed
for the Candi Cookie Company. Most of her hypotheses were supported
by the survey data. There were two hypotheses that did not work out, but
she thought she would just leave them out of the report.
Is it ethical to omit information which does not tally with your
Can valuable information be lost through the omission?
Lying, a form of deception, requires the expression of an
actual statement known to be untrue (Buller & Burgoon,
Conflicts of Interest
A conflict between the private interests and the official
responsibilities of a person in a position of trust.
Bribery is the practice of offering something in order to
gain an illegal advantage.
Discrimination means unequal treatment.
Discriminates against an individual with respect to hiring,
employment terms, promotion etc.
Sexual Harassment is a form of abuse that affects
one’s performance at work adversely, due to another
person’s inappropriate behavior. It disturbs
individuals (mentally and physically) during the
course of his work performance.”
Any purposeful communication that deceives,
manipulates, or conceals facts in order to create a false
impression is fraud.
Leadership of Educational Transformation
Leadership of Educational Transformation has three
common capabilities. These are
Set the vision and strategy for the education system
Manage the education system and build its capabilities
among internal stakeholders.
Reach out to and engage stakeholders within and outside of
the education system.
Transformation leaders must “think ahead” by setting a
vision and strategy for education transformation.
This capability involves asking difficult questions about
what a society needs, expects from education and how
education systems must anticipate economic and
Education systems need to be able to adapt accordingly so
that they can prepare students to succeed in the 21st-century.
Preparing students for the 21st century isn't just about technology or skills. Its
all about creativity, cultural awareness, problem solving, innovation,
communication, productivity, collaboration and exploration, with the ultimate
aim of making the classroom as dynamic as the world around us.
The second role of transformation leaders is to “deliver
within”, overseeing the performance of the organization
they are managing during the transformation and build the
capabilities of the education system.
This capability also requires transformation leaders to
ensure the sustainability of their initiatives, which often
operate on timelines that outlast their tenure.
Finland and South Korea are successful examples of deliver within.
Finland relies on a strategy of decentralized authority and empowers
teachers with more autonomy and flexibility. Finland’s national core
curriculum serves only as a framework and is not prescriptive. This gives
principals and teachers wide latitude and independence to decide what they
will teach and how.
“Leading across” is the third and most important
transformation capability. To implement this,
transformation leaders must directly engage with
stakeholders during the planning and implementation
phases of transformations.
This capability can involve ensuring the support of the
everyone for the proposed change and will work to help
Leading across also involves regular dialogue with students and teachers.
Alberta, a province of Canada, has an online platform called “Speak Out”
for students aged 14 to 19. The province also has a formal student
advisory panel that meets the education minister.
When leaders engaged in the management processes of
analyzing, planning, implementing, monitoring and
evaluating they were basically considered to be strategic
For schools, this means achieving the best possible student
outcomes now and into the foreseeable future.
Nelson Mandela is a living example of strategic leaders. The key to
Mandela’s leadership was broad in scope (to encourage racial
harmony), change oriented (forgiveness without forgetting), future
focused (power sharing and a strong focus on the future, not the past).
Strategic Leaders are Futures Oriented and have a
Strategic leadership is more than having a vision about
an ideal future. It is about acknowledging the complex
and unpredictable nature of the future and developing
strategies to ‘prepare for the unexpected’ rather than just
to ‘plan for the known’.
At educational level, strategic leaders need to determine
what future citizens of their society need to learn and to
experience in order for their nation to be prosperous and
harmonious in the era in which their students will
Strategic Leaders are Evidence Based and Research
Evidence-based practice is about obtaining strategic data
from the social, technological, educational, economic and
political environment; analyzing, interpreting and
integrating that data into useful information; and the
exploration of desirable options.
Evidence-based practice means examining evidence of
learning in order to ensure that every learner is achieving
Strategic Leaders Get Things Done
Strategic leaders don’t talk about what they might do,
they actually do it.
Strategic leaders draw on their knowledge and position in
the school to focus action on what is important. They get
things done both personally and in collaboration with
The school leader must be someone who ‘gets things
Strategic Leaders Open New Horizons
The strategic work of leaders is to collect and expose
possibilities beyond the mundane and to open horizons
and new directions for their school.
Strategic leaders are always on the look-out for new ways
of doing things.
Strategic Leaders Make Good Partners
Strategic leaders work effectively with students, parents,
other staff, schools and school leaders.
Strategic leaders learn together, share point view of the
future, communicate freely and respect others
Strategic leaders need to be skilled at managing conflict
Strategic Leaders Do the ‘Next’ Right Thing
Strategic leaders are ethical and have the habit of ‘doing
the next right thing’.
Strategic leaders ensure that individual staff
accountabilities are clearly defined, understood and
Strategic leaders ensure that their actions match their
Globalization means expanding business in more than
Leader/Manager need to lead and motivate a group of
people, work across organizational boundaries, improve
efficiency, and achieve growth.
They have to manage the requirements of government,
keep up with competitors, and meet the expectations of
And within this global environment, there are many
cultural considerations leaders must face to be effective.
Productivity is the relationship between the amount of outputs and
amount of inputs needed to produce a product.
In other words, management measures productivity by comparing
the amount of a product produced to the amount of raw materials
and manpower needed to produce a product.
If less raw materials and manpower are used to produce more of a
product, then productivity is considered high.
e.g. management to determine whether the plant has high productivity rates,
they will look:
The amount of raw materials, like chicken, eggs, bread crumbs and food
additives, used to make the nuggets
The amount of time and labor involved in running the machinery and
production lines to process and package the nuggets
The amount of chicken nuggets produced in a standard timeframe, like
Quality and Productivity
Quality is the measure of a product's flawlessness and
Manager continually interact with their customers and
various partners, and develop relationships between all
levels of management and employees, the levels of
productivity and quality should remain high.
Manager aims to collate all of the available resources for
how to improve quality and productivity, and develop
new evidence to fill gaps.