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Unido cdm guide book

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Unido cdm guide book

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Unido cdm guide book

  1. 1. UNIDO - Ministry of Environment CDM Programme - Pakistan (Including CDM Potential Sector Assessment Cement, Sugar, Oil & Gas) UNIDO - CDM GUIDEBOOK PAKISTAN
  2. 2. This publication is dedicated to "Year of Energy 2012"
  3. 3. UNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan KandehYumkella Director-General of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization
  4. 4. UNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan Hameed Ullah Jan Afridi Federal Minister for Environment Government of Pakistan.
  5. 5. UNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan Foreword
  6. 6. UNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan
  7. 7. UNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan
  8. 8. UNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan
  9. 9. UNIDO Representative Ms. ShadiaYousif Bakhait presenting the Guide Book to UNFCCC Executive Secretary Ms. Christiana Figueres, Minister for Environment Mr. Hamidullah Jan Afridi is also present on the occasion. Soft Launching of “CDM Guide Book For Pakistan” 8th February 2011
  10. 10. iUNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 25 25 26 26 31 31 40 40 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 45 46 47 47 15 25 31 35 39
  11. 11. ii UNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan 55 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 51 51 51 51 52 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 57 58 58 59 59 59 60 75 75 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 84 84 85 99 99 105 120 120 121 130 130 130 65 73 83 129
  12. 12. iiiUNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan 135 149 153 130 130 131 131 131 131 132 132 153 153 154 154 155 157 159 160 164 174 192 202 212 223 232 241 243 244 249 253 258 260 265 Appendix-I: Contact Information of Pakistan DNA
  13. 13. iv UNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan
  14. 14. vUNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan
  15. 15. vi UNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan
  16. 16. UNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan Abstract
  17. 17. UNIDO-CDM Guidebook for Pakistan
  18. 18. Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 1 This section presents an introduction of Kyoto Protocol and CDM. It starts from an elaboration of basic environmental terminologies and provides precise information to the reader about the establishment of IPCC and UNFCCC, evolution of Kyoto Protocol and development of various emission trading schemes including Clean Development Mechanism. 1Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  19. 19. 3Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  20. 20. 4 Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  21. 21. 5Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  22. 22. 6 Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  23. 23. 7Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  24. 24. 8 Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  25. 25. 9Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  26. 26. 10 Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  27. 27. 11Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  28. 28. 12 Overview of Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  29. 29. CDM Organization and Key Players Involved 2 In this section, focus of the Guidebook completely diverts towards CDM which is the area of prime interest among other emission trading schemes. In this section a detailed description of the key players involved in the entire CDM cycle, such as Project Developers, CDM Consultants, CER buyers, Designated National Authorities, Designated Operational Entities, Executive Board, etc., along with theirgeneralrolesisprovided. 13CDM Organization and Key Players Involved
  30. 30. 15CDM Organization and Key Players Involved
  31. 31. 16 CDM Organization and Key Players Involved
  32. 32. 17CDM Organization and Key Players Involved
  33. 33. 18 CDM Organization and Key Players Involved
  34. 34. 19CDM Organization and Key Players Involved
  35. 35. 20 CDM Organization and Key Players Involved
  36. 36. 21CDM Organization and Key Players Involved
  37. 37. CDM Project Categories 3 This section mentions the categories of a CDM project. CDM projects are categorized on the basis of scale of the project activity (large scale or small scale). Introduction to Programme ofActivities (PoA) and sectoral scopes are also brieflydescribed. 23CDM Project Categories
  38. 38. 25CDM Project Categories
  39. 39. 26 CDM Project Categories
  40. 40. 27CDM Project Categories
  41. 41. Eligibility Criteria for CDM Projects 4 This section is designed to raise awareness of the reader about all the regulatory requirements which a project activity needs to follow to become eligible and/or registered as a CDM project activity. Mandatory requirements of UNFCCC and national requirements for CDMprojectsarealsodescribedinthissection. 29Eligibility Criteria for CDM Projects
  42. 42. 31Eligibility Criteria for CDM Projects
  43. 43. CDM Procedures 5 This section provides highlights of all procedural requirements in the course of a CDM project activity.From the project design document development to issuance of CERs,allthestepsaretabulatedinthissection. 33CDM Procedures
  44. 44. 35CDM Procedures
  45. 45. 36 CDM Procedures
  46. 46. Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development 6 All the key steps involved in the development of a CDM project activity are described in detail in this section. In particular, a comprehensive description of the Project Design Document (PDD), its components is provided in suchawaysothatthereadercanhaveafullunderstandingof thePDDdevelopmentprocess. 37Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  47. 47. 39KeyStepsInvolvedinCDMProjectDevelopment
  48. 48. 40 Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  49. 49. 41Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  50. 50. 42 Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  51. 51. 43Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  52. 52. 44 Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  53. 53. 45Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  54. 54. 46 Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  55. 55. 47Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  56. 56. 48 Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  57. 57. 49Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  58. 58. 50 Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  59. 59. 51Key Steps Involved in CDM Project Development
  60. 60. Programme of Activities (PoA) 7 This section aims to discuss CDM Programme ofActivities (PoA) in detail. Eligibility criteria and procedural requirements are discussed for a CDM project to be undertaken as a CDM PoA.Comparison of a standard CDM project to a CDM PoA, and project design documents involvedinCDMPoAarealsodiscussedprecisely. 53Programme of Activities (PoA)
  61. 61. 55Programme of Activities (PoA)
  62. 62. 56 Programme of Activities (PoA)
  63. 63. 57Programme of Activities (PoA)
  64. 64. 58 Programme of Activities (PoA)
  65. 65. 59Programme of Activities (PoA)
  66. 66. 60 Programme of Activities (PoA)
  67. 67. Diffusion of CDM in Pakistan 8 This section is focused on analyzing CDM activities in Pakistan. To assess the diffusion of CDM in Pakistan, a comparison of CDM project activities in Pakistan is made withtheCDMprojectactivitiesinneighbouringcountries. 61Diffusion of CDM in Pakistan
  68. 68. 63Diffusion of CDM in Pakistan
  69. 69. 64 Diffusion of CDM in Pakistan
  70. 70. 65Diffusion of CDM in Pakistan CDM Projects in China Fig. 5. CDM Projects in China
  71. 71. 66 Diffusion of CDM in Pakistan Fig. 6. CDM Projects in India CDM Projects in India
  72. 72. Table 10: Breakup of CDM Projects in Pakistan 67Diffusion of CDM in Pakistan Fig. 7. CDM Projects in Pakistan CDM Projects in Pakistan
  73. 73. 68 Diffusion of CDM in Pakistan
  74. 74. Overview of Potential CDM Opportunities for Industrial Sector in Pakistan 9 In this section, focus of the Guidebook completely diverts towards CDM which is the area of prime interest among other emission trading schemes. In this section a detailed description of the key players involved in the entire CDM cycle, such as Project Developers, CDM Consultants, CER buyers,DesignatedNationalAuthorities. Overview of Potential CDM Opportunities for Industrial Sector in Pakistan 69
  75. 75. Overview of Potential CDM Opportunities for Industrial Sector in Pakistan 71
  76. 76. 72 Overview of Potential CDM Opportunities for Industrial Sector in Pakistan
  77. 77. Overview of Potential CDM Opportunities for Industrial Sector in Pakistan 73
  78. 78. 74 Overview of Potential CDM Opportunities for Industrial Sector in Pakistan
  79. 79. Overview of Potential CDM Opportunities for Industrial Sector in Pakistan 75
  80. 80. Detailed CDM Potential Assessment for Pakistan: Cement, Sugar and Oil & Gas Sectors 10 A detailed CDM potential assessment for Pakistan in the cement, sugar, and oil & gas sectors is carried out in this sectionoftheGuidebook.Tobuildtheconceptofthereader, assessmentofeachsectorisstartedwithgeneralmeasuresin thesectorfollowedbyananalysisofregisteredCDMproject across the globe in that sector.The analysis comprises of 72 registered projects in the cement sector, 78 projects in the sugarsector,and24projectsintheoil&gassector. 77Detailed CDM Potential Assessment for Pakistan: Cement, Sugar and Oil & Gas Sectors
  81. 81. Detailed CDM Potential Assessment for Pakistan: Cement, Sugar and Oil & Gas Sectors 79
  82. 82. 80 Cement SectorAnalysis
  83. 83. Cement SectorAnalysis 81
  84. 84. 82 Cement SectorAnalysis
  85. 85. Cement SectorAnalysis 83
  86. 86. 84 Cement SectorAnalysis
  87. 87. Cement SectorAnalysis 85
  88. 88. 86 Cement SectorAnalysis
  89. 89. Cement SectorAnalysis 87
  90. 90. 88 Cement SectorAnalysis
  91. 91. Cement SectorAnalysis 89
  92. 92. 90 Cement SectorAnalysis
  93. 93. Cement SectorAnalysis 91
  94. 94. 92 Cement SectorAnalysis
  95. 95. Cement SectorAnalysis 93
  96. 96. 94 Cement SectorAnalysis
  97. 97. Sugar Sector Analysis 95
  98. 98. 96 Sugar Sector Analysis Potential of Individual Sugar Mills We have calculated the potential of export able power for each individual sugar mill for both the above scenarios on the basis of their actual operating capacities in the following tables. Table: Potential of Individual Sugar Mills
  99. 99. Sugar Sector Analysis 97 Table: Potential of Individual Sugar Mills
  100. 100. 98 Sugar Sector Analysis Table: Potential of Individual Sugar Mills Province wise exportable power Province wise summary of exportable power potential is given in the following table. From this table it can be seen that co-gen potential of the sugar industry ranges from 600 to 1150 MW. Calculation of CER Theoretically 1MW = 1Ton of CO2 But in case of Co-generation 1 MW Production by Biomass = 1 CER Calculation of CERs-2 According to UNFCCC 1MW Produced by Biomass = 1 MW Replaced from the Grid Pakistan's Grid Mix is MW = 0.465TCO / MW h2 Therefore: 1 MW Produced by Biomass = 0.465 CERs
  101. 101. Sugar Sector Analysis 99 Province wise exportable power Revenue Potential from CERs Revenue Potential from CERs CDM revenue in Scenario 1 is Rs 1.024 Billion which comes to Rs. 12.96 Million per Mill on the average. CDM revenue in Scenario 2 is Rs 0.549 Billion which comes to Rs. 7 Million per Mill on the average.
  102. 102. 100 Sugar Sector Analysis Demand Side Energy Saving Assumptions: Fiber % cane = 13.5, Baggasse % = 30 Cane Milling Sugar Processing Steam Generation Cane Milling Adoption of complete mill house automation Use of electric motors for cane cutters and fibrizer Use ofVFD at cane carriers, rake carriers Use of high efficiency planetary gear drive Use of anti-friction bearings at head and tail shafts of cane carrier and mill transmission gears Use of belt conveyor in place of chain and slat conveyor Sugar Processing Optimization of evaporator design to minimize exhaust steam needs and maximize vapor bleeding. Incorporation of direct contact heater or adding heaters for using low temp steam. Use of continuous pans for massecuite boiling. Use of efficient condensers. Recovery of flash heat from the condensates. Heating of air by condensate at sugar dryer. Boilers Automation of Boiler operation. Addition of economizer Use of baggasse dryer. Improving insulation /lagging of the boiler. Hear recovery from the blow downs. Effect of Energy Saving on Power Export/CERs
  103. 103. Sugar Sector Analysis 101
  104. 104. 102 Sugar Sector Analysis
  105. 105. Sugar Sector Analysis 103
  106. 106. 104 Sugar Sector Analysis
  107. 107. Sugar Sector Analysis 105
  108. 108. 106 Sugar Sector Analysis
  109. 109. Sugar Sector Analysis 107
  110. 110. 108 Sugar Sector Analysis
  111. 111. Sugar Sector Analysis 109
  112. 112. 110 Sugar Sector Analysis
  113. 113. Sugar Sector Analysis 111
  114. 114. 112 Sugar Sector Analysis
  115. 115. Sugar Sector Analysis 113
  116. 116. 114 Sugar Sector Analysis
  117. 117. Sugar Sector Analysis 115
  118. 118. 116 Oil and Gas Sector Analysis
  119. 119. Oil and Gas Sector Analysis 117
  120. 120. 118 Oil and Gas Sector Analysis
  121. 121. Oil and Gas Sector Analysis 119
  122. 122. 120 Oil and Gas Sector Analysis
  123. 123. Oil and Gas Sector Analysis 121
  124. 124. Pakistani Scenario: Current Status of CDM inTarget Sectors 11 This section analyses status of CDM projects in Pakistan within the targeted sectors (cement, sugar, oil & gas). Causes for low participation of Pakistani industrial sectors in CDM are critically analyzed and enumerated. Measures to boost CDM in Pakistani industrial sector are also proposed. 123Pakistani Scenario: Current Status of CDM inTarget Sectors
  125. 125. Pakistani Scenario: Current Status of CDM inTarget Sectors 125
  126. 126. 126 Pakistani Scenario: Current Status of CDM inTarget Sectors
  127. 127. Pakistani Scenario: Current Status of CDM inTarget Sectors 127
  128. 128. 128 Pakistani Scenario: Current Status of CDM inTarget Sectors
  129. 129. High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan 12 This section is designed to encourage the project proponents to undertake CDM projects. For this purpose, eleven success stories of CDM projects are depicted for the reader to gain the knowledge of objective, technology involved, and environmental benefits associated with the particularCDMproject. 129High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan
  130. 130. High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan 131
  131. 131. 132 High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan CDM Status: Registered Annual CERs: 1,050,000 t CO2 / yr
  132. 132. High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan 133 CDM Status: Registration Request Annual CERs: 23,319 t CO2 / yr
  133. 133. 134 High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan CDM Status: Completeness Check Annual CERs: 18,703 t CO2 / yr
  134. 134. High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan 135 CDM Status: Registered Annual CERs: 218,988 t CO2 / yr
  135. 135. 136 High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan CDM Status: Registered Annual CERs: 21,486 t CO2 / yr
  136. 136. High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan 137 CDM Status: Registered Annual CERs: 108,686 t CO2 / yr
  137. 137. 138 High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan CDM Status: Registered Annual CERs: 11,179 t CO2 / yr
  138. 138. High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan 139 CDM Status: Registered Annual CERs: 87,477 t CO2 / yr
  139. 139. 140 High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan CDM Status: Registered Annual CERs: 34,892 t CO2 / yr
  140. 140. High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan 141 CDM Status: Registered
  141. 141. 142 High Potential CDM Projects for the Industrial Sector in Pakistan CDM Status: Registered
  142. 142. CDMValues and Benefits for Pakistan 13 This section focuses on developing a consensus of CDM valuesandbenefitsforPakistan. 143CDMValues and Benefits for Pakistan
  143. 143. CDMValues and Benefits for Pakistan 145
  144. 144. 146 CDMValues and Benefits for Pakistan
  145. 145. CDM Project Risks 14 Certain risks are also associated with the Clean Development Mechanism e.g. registration, post- registration performance, counter-party, and marketing risks. These are briefly discussed in this section for the awareness of CDM project proponents. The section ends withsomeproposalsofmitigationmeasurestominimizethe CDMprojectrisks. 147CDM Project Risks
  146. 146. CDM Project Risks 149
  147. 147. 150 CDM Project Risks
  148. 148. CDM Project Risks 151
  149. 149. Appendices The Guidebook has 17 appendices which provide additional information to the reader. Each appendix is precisely referred wherever required. The appendices include, contact information of DNA,list of DOEs and CER buyers, project design document templates, case studies of CDM project in Pakistan,list of CDM consultants in Pakistan,and list of companies in the targeted sector of Pakistan. Finally, an analysis of the approved CDM methodologies for the targetedsectorsispresented. 153Appendices
  150. 150. 155Appendix-I: Contact Information of Pakistan DNA
  151. 151. 156 Appendix-II: List of Accredited Designated Operational Entities (DOEs)
  152. 152. Appendix-II: List of Accredited Designated Operational Entities (DOEs) 157
  153. 153. 158 Appendix-II: List of Accredited Designated Operational Entities (DOEs)
  154. 154. Appendix-II: List of Accredited Designated Operational Entities (DOEs) 159
  155. 155. 160 Appendix-III: List of CER Buyers All Over theWorld
  156. 156. Appendix-III: List of CER BuyersAll Over theWorld 161
  157. 157. 162 Appendix-III: List of CER Buyers All Over theWorld
  158. 158. Appendix-III: List of CER BuyersAll Over theWorld 163
  159. 159. 164 Appendix-III: List of CER Buyers All Over theWorld
  160. 160. Appendix-III: List of CER BuyersAll Over theWorld 165
  161. 161. 166 Appendix-III: List of CER Buyers All Over theWorld
  162. 162. Appendix-III: List of CER BuyersAll Over theWorld 167
  163. 163. 168 Appendix-III: List of CER Buyers All Over theWorld
  164. 164. Appendix-III: List of CER BuyersAll Over theWorld 169
  165. 165. 170 Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines
  166. 166. Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines 171
  167. 167. 172 Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines
  168. 168. Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines 173
  169. 169. 174 Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines
  170. 170. Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines 175
  171. 171. 176 Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines
  172. 172. Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines 177
  173. 173. 178 Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines
  174. 174. Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines 179
  175. 175. 180 Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines
  176. 176. Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines 181
  177. 177. 182 Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines
  178. 178. Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines 183
  179. 179. 184 Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines
  180. 180. Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines 185
  181. 181. 186 Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines
  182. 182. Appendix-IV: Large Scale CDM PDD ConsolidatedTemplate with Guidelines 187
  183. 183. 188 Appendix-V: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PDDTemplate
  184. 184. Appendix-V: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PDDTemplate 189
  185. 185. 190 Appendix-V: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PDDTemplate
  186. 186. Appendix-V: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PDDTemplate 191
  187. 187. 192 Appendix-V: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PDDTemplate
  188. 188. Appendix-V: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PDDTemplate 193
  189. 189. 194 Appendix-V: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PDDTemplate
  190. 190. Appendix-V: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PDDTemplate 195
  191. 191. 196 Appendix-V: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PDDTemplate
  192. 192. Appendix-V: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PDDTemplate 197
  193. 193. 198 Appendix-VI: Large Scale CDM-PoA-DDTemplate
  194. 194. Appendix-VI: Large Scale CDM-PoA-DDTemplate 199
  195. 195. 200 Appendix-VI: Large Scale CDM-PoA-DDTemplate
  196. 196. Appendix-VI: Large Scale CDM-PoA-DDTemplate 201
  197. 197. 202 Appendix-VI: Large Scale CDM-PoA-DDTemplate
  198. 198. Appendix-VI: Large Scale CDM-PoA-DDTemplate 203
  199. 199. 204 Appendix-VI: Large Scale CDM-PoA-DDTemplate
  200. 200. Appendix-VI: Large Scale CDM-PoA-DDTemplate 205
  201. 201. 206 Appendix-VI: Large Scale CDM-PoA-DDTemplate
  202. 202. Appendix-VI: Large Scale CDM-PoA-DDTemplate 207
  203. 203. 208 Appendix-VII: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PoA-DDTemplate
  204. 204. Appendix-VII: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PoA-DDTemplate 209
  205. 205. 210 Appendix-VII: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PoA-DDTemplate
  206. 206. Appendix-VII: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PoA-DDTemplate 211
  207. 207. 212 Appendix-VII: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PoA-DDTemplate
  208. 208. Appendix-VII: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PoA-DDTemplate 213
  209. 209. 214 Appendix-VII: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PoA-DDTemplate
  210. 210. Appendix-VII: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PoA-DDTemplate 215
  211. 211. 216 Appendix-VII: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PoA-DDTemplate
  212. 212. Appendix-VII: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PoA-DDTemplate 217
  213. 213. 218 Appendix-VII: Small Scale CDM-SSC-PoA-DDTemplate
  214. 214. Appendix-VIII: Large Scale CDM-CPA-DDTemplate 219
  215. 215. 220 Appendix-VIII: Large Scale CDM-CPA-DDTemplate
  216. 216. Appendix-VIII: Large Scale CDM-CPA-DDTemplate 221
  217. 217. 222 Appendix-VIII: Large Scale CDM-CPA-DDTemplate
  218. 218. Appendix-VIII: Large Scale CDM-CPA-DDTemplate 223
  219. 219. 224 Appendix-VIII: Large Scale CDM-CPA-DDTemplate
  220. 220. Appendix-VIII: Large Scale CDM-CPA-DDTemplate 225
  221. 221. 226 Appendix-VIII: Large Scale CDM-CPA-DDTemplate
  222. 222. Appendix-VIII: Large Scale CDM-CPA-DDTemplate 227
  223. 223. 228 Appendix-IX: Small Scale CDM-SSC-CPA-DDTemplate
  224. 224. Appendix-IX: Small Scale CDM-SSC-CPA-DDTemplate 229
  225. 225. 230 Appendix-IX: Small Scale CDM-SSC-CPA-DDTemplate
  226. 226. Appendix-IX: Small Scale CDM-SSC-CPA-DDTemplate 231
  227. 227. 232 Appendix-IX: Small Scale CDM-SSC-CPA-DDTemplate
  228. 228. Appendix-IX: Small Scale CDM-SSC-CPA-DDTemplate 233
  229. 229. 234 Appendix-IX: Small Scale CDM-SSC-CPA-DDTemplate
  230. 230. Appendix-X: List of CDM Consultants 235
  231. 231. 236 Appendix-X: List of CDM Consultants
  232. 232. Appendix-XI: Case Study 1- Simple Cost Analysis 237
  233. 233. 238 Appendix-XII: Case Study 2 – Investment ComparisonAnalysis
  234. 234. Appendix-XII: Case Study 2 – Investment ComparisonAnalysis 239
  235. 235. 240 Appendix-XII: Case Study 2 – Investment ComparisonAnalysis
  236. 236. Appendix-XII: Case Study 2 – Investment ComparisonAnalysis 241
  237. 237. 242 Appendix-XII: Case Study 2 – Investment ComparisonAnalysis
  238. 238. Appendix-XIII: Case Study 3 – Benchmark Analysis 243
  239. 239. 244 Appendix-XIII: Case Study 3 – Benchmark Analysis
  240. 240. Appendix-XIII: Case Study 3 – Benchmark Analysis 245
  241. 241. 246 Appendix-XIII: Case Study 3 – Benchmark Analysis
  242. 242. Appendix-XIV: Case Study 4 – Methodology Applicability Criteria 247
  243. 243. 248 Appendix-XIV: Case Study 4 – Methodology Applicability Criteria
  244. 244. Appendix-XIV: Case Study 4 – Methodology Applicability Criteria 249
  245. 245. 250 Appendix-XV: Case Study 5 – Emission Reduction Calculations
  246. 246. Appendix-XV: Case Study 5 – Emission Reduction Calculations 251
  247. 247. 252 Appendix-XVI: List of Companies in theTarget Sectors in Pakistan
  248. 248. Appendix-XVI: List of Companies in theTarget Sectors in Pakistan 253
  249. 249. 254 Appendix-XVI: List of Companies in theTarget Sectors in Pakistan
  250. 250. Appendix-XVI: List of Companies in theTarget Sectors in Pakistan 255
  251. 251. 256 Appendix-XVI: List of Companies in theTarget Sectors in Pakistan
  252. 252. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 257
  253. 253. 258 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  254. 254. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 259
  255. 255. 260 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  256. 256. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 261
  257. 257. 262 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  258. 258. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 263
  259. 259. 264 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  260. 260. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 265
  261. 261. 266 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  262. 262. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 267
  263. 263. 268 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  264. 264. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 269
  265. 265. 270 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  266. 266. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 271
  267. 267. 272 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  268. 268. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 273
  269. 269. 274 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  270. 270. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 275
  271. 271. 276 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  272. 272. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 277
  273. 273. 278 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  274. 274. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 279
  275. 275. 280 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  276. 276. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 281
  277. 277. 282 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  278. 278. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 283
  279. 279. 284 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  280. 280. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 285
  281. 281. 286 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  282. 282. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 287
  283. 283. 288 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  284. 284. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 289
  285. 285. 290 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  286. 286. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 291
  287. 287. 292 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  288. 288. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 293
  289. 289. 294 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  290. 290. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 295
  291. 291. 296 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  292. 292. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 297
  293. 293. 298 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  294. 294. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 299
  295. 295. 300 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  296. 296. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 301
  297. 297. 302 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  298. 298. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 303
  299. 299. 304 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  300. 300. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 305
  301. 301. 306 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  302. 302. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 307
  303. 303. 308 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  304. 304. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 309
  305. 305. 310 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  306. 306. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 311
  307. 307. 312 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  308. 308. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 313
  309. 309. 314 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  310. 310. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 315
  311. 311. 316 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  312. 312. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 317
  313. 313. 318 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  314. 314. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 319
  315. 315. 320 Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies
  316. 316. Appendix-XVII:Analysis of Methodologies 321

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