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biomechanics, physical therapy

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Biomechanics of cycling

  1. 1. 0 Cycling is one of the safest non-contact sports. 0 Due to light joint workloads, cycling is advisable in early phases of post- surgical and post-traumatic rehabilitation of the motor system as the injured joint can be exposed to a relatively low workload combined with a relatively large muscle effort.
  2. 2. • Cycling allows the rider to exercise without unduly stressing the joints. • Because of the smooth pedalling motion, very little stress occurs at the bone. • Athletes who only participate in cycling have an increased risk of osteoporosis. • This is another reason why weight training is crucial for professional cyclists.
  3. 3. The phases of a pedal’s revolution : (i) downstroke phase (from 0° to 180° ]. (ii) upstroke phase (from 180° to 360°) . (iii) two transitional phases (± 5° from the TDC and BDC).
  4. 4. Raasch & Zajac (1999) E/F group the RF/TA group the HAM/SG group Gluteus maximus Hamstrings Vastus medialis Tibialis anterior Vastus lateralis Gastrocnemius Iliopsoas Rectus femoris Soleus Bicep femoris
  5. 5. 0 The main purpose of the E/F group is to generate energy for pedalling. 0 The RF/TA and HAM/SG groups mainly act as rigid transmitters to improve the efficiency of energy transfer between the segments. 0 The HAM/SG groups are mainly active at the end of the first phase and help in the transition to the second phase. 0 The RF/TA group provides energy at the end of the second phase of the revolution and helps in the transition to the new revolution cycle.
  6. 6. 0 Starting at 0° the gluteus maximus activates to extend the hip for the first 45° of the pedal stroke. 0 During the last 45° to the position just after 180° the hamstrings are activated. 0 From 45° to 125° the gluteus maximus and hamstrings work together to extend the hip. 0 During the recovery phase the hip flexor muscles, the iliopsoas and the rectus femoris are activated and continue the motion of the hip. 0 The rectus femoris contracts during the last stage of the recovery phase to flex the hip in preparation for the next pedal stroke.
  7. 7. ABDOMEN 0 The rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, and obliques (internal and external) provide anterior and lateral support to the trunk.
  8. 8. UPPER EXTREMITY 0 Biceps, triceps, and forearm muscles all work together to stabilize the trunk through the shoulder joint. 0 The rhomboid, rotator cuff, and deltoid help maintain proper stability and position. 0 Pectoralis major and minor allow you to lean forward on the bike and move the handlebars from side to side while climbing.
  9. 9. BACK 0 The erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius muscles support the spine as you lean forward on the bike.
  10. 10. NECK 0 Riding also stresses your neck. 0 Both the splenius and the trapezius help keep your eyes on the road by extending your neck.
  • ErcumentPulat1

    Aug. 31, 2018
  • TithiAmin1

    May. 24, 2018
  • RinkuPatel28

    May. 23, 2018

biomechanics, physical therapy

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