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Rest watershed experiences


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Rest watershed experiences

  1. 1. Background of Relief Society of Tigray (REST)  Relief Society of Tigray (REST) is an indigenous (Ethiopian) non-governmental organization based in Tigray since 1978,  REST is implementing a wide range of Relief, Rehabilitation and Development activities in Rural areas of Tigray . Originally REST was established to serve the needs of the people in the liberated areas of Tigray during the then civil war.    REST has always been a grass-roots organization, committed to working with the poorest and most marginalized communities to bring about positive and sustainable changes. The activities of REST are funded by various international donor organizations and NGOs (EU and USAID--)
  2. 2. REST’s Vision and Mission REST’s Vision A future where poverty has been eradicated and all people enjoy equitable access to development opportunities and benefits. REST’s Mission To contribute to the eradication of poverty in Ethiopia by promoting livelihoods on a sustainable basis within the context of stimulating wider economic dynamism and growth within the Regional State of Tigray.
  3. 3. REST Goals and Objectives Goals  REST’s overall goal is to bring about a sustainable development in food insecure livelihoods within REST operational areas Objectives a. b. c. d. e. To promote sustainable natural resource management To improve water security within Tigray To strengthen household livelihoods within REST operational areas To improve the health and educational status of people in Tigray To promote empowerment of women in Tigray
  4. 4. REST’s Operational Areas REST has Four major operational areas practiced in the target watersheds . 1. Environmental Rehabilitation and Agricultural Development (ERAD),  Natural Resource Management     Soil and water conservation (SWC) Reforestation and Agro-ferestry Rural Access Road Renewable Energy  Agricultural Development Program     Livestock and forage development Crop development and Marketing and linking to MFI Weather Crop Insurance 2. Water harvesting and Irrigation Infrastructures Development    micro-dams, river diversions, pump installation, construction springs, community ponds, open hand dug wells and underground tankers.
  5. 5. REST’s Operational ------Cont’d 3.Rural water supply for domestic use      3. Hand dug well, Spring water development, shallow borehole, Roof rain water harvesting and deep Borehole Health Programs      Maternal and Child Health, Reproduction health and family planning, HIV/AIDS and STIs prevention, infectious disease mitigation and basic personal hygiene and sanitation education.
  6. 6.    Emergency Seed Provision Project
  7. 7. REST’s Participatory and Integrated Watershed Management Approach The Participation and integration starts from the planning processes By establishing watershed committee at region, wereda and watershed level. A community watershed committee representing the beneficiary of the village. This helps to perform all necessary studying, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the interventions in the watershed. Since 2002, Rest has been following Participatory and integrated watershed approach. Most of the activities have been implemented by concentrating and integrating within the watershed.
  8. 8. Watershed Committee Establishment The Community watershed committee has at least 10-15 farmers who are selected by the community in the village. The selection considers gender, age, wealth status, land holding and active participant or model farmers Major tasks of the committee is Planning, implementation, monitoring and Evaluation of projects within the watershed The CWC with assistance of the development agents and wereda watershed committees prepare Base and development plans of the watersheds based on the baseline information of the watersheds. The weredas watershed committees have got technical assistance from regional experts of REST and BOARD during planning, introducing new technologies, implementation and evaluation processes.
  9. 9. Members of Meara Community Watershed committee, Hintalowajerat Wereda, evaluating progress of water harvesting check dam construction in this watershed
  10. 10. Sketch base map of Daereka Watershed prepared by the community watershed management committee
  11. 11. GIS Tools Used for the watershed Mapping and Planning •The watershed study are supported by GIS tools •REST has GIS Unit operating watershed mapping, Planning and designing •The Regional and Wereda REST experts are well trained in GIS software to make the watershed study more scientific and reliable •Some maps of the studied Sample REST watersheds are illustrated as next
  12. 12. KEY FEATURES OF THE REST Watershed Approach 1) Participatory, Integrated, Linked and Sequenced Watershed Planning: Participatory planning based on existing potentials, and implementation and ME Designing interventions in an integrated, linked and sequenced approach Good for functional integration: with in the project components (linking NRM with livelihood….) and with other projects/development actions: eg. Coordination and integration with government development plan, various REST projects, and other ongoing initiatives
  13. 13. 2) Centrality of access to and control over Water Focus: Effective Utilization and Management of Water Resources in the rural community Soil and water conservation: Intensive Upper catchments treatments by different SWC measures and reforestation (PW activities) Developing water resource (ground and surface) utilizing wide range of appropriate alternative technologies:  Surface Water harvesting structures for irrigation (Diversions, dams, check dam ponds, spring developments, ….)  Ground water development: HDWs, Deep and shallow wells.. Water lifting and efficiency technologies (water pumps, Drip, Rope and washer, treadle pumps)
  14. 14. 3) Flexible & Diversified Livelihood Packages Approach: Demand driven packaging (size and type) Provision of various assets based on potential and choice of the HHs, Application of Value chain at farmers Technical training on Asset management & productivity, Provision of continued technical support Demonstration/Promotion based scale up and scale out approach
  15. 15. Flexible & Livelihood package Cont….. Linking natural resource rehabilitation outputs to household asset building  (Area enclosures for bee keeping, Livestock fattening….) Provision of productive assets both at individual & group level (OHDWs, water lifting technologies, etc.) Facilitate market linkage (market sheds, market groups, Value chain analysis etc.)  Improving animal productivity by providing improved breeds, animal forage and modern bee keepings. Improving its health status through intensive health education focusing on FP, Sanitation & hygiene, HIV/AIDS and promoting nutrition.
  16. 16. 4) Enhancing Community Institutions Community institutions development: Watershed committee, cooperatives, user groups… Technical and managerial capacity building At community level focus on watershed committee, community technical leaders  Trainings, visits, material support (tools…) Local government capacity building:  focus on Development agents, Cooperatives, Wareda level expertise and administrators
  17. 17. Implementation Pattern (From uphill to downstream of a watershed)– Creating perennial water sources Developing Natural Resource Base in the watershed Sequential pattern of NRM planning and implementation so that perennial water at downstream are created and sustainable developments are achieved within the watersheds. The implementation of the natural resources management activities starts on upper catchments treatment using terraces, bunds, basins, check dams, plantations, percolation ponds and channels, check dams ponds and mini-dams and  then water harvesting for irrigation and/or domestic use at the downstream. ( See Figure )
  18. 18. Upper Catchments Treatment Terraces and Bunds •Gully bank reshaping •Biological treatment Basins and Simple check dams Gully treatment Sediment Storage check dams Plantations and area enclosures Gabion and loose rock check dams Percolation check dams, ponds and channels Water Harvesting Check dam ponds, Mini-dams Creating perennial water sources for Irrigation and domestic use •Stream water diverting check dams •Water Springs •Water wells and boreholes •Other water sources
  19. 19. Developed water for irrigation and domestic use Water Harvesting Check dam ponds Percolation check dams and ponds channels Gully treatment Upper catchments treatment
  20. 20. Soil and Water Conservation Programs of REST In Tigray, the governmental based SWC program was introduced in 1971 through food-for-work program (Hunting, 1976). Major SWC Activities  Upper catchments treatment –  Big gully reclamation Moisture harvesting on Farmland  Micro scale Water harvesting  Ground water recharging Capacity Building-
  21. 21. SWC structures on Communal land as well as on farmland From 1993 to 2010; 249,132hectarres of land have been treated by various types of SWC techniques in REST intervention weredas. Communal HILL LAND
  22. 22. Various types of SWC terraces, bunds and basins
  23. 23. SWC Terraces and basins on Communal land as well as on farmland
  24. 24. One type of in situ moisture harvesting trench bund on cropland as well as on communal land Trench bund on cropland Trench Bund on Communal land
  25. 25. Big Gully Reclamation- Gully physical, biological and mechanical treatment- Changed to productive land Big Gully Reclamation-Since1998 436big gullies have been fully reclaimed and changed to productive land.
  26. 26. Gully Plugging (Left) Loose rock and gabion based checkdams and (Right) Biological treatment Loose rock check dam Gabion check dam
  27. 27. Deep Gully Reclamation Reshaping and Plantation elephant grass for animal feed, T/Daereka watershed
  28. 28. Landless groups developing marginal lands around Gully banks with fruits and fodder, Tigray Church as a reference point Gully reclamation and bank rehabilitation at early stage, 2008 Marginal land allocated for landless groups and now under development, 2011
  29. 29. Percolation Ponds, Channels, Check dams and Deep trenches The percolation structures have been introduced in the REST weredas since 2004. These structures are designed to trap the excess runoff water flows down from the upper catchments and recharge ground water and increase water discharge of the different types of water sources
  30. 30. Water Harvesting Check dam •Since 2004, water harvesting check dams have been introduced be applied on big gullies and streams. This is an Indian experiences •for irrigation- Full time as well as supplementary •for biological gully treatment, •recharging ground water, and •as a livestock watering point and other domestic use. So far more than 300WHCD have been constructed and scale out by the government and NGOS in Tigray, Amhara and Afar Regions BEFORE AFTER Water Harvesting Check dam built in 2006 Meara Watershed, Hintalo-Wajer
  31. 31. Water Harvesting Check dams- Check dam Ponds under construction on dry gullies
  32. 32. One of the water harvesting check dam pond constructed in 2007 for irrigation in Medhin Watershed, Mereb-leke, Lowland Tigray Before After Construction
  33. 33. Water Harvesting Check dams- Cont’d Before Construction After Construction
  34. 34. Check Dam Pond in Worileke Wereda, Maisesela village
  35. 35. Flood Diversion in Raya Using Runoff Diverting Check dams
  36. 36. Strategic Approach Ensuring participation of all stockholders at all levels (especially community Participation, etc.) Selection of appropriate, affordable technology and manageable to the end users. Use the Water efficiently and upgrading existing Traditional irrigation systems. Focusing on sustainable small scale irrigation projects Integration and synergy with: Water shade approach Gender, agronomy ,market ,credit and health  Soil and water conservation Interventions
  37. 37. Irrigation Development: REST annual Capacity 39
  38. 38.  More than 51 dams Constructed in different weredas  About 5500 ha, irrigated  About 22,000 households benefited
  39. 39. Before and After: Construction Mini Dams 41
  40. 40. River Diversion
  41. 41.  More than 95 Diversion Constructed in different weredas  About 6500 ha, irrigated  About 26,000 households benefited 43
  42. 42.  More than 250 check dams Constructed in different weredas  About 4,000 ha, irrigated  About 3,000 households benefited
  43. 43.  More than 15 spate schemes Constructed in Ray Azebo weredas  About 2500 ha, irrigated  About 5000 households benefited 45
  44. 44. Community Hand Dug Wells 46
  45. 45. Underground Tankers 47
  46. 46. Pump Irrigation Infrastructure 48
  47. 47. Reforestation Programs of REST in Tigray Tree Nursery Management, seedling transportation and plantation From1993-2010 --197,992,249 seedlings have been produced so far in both the central nursery sites and the community nursery sites and Planted Average of the survival rate counts for every year is 61.7%
  48. 48. Plantation Gravilia Plantation in Adwa, Tabia Selam
  49. 49. Plantation Area- Before and After Plantation in Adwa/Tabia Selam Degraded land Before Plantation AFTER
  50. 50. Biofuel-survival Rate of Jatropha plants from 2007 Jatropha Plantations Total planted and to 20011 Total No. of No. of Survive Areas Plantation Options Planted/ Survived d in % inHa Sown Communal areas Individual plantations Agro forestry Apportioned hillsides Gully sites Social institutions FTC Total 49012478 159490 54020 10030 70021 43741 552 32536206 149380 52280 9392 65502 40280 542 66 94 97 94 94 92 98 19605 63 21 4 93 17 0.01 49,350,332 32,853,582 67 19,803
  51. 51. Jatropha Plantation --seed production
  52. 52. Agro-forestry / Farmland enclosure
  53. 53. Area enclosure Management, Mawi watershed in Kolatembien (Left) and Ahferom (Right) From1993 to 2007 -- 172,399ha of land have been enclosed as natural regeneration as well as plantation areas
  54. 54. Potable Water Supply Hand dug well and Boreholes for Potable water Supply
  55. 55. Agricultural Development Programs– Crop and Livestock Developments and Weather Crop Insurance Crop Development– Major Interventions  Vegetable production  Include all improved and local vegetable seeds  Oil crops  Such as ground nut seeds used for oil extraction and peanut/ butter for different purposes.  Fruit development  Purchase , Production and Distribution of Grafted and Non grafted Tropical and Temperate fruit seedlings and seeds.  Promotion of water lifting technologies such as  Small /Medium water pumps, electrical pumps, FDK, and rope & washer pumps  Market linkage   Includes market sheds Organizing groups  Micro-garden- Vegetable production as micro garden on women headed households
  56. 56. Fruit Production Type of fruit seedlings No. of fruit since 1996 Tropical fruits and High Land fruits 418,505 Coverage in Ha 872ha
  57. 57. Vegetable production Provision of Improved vegetable seeds to farmers and Microgarden
  58. 58. S/N Micro-irrigation technologies Description of items 1 3-4 hp water pumps 2 4-6 hp l W/pump 3 Rope & washer 4 Family Drip (500 m2 ) Description of items
  59. 59. Integration of Shallow Water well, FDK, and Vegetable Production
  60. 60. Livestock Development Program Major Activities of this Program in FY2012 Forage development Livestock watering points development Beekeeping development Dairy development Small ruminant rearing and fattening Large ruminant/ Cattle fattening Rural poultry development Different type of capacity building activities: trainings, Workshops, and exposure visits control and zero grazing apiculture and sericulture.
  61. 61. Forage seed multiplication center Management Merebleke & Ahferom Alfalfa plantation management at nursery site
  62. 62. Livestock Watering Point Development
  63. 63. Dairy Development– Provision of Improved Breed of Local Dairy Cows (Begait Cows) as well as HF Cows
  64. 64. Colony multiplications and Honey production – Integrated with Area-enclosures
  65. 65. Good poultry management is the key for the successful improved income of female headed households Hintalo & Adua
  66. 66. Small Ruminant Production and Fattening Small ruminant rearing is the best way of income of female
  67. 67. Large ruminant/Cattle fattening by Women
  68. 68. Establishment/strengthening of farmers cooperativesFattening, Poultry, Dairy, Beekeeping
  69. 69. Weather Crop Insurance - HARITA from 2009 to 2012 Phase I II III IV 2009 2010 2011 2012 1 5 43 76 Teff Teff , Barley and wheat Teff , Barley, Sorghum, Maize, bean, and wheat Teff , Barley, Sorghum, Maize, bean, and wheat Insurance company NISCO NISCO NISCO & AIC NISCO & AIC # of insured farmers 200 1,308 13,195 19407 Male 125 802 8740 Female 75 506 4304 Total Sum insured 115,000 974,400 15,883,726 Premium 27,600 357,014 3,633,636.5 No No 295, 653.70 Production year Covered villages Insured crops Payout 15334 4073 24,481,550 4,840,236.95 5,809,890
  70. 70. Environmental Impacts of the Watershed Development Programs of REST  The active interventions of the programs by REST, the government and the farmers have resulted in considerable improvements on the natural resource management base and rehabilitating environment in Tigray.  Significant improvements have been observed regarding to  Soil loss reduction,  Biomass production,  Soil moisture improvement  Groundwater recharging and  Prevention of flood hazard.
  71. 71. Average sediment budget for cropped plots with stone bunds in Tigray Highlands (after Desta, 2003). 68% of soil loss reduction---11cm of soil depth has been saved
  72. 72. Raised ground water table and Improved ground water discharge in Daereka watershed
  73. 73. Water harvesting Check dams: Recharging ground water and rising ground water table
  74. 74. Stream diversion and water hand dug wells for irrigation in Daereka Watershed Ahferom district Stream Diversion Water well
  75. 75. In addition to irrigation, Recharging groundwater using check dam ponds for potable water supply Check Dam Pond Hand Pump Potable water
  76. 76. Vegetation cover improvements REST has been working effectively on the reforestation activities since 1993 Vegetation Cover changes- Image of Daereka watershed 1986 2000 2007
  77. 77. Improved vegetation cover (Area enclosure Management)
  78. 78. Vegetation cover change of the landscape over 30 years in Kushet Birki, Tabia Mesanu, Woreda Kilte Awlaelo;A) Photo taken by Neil Munro in 1975, B) Photo taken by Jan Nyssen in 2006 on the same landscape A) Photo in 1975 B) Photo 2006
  79. 79. Economical benefits Crop yield improvement 64507 70000 60000 50000 44554 42761 Soil loss zone (Upper zone) Middle Zone 40000 zones Crop yeild difference in the three Comparison of average grain yield (g/m²) on the accumulation zone, the middle zone and the loss zone (After Desta, 2003) in Doguatembien 30000 20000 10000 0 Area between two bunds Accomulation Zone
  80. 80. Irrigation Development: HDW + Agronomy 82
  81. 81. Irrigation using the check dams, Debdibo watershed, Ahferom
  82. 82. Crop and fruit Production during dry season-Hintalowajerat– Irrigation using check dam ponds
  83. 83. Enhance Production using Check dam ponds
  84. 84. Livestock Grass Production and Watering Point on gullies Grass production Communal Grazing land
  85. 85. The rural people celebrating the gabion based ‘Maegel’ (Diverting Check dam)and showing the boosted production of sorghum,in Raya
  86. 86. Horticulture- Apple mango
  87. 87. Area enclosures--- an opportunity for beekeeping intervention and honey Production
  88. 88. Lessons Learnt Watershed as a planning unit: helps to facilitate integration & synergy b/n various development actions and to achieve sustainable development . Participatory and community managed watershed development is very important Water centered strategy is essential for accelerating the rate of food production, and enhancing the natural resource base that supports agricultural productivity in moisture stressed areas of Tigray. Management and Development of Natural Resource Base is a key for improvement of the livelihood of the community in the watershed Good integration and working together with the community and government relevant offices and bureaus is very crucial for successes of the project.
  89. 89. Lessons Learnt..  Linking the poor HHs to MFI and Market is very essential for sustainable food security at HH level Profitable income diversification strategies based on appropriateness for participant HHs, and assessment of market potential are required to enhance purchase power in the context of escalating food prices, lower crop yields and poverty reduction. Dissemination of high value crop inputs and commercial oriented technologies like irrigation, are critical to transforming smallholder farming. Training should be paired with access to inputs and links to the private sector. The need of Weather Insurance to farmers for better investment and adapting climate change
  90. 90. Observed Challenges: Legal entity of Community WMCs to manage their resources (Esp Financial Resources, Revolving fund) To many meetings of the community by government Limited managerial capacity of WMCs & user groups (financial, technical, managerial) Low literacy of the CWMC Members Shortage of Fund to covet the need of the community Staff Turnover at all levels Shortage of skill and capacity at community level for maintenance and management of technological inputs Efficient utilization of common resources (irrigation water using drip system Market Price inflation of inputs and technologies
  91. 91. Opportunity Commitment of the community for labour mobilization for environmental rehabilitation and agricultural development Conducive government policy and commitment of the government bureaus and offices Commitment of donors to work with REST in watershed development Good integration and working together culture with government bureaus and offices Good Awareness of the community of the effects of severe land degradation problems in their areas.