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Eia coal convying at PIBT Port Qasim by NESPAK

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Environmental impact Assessment of coal conveying system at PIBT Port Qasim by NESPAK
10 10-2016)

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Eia coal convying at PIBT Port Qasim by NESPAK

  1. 1. NATIONAL ENGINEERING SERVICES PAKISTAN (PVT.) LIMITED Consulting Engineers Draft 13th Floor, N.I.C.L Building, Abbasi Shaheed Road, Off: Shahra-e-Faisal, KARACHI-74400, Ph. No.+92-21-99090000, +92-21-99225277-84 Fax No. +92-21-35651994, +92-21-99225366, E-mail: nespakkh@gmail.com & Karachi@nespak.com.pk Website: www.nespak.com.pk
  2. 2. Table of Contents EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ToC - i July, 2016 Table of Contents Description Page Executive Summary 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Project Background …………………………………………………………………… 1-1 1.2 Scope of Study ………………………………………………………………………… 1-2 1.3 Study Objectives ………………………………………………………………............ 1-2 1.4 Need of EIA Study for the Proposed Project ……………………………………….. 1-3 1.5 The Proponent and Consultant ………………………………………………………. 1-4 1.6 Study Team ……………………………………………………………………………. 1-4 1.7 Study Approach & Methodology …………………………………………………….. 1-5 1.7.1 Study Approach ……………………………………………………………… 1-5 1.7.2 Methodology …………………………………………………………………. 1-5 1.8 Extent of the Study …………………………………………………………………… 1-8 1.9 Structure of the Report ………………………………………………………………. 1-9 2.0 Policy, Legal and Administrative Frameworks 2.0 General................................................................................................ 2-1 2.1 Legal Framework................................................................................................ 2-1 2.1.1 Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of IEE/EIA Regulations,2000............................................................................................... 2-1 2.1.2 Pakistan Environmental Assessment Procedure 1997......................... 2-1 2.1.3 Sindh Environmental Protection Act,2014............................................... 2-2 2.1.4 Sindh EPA Review of IEE/EIA Regulations,2014................................... 2-2 2.2 Sindh Environmental Quality Standards (SEQS), 2016.................................... 2-3 2.2.1 Air Quality Standards............................................................................ 2-4 2.2.2 Noise Quality Standards....................................................................... 2-4 2.2.3 Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Standards............................. 2-5 2.3 Other Relevant Laws………………………………………...................................... 2-7 2.4 Policy Framework................................................................................................ 2-12 2.4.1 National Environment Policy, 2005........................................................ 2-12 2.4.2 National Resettlement Policy, 2002....................................................... 2-12 2.4.3 National Power Policy, 2013.................................................................. 2-12 2.5 Administrative Framework.................................................................................. 2-13 2.5.1 Port Qasim Authority GoP…………………………….…………………… 2-13 2.5.2 Environmental Protection Agency, Sindh..................................... 2-13
  3. 3. Table of Contents EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ToC - ii July, 2016 3.0 Description of the Project 3.1 Rationale of the Project ……………………………………………………………. 3-1 3.2 Coal Handling Facilities at Port Qasim ……………………………………………. 3-2 3.3 Transport of Coal from PIBT to Coal Fired Power Plants ……………………….. 3-3 3.4 Coal conveying System from PIBT to Existing Railway network ………………. 3-5 3.5 Site Selection for coal Conveyor from PIBT to New Stockyard ………………… 3-9 3.6 Route Selection for coal Conveyor from PIBT to New Stockyard ……………… 3-12 3.7 Location of the Project …………………………………………............................. 3-14 3.8 Project Administrative Jurisdiction ………………………………………………… 3-15 3.9 Project Implementation Schedule………………………….................................. 3-15 3.10 Cost of the Project………………………............................................................ 3-15 3.11 Financing of the Project……………………….................................................... 3-15 3.12 Construction Materials ………………………………………………………………… 3-15 3.13 Construction Camps …………………………………………………………………… 3-15 3.14 Manpower Requirements ……………………………………………………………… 3-15 3.15 Construction Equipment ……………………………………………………………….. 3-16 4.0 Environmental Baseline Profile 4.1 Physical Environment ………………………………………………………………….. 4-1 4.1.1 Topography and Geography ………………………………………………… 4-1 4.1.2 Geology and Soil ……………………………………………………………… 4-1 4.1.3 Climate and Meteorology……………………………………………………… 4-2 4.1.4 Seismicity ……………………………………………………………………… 4-7 4.1.5 Water Resources and Drainage……………………………………………... 4-8 4.1.6 Creek system Hydraulics…….. ……………………………………………… 4-10 4.1.7 Ambient Air Quality …………………………………………………………... 4-10 4.1.8 Air dispersion Modeling of Particulate Matter……………………………… 4-12 4.1.9 Noise Level ……………………………………………………………………. 4-12 4.1.10 Drinking Water Quality………………………………………………………….4-13 4.2 Ecological Resources …………………………………………………………………. 4-17 4.2.1 Flora ……………………………………………………………………........... 4-17 4.2.2 Fauna …………………………………………………………………………. 4-19 4.2.3 Wet Lands ……………………………………………………………………. 4-19 4.2.4 Endangered Species………………………………………………………… 4-20 4.2.5 Wild life Sanctuaries and Game reserves……………………………....... 4-20 4.2.6 Critical Habitats……………………………………………………………… 4-20 4.3 Social Economic Structure……………………………………………………………. 4-20 4.3.1 Malir District ………………………………………………………………….. 4-20
  4. 4. Table of Contents EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ToC - iii July, 2016 4.3.2 Study Area …………………………………………………………………… 4-21 4.3.3 Political and administrative Setup ………………..………………………… 4-21 4.3.4 Data Source/Methodology …………………………………………………… 4-22 4.3.5 Characteristics of the Project Area…………………………………………. 4-22 4.4 Economic Conditions…………………………………………………………………. 4-26 4.5 Transportations………………………………………………………………………… 4-28 4.6 Health facilities………………………………………………………………………… 4-29 4.7 Educations…………………………………………………………………………….. 4-30 4.8 Socioeconomic Baseline Survey……………………………………………………. 4-32 4.8.1 Field Survey …………………………………………………………………. 4-32 4.8.2 Survey Results ……………………………………………………………… 4-33 5.0 Public Consultation 5.0 General…………………………………………………………………………………. 5-1 5.1 Consultation and Participation Process ……………………………………………. 5-1 5.2 Methods of Public Consultation........................................................................... 5-2 5.3 Identification of Stakeholders............................................................................... 5-2 5.4 Categories of Stakeholders Contacted................................................................ 5-2 5.5 Major Stakeholders and their Apprehensions...................................................... 5-3 5.6 Consultation Meetings and Formal and Informal Group Discussions................... 5-5 5.7 Concerns / Suggestions of the Stakeholders........................................................ 5-7 5.8 Mitigation Measures proposed by EIA Consultants for Addressing the Stakeholder’s Concerns.................................................................................... 5-8 5.9 Details of Meetings with the Stakeholders................................................... 5-9 6.0 Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures 6.0 General……………………………………………………………………………….. 6-1 6.1 Environmental Impact Matrix ............................................................................ 6-1 6.2 Anticipated Impacts during Pre-Construction/Design Phase....................... 6-4 6.2.1 Design and Layout Planning................................................................... 6-4 6.2.2 Topography.& Geology.............................................................................. 6-4 6.2.3 Land Acquisition and Resettlement........................................................ 6-4 6.2.4 Transportation and access..........................................................................6-5 6.2.5 Ecological Impacts.................................................................................. 6-5 6.2.6 Flora.................................................................................................... 6-5 6.2.7 Fauna.................................................................................................... 6-6 6.2.8 Marine Fauna and Flora............................................................................. 6-6 6.2.9 Air Quality and Noise.............................................................................. 6-7 6.2.10 Public Utilities......................................................................................... 6-7 6.2.11 Archaeological and Heritage sites............................................................. 6-7
  5. 5. Table of Contents EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ToC - iv July, 2016 6.2.12 Impact on Traffic..................................................................................... 6-8 6.2.13 Seismic Hazard...................................................................................... 6-8 6.3 Anticipated Impacts during Construction Phase........................................... 6-9 6.3.1 Soil.......................................................................................................... 6-9 6.3.2 Construction Camps/Camp Sites........................................................... 6-10 6.3.3 Health and Safety................................................................................... 6-13 6.3.4 Air Quality............................................................................................... 6-16 6.3.5 Noise& Vibrations................................................................................... 6-18 6.3.6 Waste (Construction Waste and Hazardous Waste) ...................... 6-20 6.3.7 Surface and Groundwater ...................................................................... 6-21 6.3.8 Biodiversity Conservation and Natural Resources.................................. 6-22 6.3.9 Disposal of Mucking Material.................................................................. 6-23 6.3.10 Disruption of Existing Public Utilities/ Infrastructure ............................... 6-23 6.3.11 Traffic Management................................................................................. 6-24 6.3.12 Economic Activity.................................................................................... 6-24 6.3.13 Lifestyle and Culture ............................................................................... 6-25 6.3.14 Impacts and Sensitive Receptors.......................................................... 6-25 6.3.15 Impacts of heavy vehicles on the existing road Network...................... 6-26 6.3.16 Physical and Cultural Resources............................................................... 6-26 6.3.17 Storage of fuel on Site............................................................... 6-26 6.4 Anticipated Impacts during Operational Phase .............................................. 6-27 6.4.1 Ecology.................................................................................................... 6-27 6.4.2 Wastewater collection and Treatment at Depot...................................... 6-28 6.4.3 Coal Dust................................................................................................ 6-28 6.4.4 Noise....................................................................................................... 6-32 6.4.5 Solid Waste............................................................................................. 6-32 6.4.6 Socioeconomic....................................................................................... 6-33 6.4.7 Improvement of Infrastructure Facilities...................................... 6-33 6.4.8 Wider Economic Growth........................................................................ 6-33 6.4.9 Better Rail Transportation................................................................ 6-33 6.4.10 Reduced Health Risk and Accidental Hazards................................... 6-33 6.4.11 Fire Hazards..................................................................... 6-34 6.4.11 Emergency Management..................................................................... 6-34 7.0 Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan 7.1 Environmental Management................................................................................. 7-1 7.2 Worker’s Health and Safety................................................................................. 7-2 7.3 Anticipated Impacts During Construction Phase................................................ 7-3 7.4 Environmental Monitoring .................................................................................... 7-15 7.4.1 Construction Phase................................................................................ 7-15
  6. 6. Table of Contents EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ToC - v July, 2016 7.4.2 Operational Phase .................................................................................. 7-16 7.4.3 Responsibilities for Monitoring and Reporting ........................................ 7-17 7.5 Plantation ............................................................................................................. 7-19 7.6 Environmental Technical Assistance and Training Plan....................................... 7-19 7.7 Environmental Monitoring, Mitigation and Training Cost ..................................... 7-20 8.0 Conclusion and Recommendations Annexure Annexure-I Sind Environmental Quality Standards SEQS Annexure-II Environmental Monitoring Results Annexure-III Noise Modelling & Methodology Annexure-IV Air dispersion Modeling of Particulate Matter Annexure-V Emergency Response Plan Annexure-VI Tree Plantation Plan Annexure-VI Attendance Sheet of Scoping Meeting
  7. 7. Table of Contents EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ToC - vi July, 2016 Table List of Tables Description 2.1 Ambient Air Quality Standards 2.2 Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Standards 2.3 SEQS for Drinking Water Quality 2.4 SEQS for municipal &Liquid Industrial Effluents (mg/l) 3.1 Machinery and Equipment Requirement for the Proposed Project 4.1 Meteorological Data (24-hr.) at NWIZ Water Pumping Station PQA 4.2 Meteorological Data (24-hr.) at Pharm Evo, PQA 4.3 Meteorological Data (24-hr.) at PIBT 4.4 Tide Levels at Port Qasim 4.5 Ambient Air Quality Test Results 4.6 Average values of noise levels 4.7 Groundwater Analysis of the Project Area 4.8 Area and Production Average Yield of Crops 1997-1998 4.9 Tree Species of the Project Area 4.10 Population and Intercensal Increase and Growth Rates since 1951 4.11 Percentage of Population by Religion 4.12 Percentage of Population by Mother Tongue and Rural/Urban Areas, 1998. 4.13 Life Time Migrants in the District by Rural/ Urban Areas, 1998 4.14 Percentage (%) of Population by Economic Categories, Gender and Rural/Urban Areas, 1998 4.15 Number of Schools and Enrollment of Students, 1997-98 4.16 Literacy Ratios by Sex and Rural/Urban Areas, 1981 & 1998 4.17 Gender Ratio of the Respondents 4.18 Age Composition of the Respondents 4.19 Marital Status of the Respondents 4.20 Caste / Ethnic of the Respondents 4.21 Mother Tongue of the Respondents 4.22 Qualification of the Respondents 4.23 Professional Status of the Respondents 4.24 Average Monthly Income of the Respondents 4.25 Average Monthly Expenditures of the Respondents 4.26 Family System of the Respondents 4.27 Average Household Size of Respondents
  8. 8. Table of Contents EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ToC - vii July, 2016 4.28 Ownership Status of the Houses 4.29 Nature of Construction of Houses 4.30 Availability of Utilities 4.31 Source of Water for Domestic Use 4.32 Satisfaction Level with Water Quality 4.33 Satisfaction Level with Industrial Development 4.34 Impact of Proposed Project on Employment of Workers 4.35 Nature of Impact of Project on Employment of Workers 4.36 Location of Proposed Project in High Population Density 4.37 Acquisition of Private Land 4.38 Awareness about the Proposed Project 4.39 Implementation of the Proposed Project 4.40 Perceived Impacts (During construction) 4.41 Perceived Impacts (after Construction) 4.42 Protective Measures 4.43 Pressing Needs of the Project Area 5.1 Stakeholders Contacted in the Project Area 5.2 Major Stakeholders and their Apprehensions in the Project Area 5.3 Schedule of Meetings with Stakeholders and their Concerns / Apprehensions 6.1 Environmental Impact Matrix for the Construction Phase 6.2 Environmental Impact Matrix for the Operational Phase 6.3 Summary of Impact of Work Camp & Mitigation Measures 6.4 Maximum Limits of Noise Levels 6.5 Damage Risk Criteria for Hearing Loss 6.6 List of industries located on the either side of the Conveyor Belt 7.1 Environmental Management Plan 7.2 Budget Estimate for Environmental Monitoring During the Construction and Operation Phases 7.3 Personnel Training Program/ Technical Assistance Services 7.4 Environmental Mitigation and monitoring Cost 7.5 Break-up for Health Safety & Environment cost List of Figure Figure Description 1.1 Study Area of the Proposed Project 3.1 Existing Coal handling Facility at Port Qasim 3.2 Material flow Diagram
  9. 9. Table of Contents EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ToC - viii July, 2016 3.3 Coal Stalk Yard near Railway Track/Sliding 3.4 Combine Stacker Reclaimer 3.5 Load out Station 3.6 Schematic Layout Plan 3.7 Convey System for Coal Stockyard to load out Station 3.8 Potential Sites for Coal Stockyard 3.9 Routes for Coal Conveying System 3.10 Location of the Project 4.1 Wind rose at NWIZ Water Pumping Station PQA 4.2 Wind rose at PharmEvo, PQA 4.3 Wind rose at PIBT 4.4 Seismic zoning map of Pakistan 4.5 Present Water Supply Zones of Karachi 4.6 Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in the Project Area 4.7 noise level measurement at the project site. 4.8 A General View of Water Sampling 4.9 Floral species present in the project area 4.10 The Map of Malir District 4.11 A view of Karachi International Airport 4.12 A view of Karachi Bin Qasim Port 4.13 A view of Malir City 4.14 A view of Pakistan Steel Mills 4.15 Age Composition of the Respondents 4.16 Marital Status of the Respondents 4.17 Caste/Ethnic Group of the Respondents 4.18 Mother Tongue of the Respondents 4.19 Qualification of the Respondents 4.20 Professional Status of the Respondents 4.21 Average Monthly Income of Respondents 4.22 Average Monthly Expenditures of Respondents 4.22 Family System of the Respondents 4.23 Average Household Size of Respondents 4.24 Ownership Status of the Houses 4.25 Nature of Construction of House 4.26 Availability of utilities for Respondents 4.27 Source of Water for Domestic Use 4.28 Satisfaction Level with Water Quality
  10. 10. Table of Contents EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ToC - ix July, 2016 4.29 Satisfaction Level with existing with Industrial Development 4.30 Impact of Proposed Project on Employment of Workers 4.31 Nature of the impacts proposed by the Respondents 4.32 Location of Proposed Project 4.33 Acquisition of Private Land 4.34 Awareness about the Proposed Project 4.35 Implementation of Proposed Project 4.36 Impacts Perceived by Respondents 4.37 Impacts Perceived by Respondents 4.38 Protective Measures Suggested by Respondents 4.39 Pressing Needs of the Project Area 5.1 Interviews and group discussions with stakeholders
  11. 11. Acronyms EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK 1 July, 2016 ACRONYMS AASHTO : American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials BOD : Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand BDL : Below Detection Limit BWSR : Combine Bucket with Stake Reclaimer O C : Degree Centigrade CCS : Coal Conveying System CC : Construction Contractor CO : Carbon Monoxide COD : Chemical Oxygen Demand dBA : Decibel DC : Design Consultant DNL : Day-night level EC : Environmental Committee EIA : Environmental Impact Assessment EMMP : Environmental Monitoring & Management Plan EMT : Emergency Response Group EPA : Environmental Protection Agency EPD : Environmental Protection Department ERP : Emergency Response Plans FGDs : Focused Group Discussions GoP : Government of Pakistan GoS : Government of Sindh HSE : Health Safety and Environment Km : Kilometer KW&SB : Karachi Water & Sewage Board KESC : Karachi Electric Supply Corporation KMC : Karachi Metropolitan Corporation MGD : Million Gallons per Day mg/L : Milligram per Liter MSL : Mean Sea Level NWIZ : North West Industrial Zone NCS : National Conservation Strategy NEQS : National Environmental Quality Standards NEP : National Environmental Policy NESPAK : National Engineering Services Pakistan (Pvt.) Limited NGO : Non-Government Organization NOC : No Objection Certificate
  12. 12. Acronyms EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK 2 July, 2016 NRP : National Resettlement Policy ND : Not Defined PEPA : Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency PNCS : Pakistan National Conservation Strategy PM : Particulate Matter PPC : Pakistan Penal Code PHED : Public Health Engineering Department PMU : Project Management Unit ppm : Parts per million PIBT : Pakistan International Bulk Terminal PQA : Port Qasim Authority RAP : Resettlement Action Plan ROW : Right of Way RP : Resettlement Plan SEPA : Sindh Environmental Protection Agency SEL : SUPARCO Environmental Lab SPT : Standard Penetration Test STP : Sewage Treatment Plant SOx : Sulfur Oxides SC : Supervision Consultant SUPARCO : Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission SWM : Solid Waste Management SBCA : Sindh Building Control Authority SSGC : Sui Southern Gas Company SEQS : Sindh Environmental Quality Standards TA : Technical Assistance TOR : Terms of Reference TDS : Total Dissolved Solids TSS : Total Suspended Solids USEPA : United States Environmental Protection Agency WHO : World Health Organization
  13. 13. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-i July, 2016 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A) PROJECT BACKGROUND Electricity is considered to be most essential instrument for the socio-economic development of a country. According to the “Annual Plan 2015-16” Pakistan continues to suffer from the power crisis as nearly one-third of demand for electricity, during the last year, could not be met due to the supply constraints. On average, the supply deficit of around 5,000 Megawatt (MW) was experienced, while it touched the peak of over 7,000 MW last July. And Pakistan’s existing primary energy supplies are highly skewed towards more expensive fuels like oil and gas instead of indigenous hydro and coal. Out of 67 Million Tons of Oil Equivalent (MTOE) of total primary energy mix for 2013-14, 46.4 per cent share is of natural gas, 35 per cent oil, 11.4 per cent hydro, 5.4 per cent coal and two per cent nuclear, including imported energy. Disproportionate reliance on the imported oil, that is, 85 per cent of the total oil supply, is exerting a strain on the balance of payments besides making the energy mix unfavorable. To reduce the current deficit in the power supply in the country GoP has implemented the “National Power Policy 2013” in the power sector. Most of the upcoming coal fired power plants are being planned on imported coal coming from South Africa, Indonesia or Australia. Imported coal arriving at Port Qasim will be off loaded at Pakistan International Bulk Terminal (PIBT) from where it will be transported to the coal fired power plants situated in various parts of country. The under construction PIBT, a private sector BOT project for handling coal, clinker and cement is expected to start operations by December 2016. PIBT has been planned for handling the import of coal and export of cement and clinker. The initial handling capacity of PIBT is 8 million tonnes under its Phase-I and Phase-II. The capacity will be enhanced to 12 million tones under Phase-III. There are essentially two (02) modes of transport that are envisaged from PIBT to the power plants. a) By road, using trucks: This is seen to be practical mainly for local power plants situated closer to Port Qasim as the large number of trucks required to transport coal to plants located in
  14. 14. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-ii July, 2016 other parts of the country would significantly increase truck traffic in the port area as well as the highway network adding to congestion on the roads, increasing the chances of accidents and having an adverse impact on the environment. b) By Rail, using wagons: This is considered to be a safe and efficient method of bulk coal transportation over long distances and is suitable for supply to power plants in other parts of the country. The main railway tracks are located on northern side of Port Qasim in North-West Industrial Zone (NWIZ). Two tracks links Karachi to other parts of the country. These tracks are also being used for freight trains as reported by Pakistan Railways (PR). A single track exists on west of NWIZ which connects Port Qasim Marginal Wharf Berths to Pipri Marshalling Yard and is connected onward with the main railway lines. Pakistan Railways track in NWIZ of Port Qasim is 5.0 KM away from PIBT. A transportation link is needed between PIBT and existing railway track in NWIZ of Port Qasim. To meet this requirement the Government of Pakistan (GoP) decided to connect PIBT with existing railway network at Port Qasim with a bulk conveyor. GoP has directed PQA to develop the connectivity of PIBT with existing railway network by laying a coal conveying system. The project is to be undertaken on Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) basis and is required to be completed on priority basis to meet the demand of coal at power plants. The transport of coal through train shall initially reduce the gap between electric power demand and supply, which will give boost to the economy by way of employment and increase in the GDP growth. Additional employment will be generated at the project and power plants and the use of additional power will create employment in various industries. The project is expected to be environmentally in conformity with national environmental laws. The alternative to the conveyor system would be transport of coal, from PIBT to railway yard, by trucks. This mode of transportation would be inefficient, slow,
  15. 15. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-iii July, 2016 unsafe, will cause pollution and road traffic congestion at port. Presently, there is no connection between PIBT & existing railway network at Port Qasim and hence, this link needs to be constructed. Pakistan Railways has informed that the railway network cannot be extended to PIBT due to the steep gradient and interface issues with the main line. Therefore; connection between PIBT and existing railway network is required. GoP has decided that this connectivity shall be through conveyor. The coal conveyor is to be installed from PIBT to the existing Pakistan Railway Network measuring approximately 4.5 km. The Cabinet Committee in its meeting on 16th September, 2015 decided that Port Qasim Authority (PQA) shall take up the installation of conveying system from PIBT to existing Railway Network at Port Qasim Working Mechanism: As per the conceived scheme, PIBT will unload the coal at its jetty and stock at its backup area for the power plants and other consumers located in the vicinity of Port Qasim. For the power plants and other consumers (if any) located upcountry the PIBT will unload the vessel/ship at its jetty and load at PQA coal conveying system for transportation of coal through Pakistan railway. Transportation of coal from the coal loading area in Port Qasim to various power plants in the country shall be performed by Pakistan Railways. PQA’s coal conveyor will transport the coal to a coal stockyard near existing railway track. The stockyard will be equipped with combined Bucket Wheel Stacker Reclaimer (BWSR) coal stacking/reclaiming equipment. Coal will be stacked in stock piles where approximately 440,000 tonnes of coal can be stored. Reclaiming of coal from stockyard will be performed by the BWSR and coal will be loaded on a coal conveyor for transportation to the load out station located at the railway track for loading on railway wagons. The arrangement for coal stacking, reclaiming and maintaining live and dead storage at the power plant shall be made by the respective power plants. Project Description From PIBT to railway siding and loading of coal onto railway wagons for onward transportation to the proposed coal fired power plants. The project is being taken
  16. 16. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-iv July, 2016 up on the directive of the Prime Minister’s Office as per the decision of Cabinet Committee on energy . The Coal Conveying System from PIBT to existing Railway Network at Port Qasim shall be carried out as per the approved development scheme and be executed in a manner that will not obstruct the normal port activities. Scheme of coal conveying and development is as follows: Take up of coal outside PIBT Terminal’s premises onto the PQA coal conveyor and transfer coal through conveyor to PQA’s coal stockyard located near the existing railway track. Storage of coal in stockpiles by utilizing BWSR in PQA’s stockyard and loading of coal from stockpiles to belt conveyor via BWSR for onward transportation up to load out station at railway track. • Provision of railway loop / siding for coal loading into railway wagons; • Rapid loading of coal in railway wagons through a load-out station; • Provision of infrastructure facilities i.e. road, drainage, water supply, storm water firefighting and sewerage system; • Provision of water sprinkling system to control coal dust at coal stockyard; • Provision of wind breaker and coal dust suppression wall around the coal stockpiles; • Provision of security and surveillance systems including emergency power backup; • Provision of electric power supply (approx.4.5 MW) for the project during construction and operation; • Provision of telecommunication connection from existing network; and • Acquisition of 200 acres of land adjacent to existing railway track on east of PQA NWIZ in Pakistan Steel Mill Area and necessary ROW required for conveyor. The coal dust suppression system will be designed during detail design stage. The following is a general description of the system. Coal dust from coal stockpile and coal conveyor belt is the major source of fugitive emissions. Dust suppression using the covers over coal conveyor belt, inbuilt dust control systems in transfer stations and rapid load-out station, wind breaker wall, dust suppression wall and water sprinkler system at coal stockyard will be primarily employed to control the coal dust from these areas.
  17. 17. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-v July, 2016 PQA Coal Conveyor Belt and Coal Stockyard: Different potential routes for coal conveyor belt and sites for coal stockyard were studied to develop a conveyor belt and coal stockyard. PQA Coal Conveyor Belt Four (04) routes for the provision of Coal Conveyor Belt were studied by considering the following factors to identify the most feasible route of coal transportation from PIBT to PQA coal stockyard. The routes studied are shown in figure 3.9 and described in detail in section 3.6.2 of this report. a) Location of first coal transfer station near PIBT (starting point); b) Location of PQA coal stockyard and load-out station (end point); c) Minimum changes in the existing natural environment; d) Relocation of existing utilities; e) Topography of the area; f) Geotechnical conditions; g) Availability of R.O.W; h) Physical features and impediments along the route; i) Turning points along the route; and j) Access roads for the inspection and maintenance of conveyor belt. PQA Coal Stockyard Different four (04) potential sites as shown in figure 3.8 and discussed in detail in section 3.5.2 have been studied by considering the following site selection criteria for the development of PQA coal stockyard from where the coal can be conveyed to a rapid load-out station for loading railway wagons. a) Availability of adequate parcel of land along the existing railway track; b) Minimum changes in the existing natural environment ; c) Access to site; d) Relocation of any existing utilities; e) Proximity to rapid load-out station; f) Suitability of land with respect to topographic and sub-soil conditions; and g) Capital and O & M cost of conveying system. B) NEED FOR EIA STUDY An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Study has been conducted for construction of COAL CONVEYING SYSTEM as a mandatory requirement of
  18. 18. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-vi July, 2016 Sindh Environmental Protection Act (SEPA), 2014, Environmental Examination and Assessments Part VI 17. (1). The Project Proponent, Port Qasim Authority, (PQA), Government of Pakistan (GoP), entrusted National Engineering Services Pakistan Private Limited (NESPAK) to fulfill this regulatory requirement of the project. C) SCOPE OF STUDY The scope of EIA Study includes Environmental Assessment of the project including collection of data related to physical, biological and socio-economic environment, assessment of impacts which may be caused by the project activities and mitigation measures for the abatement of potential environmental impacts along with the estimated budgeted cost of mitigation. This study has been conducted in accordance with the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and Government of Sindh (GoS) Guidelines. The study is based on both primary and secondary data and information. Discussions were held with stakeholders including, different government department, utility service providers, community representatives and a wide range of road users and roadside dwellers. D) STUDY AREA Figure 1.1 shows the visual examination of Study Area and includes about 500 m buffer area on either side from the centerline of the median of selected route for coal conveyor belt and around the PQA coal stockyard. E) RELEVENT LEGISLATIONS AND POLICIES The 18th amendment in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan has fundamentally altered the division of legislative powers between the National Assembly and the Provincial Assemblies, resulting in a significant increase in the extent of provincial autonomy. After this amendment, powers for the grant of No Objection Certificate (NOC) have been delegated to the provincial EPAs. For this project, Sindh EPA is the concerned authority. In compliance with the regulatory requirement and commitment of Port Qasim Authority (PQA) to sustainable development, this EIA Study has been conducted. The EIA study has extensively considered all the relevant national and provincial legislations, regulations and guidelines related to the project.
  19. 19. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-vii July, 2016 F) PROJECT DESCRIPTION The estimated capital cost of the infrastructure development is approximately Rs. 16.0 billion. G) DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT The baseline information was collected for the Study Area utilizing the checklists, preforms, Satellite Imagery from Google Earth, and General Topographic (GT) sheets. Meetings and scoping sessions with all the concerned project stakeholders were carried out for the collection of primary information, disclosure of Project interventions, information and to clear queries about the Project. The Study Area was marked using the GT sheets and Google Earth Image during desk studies which was later finalized during the field visit. Physical Environment The physical environment includes topography, regional geology, soils, climate, hydrology, drainage, seismology, surface water, groundwater, noise levels and ambient air quality. Port Qasim is located, adjacent to the Bin Qasim town, in the southern part of Malir district, Karachi division, in Sindh. It is located in an old channel of the Indus River at a distance of 35 kilometers east of Karachi city center. The geographic position of the Port Qasim places it in close proximity to major shipping routes. The approach to the port is along a 45-kilometre long Navigation Channel which provides safe navigation for vessels up to 75,000 tones dead weight (DWT). The information, as per Geologic Survey of Pakistan, reveals that in the project area and its adjoining areas only the middle and upper tertiary formations are present. The formation found in the area is fresh and slightly weathered, recent and sub recent shoreline deposits. These deposits are derived from Gaj / Manchhar formations of lower Miocene to Middle Miocene / Upper Miocene to Pliocene age. Similar deposits are found all along the coastal belt of Karachi and adjoining areas. The seabed is predominantly sand and silt while the sediment of the delta is fine grained and resembles the soil from the continental shelf at the mouth of the Indus delta. Due to proximity to the sea, the city of Karachi has little variation in average maximum and minimum temperatures. The average annual temperatures during summer are 26o C to 35o C (up to 42o C in May/June), whereas temperature ranges between 10o C
  20. 20. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-viii July, 2016 to 27o C during winter. Day and night temperature also varies considerably as the sea breeze in the afternoon rapidly decreases day time temperatures. Seismicity Sindh Building Control Authority (SBCA) has placed Karachi in Zone-2 B based on the actual events, the past observations of fault movement and other geological activities. Karachi is situated in a region where moderate earthquakes may occur of magnitude 5.0 to 6.0 equivalents to intensity between VII and VIII on Modified Mercallis Scale (M). As per the building code of Pakistan, Seismic Provisions 2007, the project area falls in Zone 2B Seismic Zoning Map of Pakistan (Figure 4.1). The project structures should therefore be designed to cater for the ground acceleration of 0.16 g to 0.24 g. Environmental Monitoring To establish the baseline of the project area, air, noise, drinking and ground water monitoring was carried out near project site. The results of ambient air monitoring, noise quality, drinking and ground water quality indicates that all parameters are well within the permissible limits of NEQS. Ecological Environment The climate of Malir District is arid and it is densely populated with wide variety of vegetation in the form of natural foliage consisting diversity bushes, shrubs, trees including agricultural products such as crops, vegetables and fruits. Flora: The floral species located in the project area are very few mainly the xerophytic. Shrubs/weeds were observed grown in the project area. The footings for coal conveyor belt will be installed/erected in the existing green belt located in the median of the road where about twelve (12) numbers of trees would be affected. These trees are poplar, neem, molsary and kikar. Fauna: In near past, Deer (Gazella benetti) Wolf (Canis lupus pellipes), Jackals (Canis aureus) and Fox (Vulpes bengalenis) were found in abundance. Now days, these wild animals can be seen only in the center of wild life development. Among birds Indian Grey partridge, Chest-Nut-Bellied Sand Grouse, Rock Dove, Indian Little Button Guail and Eurasian Roller are found in Malir District.
  21. 21. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-ix July, 2016 Socio-economic Environment According to District Census Report (DCR) of Malir, 1998, the total area is 2268 Sq. kilometer yielding a population density of 432.7 in 1998. The population of Malir district was 981.41 thousand in 1998 as compared to 429.57 thousands in 1981. The annual growth rate measured 4.98% during the 1981-1998. A social survey was carried out in the project area to identify the impacts and their magnitudes on the affected population. A sample of 100 respondents was taken on the basis of random sampling technique, which included residents, Government Officials and visitors etc. SCREENING OF POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES The project is linked with resolving the energy crisis by providing cheap base electric power in quantum enough to let the various economic sectors to operate at optimum capacity utilization and ability to make investment decisions with the knowledge that cheaper base and reliable electric power shall be available. Provision of power in adequate quantum will enhance capacity utilization, promote higher employment, higher tax collection and a virtuous development cycle will be started. The potential impacts due to implementation of the proposed Project on physical, ecological and socio-economic domains of the environment of the Project as well as the Study Area have been identified. The important and major impacts and respective mitigation measures are as follows: Construction Stage During construction of Coal Conveying System, proper mitigation measures are necessary. During the field survey, significant efforts were made to identify the main social, cultural and environmental issues related to the project for which a cross section of the society including residents of the project area, various government departments and agencies were contacted for obtaining the information. Most of the perceived impacts are during construction phase. Following is a list of main concerns identified in the study: • Disturbance to the public movement during construction; • Air and noise pollution due to the different construction activities and operation of construction machinery during construction phase of the project;
  22. 22. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-x July, 2016 • Solid waste generation during construction; • Accidental leaks/spills of hazardous chemicals from construction activities and machinery; • Health and safety issues of the workers; • Contamination of water body by construction activities; and • Disturbance in traffic movement during excavation and lying of utility pipe in relocation of public utilities. Operational Stage Recommended mitigation measures to contain potential adverse impacts are described in the Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan (EMMP). EMMP shall be strictly enforced during the operational phase of the proposed Project. H) ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN The main objective of the Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan is to ensure that all the necessary corrective actions are carried out to mitigate any adverse environmental impacts, and that enhancement measures are used wherever feasible and practical. This program includes Institutional Requirements; Environmental Monitoring Program; Tree Plantation Plan; Training and Capacity Building; Reporting Structure and Outcomes; Environmental Management and Monitoring Cost. To implement and monitor the mitigation measures, following organizations will be involved: • Port Qasim Authority (PQA) as the Proponent; • NESPAK as the Consultant of the Project (Infrastructures Development only) • Project Contractor, as the executor of the project; • EPA-Sindh, as observer and top monitoring agency during the construction and operations stage. The Project Proponent will be responsible for ensuring the overall implementation of EMMP during the construction and operation stages of the project. Environmental Monitoring is recommended during the construction and operational phases to ensure the effectiveness of the proposed mitigation measures.
  23. 23. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-xi July, 2016 I) CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS After the assessment of proposed project activities and investigation of the project area, Screening of potential impacts reveals that the proposed CCS on adoption of the suggested mitigation measures is an environmentally acceptable proposition. It is suggested that in order to improve the disturbed ecology of the project site, a landscape and plantation plan should be prepared and implemented by utilizing available resources. It is envisaged that the commitment of the PQA to maintain the quality of the environment within and adjacent to project area through implementation of the environmental management plan would mitigate any adverse impacts. For effective environmental management, PQA should assign the necessary responsibilities to an Environmental Committee (EC) which should be responsible for implementation of the Environmental Monitoring of the proposed project. It is concluded that the proposed project will not result in any significant negative impact to the community or the environment during construction and subsequent operation phase. The mitigation measures are being proposed to control noise emission, wastes and dust during construction and operation stage of the project. It will be ensured that the project will comply with all the regulatory requirements, guidelines and safety standards are followed and that the recommended environmental mitigation measures as discussed in this report are adopted. It is envisaged that the commitment of Port Qasim Authority (PQA) to maintain the quality of environment within and adjacent to the project area through implementation of the EMMP would mitigate any adverse impacts. For effective environmental management, Port Qasim Authority (PQA) should assign the necessary responsibilities to an Environmental Committee which should be responsible for implementation of the Environmental Management and Monitoring of the proposed project. The implementation of Coal Conveying System (CCS) will provide; • CCS includes features like inbuilt dust control in transfer stations, covered coal conveyor, mechanized loading unloading features, dust suppression and complete firefighting arrangements at coal stockyard, and rapid load-out station for loading the train, all day service spans, and more frequent service than truck
  24. 24. Executive Summary EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK ES-xii July, 2016 transport; • The use of exclusive trains, flexibility and lower-cost of transportation by train allows it to provide cost effective, environment friendly, safe, swift, and greater reliability of fuel for power plants; • Reliable supply of fuel ensures the reliable power generation and supply; • Improved tax / fare collection; • The total capacity of a single train is 2400 tonnes; • The greater frequency and larger quantities of coal transport through train will reduce traffic on highways; • Contributes to reductions in traffic crashes; • Reduced traffic load noise & air pollution; and • Reduced maintenance of roads. Some recommendations those need to be followed for the project to make the project sustainable are: • The Project impacts and their mitigation will be monitored as per the Monitoring Plan; • All mitigation, compensation and enhancement measures proposed in this EIA report are implemented in full, as described in the document; • To ensure that the environmental impacts of the project are successfully mitigated; • The Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan must be implemented; and • The Implementing Agency (PQA) shall ensure that the EMMP prepared by the contractor includes construction methodologies and submit this to PQA for review and approval. At the implementation stage, PQA assisted by Supervision Consultants (SC) will make arrangements to monitor the implementation of mitigation measures and conduct environmental effects monitoring activities specified in the EMMP. With these measures in place, environmental impacts of the Project should be manageable and will not result in any residual impacts on the project.
  25. 25. Section–1 Introduction EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ NESPAK Page 1-1 July, 2016 SECTION–1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 NEED OF THE PROJECT Pakistan continues to suffer from the power crisis as nearly one-third of demand for electricity, during the last year, could not be met due to the supply constraints. On average, the supply deficit of around 5,000 Megawatt (MW) was experienced, while it touched the peak of over 7,000 MW last July1 . Pakistan’s existing primary energy supplies are highly skewed towards more expensive fuels like oil and gas instead of indigenous hydro and coal. Out of 67 Million Tons of Oil Equivalent (MTOE) of total primary energy mix for 2013-14, 46.4 per cent share is of natural gas, 35 per cent oil, 11.4 per cent hydro, 5.4 per cent coal and two per cent nuclear, including imported energy. Disproportionate reliance on the imported oil, that is, 85 per cent of the total oil supply, is exerting a strain on the balance of payments besides making the energy mix unfavorable1 . Highly expensive generation of electricity (~Rs 12 / unit) due to an increased dependence on expensive thermal fuel sources (44% of total generation). RFO, HSD, and mixed are the biggest sources of thermal electricity generation in Pakistan and range in price from ~Rs 12 / unit for mixed, to ~Rs 17 / unit for RFO, and a tremendously expensive ~Rs 23 / unit for HSD. Dependence on such expensive fuel sources has forced Pakistan to create electricity at rates that are not affordable to the nation and its populace2 . To reduce the current deficit in the power supply in the country GOP has implemented the “National Power Policy 2013” in the power sector. The main feature of the policy is to use coal as a lower cost energy source. As a result of policy the number of coal fired power plant projects are being undertaken including Sahiwal, Jamshoro and Lakhra. 1- Annual Plan 2015-16 2- National Power Policy 2013
  26. 26. Section–1 Introduction EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ NESPAK Page 1-2 July, 2016 Coal, as a fuel for power generation, has very low usage in Pakistan and the infrastructure required for the handling and transportation of bulk coal cargo does not exist. However, with the new up-coming coal based power projects, the provision of necessary infrastructure has become an urgent need. Imported coal arriving at Port Qasim will be off loaded at Pakistan International Bulk Terminal (PIBT) from where it will be transported to the coal fired power plants situated in various parts of the country. The under construction PIBT, a private sector BOT project for handling coal, clinker and cement is expected to start operations by December 2016. PIBT has been planned for the import of coal and export of cement and clinker. The initial handling capacity of PIBT is 8 million tonnes under Phase I & II, which will be enhanced to 12 million tonnes under Phase III. Transportation of coal from PIBT, Karachi to the coal power plants located in the vicinity of Karachi / nearby areas will be by trucks but this mode of transport is unsuitable for plants located in other parts of the country. Therefore, for plants located at Jamshoro, Lakhra, Muzaffargarh, Sahiwal, etc., coal transport is foreseen by railway. Presently, there is no connection between PIBT & existing railway network at Port Qasim and hence, this link needs to be constructed. The project is to become part of the existing infrastructure at Port Qasim. Pakistan Railways has informed that the railway network cannot be extended to PIBT due to the steep gradient and interface issues with the main line hence; a coal conveying system is to be installed from PIBT to the Pakistan Railways Network measuring approximately 4.5km by Port Qasim Authority (PQA). The proposed project "Coal Conveying System from PIBT to existing railway network at Port Qasim” will provide an important link in the establishment of a coal transportation infrastructure. The project derives its need from being an integral part of imported coal based power projects. Port Qasim Authority (PQA), GoP entrusted National Engineering Services Pakistan (NESPAK) with the assignment of carrying out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Study of Coal Conveying System from PIBT to existing railway network at Port Qasim.
  27. 27. Section–1 Introduction EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ NESPAK Page 1-3 July, 2016 1.2 SCOPE OF STUDY The scope of EIA Study aims at collection and scrutiny of data related to biophysical and socio-economic environment of the project area and to prepare the baseline environmental profile. It also aims at the identification, prediction and evaluation of the possible environmental impacts of the proposed project on its immediate surroundings on both short and long-term basis. Based on the nature and levels of these impacts, appropriate mitigation measures along with their cost have been incorporated in this EIA Report. 1.3 STUDY OBJECTIVES The overall objective of EIA is to assess the environmental impacts arising from the project. The specific objectives of the EIA Study for Coal Conveying System (CCS) from PIBT to Railway Network at Port Qasim are:  Collection of data related to physical, biological and socio-economic environments of the project area and to prepare baseline environmental profile;  Identification, prediction and evaluation of environmental impacts of the proposed project;  Suggesting appropriate mitigation measures to minimize the adverse impacts; and  Preparation of an Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan. 1.4 NEED FOR EIA STUDY OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT EIA is mandatory according to Sindh Environmental Protection Act, (SEPA), 2014, Environmental Examination and Assessments Part VI 17. (1), which states that: “No proponent of a project shall commence construction or operation unless he has filed with the Provincial Agency an initial environmental examination or, where the project is likely to cause an adverse environmental effect, an environmental impact assessment, and has obtained from the Provincial Agency approval in respect thereof.” According to the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (Review of Initial Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment) Regulations, 2014, the proposed project falls under category J (Other Projects) of Schedule II, which requires EIA before commencement of construction.
  28. 28. Section–1 Introduction EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ NESPAK Page 1-4 July, 2016 1.5 THE PROPONENT AND CONSULTANT The proponent of the project is Port Qasim Authority (PQA) while the Consultant is NESPAK. The details are given as under: For the Proponent Director General Port Qasim Authority Bin Qasim, Karachi-75530, Pakistan Telephone : 021-99272111-30 Facsimile : 021-34730107 Email : sak_moro@yahoo.com For the Consultant Project Manager National Engineering Services Pakistan Private Limited (NESPAK) 13th Floor, NICL Building, Abbasi Shaheed Road, Karachi Telephone : 021-35657140 Facsimile : 021-35651994 Email : nespakkh@gmail.com 1.6 STUDY TEAM A multidisciplinary team was formulated to conduct the study. The team comprises of the following persons: Syed Munawwar Abbas Mukesk Kumar Riazul Huda Ainuddin Syed Ali Sher Shah Hammad Qamar Saeed Hussain Adeel Pervez Sanober Zubair Shariq Ullah Khan Zahir uddin Khan Project Manager Project Coordinator/Senior Engineer Project Adviser (Civil) Project Adviser (Mechanical) Team Leader / Environmental Engineer Environmental Engineer Sociologist Environmentalist/Ecologist Environmental Engineer Sociologist Senior Civil Surveyor
  29. 29. Section–1 Introduction EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ NESPAK Page 1-5 July, 2016 1.7 STUDY APPROACH & METHODOLOGY 1.7.1 Study Approach This study has been conducted in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Government of Pakistan (GoP) Guidelines, 2000. The study is based on both primary and secondary data and information. Discussions were held with stakeholders including government officials, nearest community representatives and -factory owners and employees. The main purpose of this approach was to obtain a fair impression of the people’s perceptions of the project and its environmental impacts. 1.7.2 Methodology The following methodology was adopted for carrying out the EIA study of the proposed Project: a) Orientation Meetings and discussions were held among the members of the EIA Team. This activity was aimed at achieving a common ground of understanding of various issues of the study. b) Planning for Data Collection Subsequent to the concept clarification and understanding obtained in the preceding step, a detailed data acquisition plan was developed for the internal use of the EIA Team. The plan included identification of specific data requirements and their sources; determined time schedules and responsibilities for their collection; and indicated the logistics and other supporting needs for the execution of the data acquisition plan. c) Data Collection In this step, primary and secondary data were collected through field observations, environmental monitoring in the field, concerned departments and published materials to establish a baseline profile for physical, biological and socio-economic environmental conditions. Following steps were followed to collect the primary and secondary data related to this study: - Site Reconnaissance - Analysis of Maps and Plans - Literature Review
  30. 30. Section–1 Introduction EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ NESPAK Page 1-6 July, 2016 - Desk Research - Public Consultations - Field Observations & Studies - Environmental Monitoring and Laboratory Analysis The data was collected for physical, biological and socio-economic conditions, the details of which are given below: i. Physical Environment Information was gathered on the existing physical environment, particularly as related to geology, topography, soils, hydrology, drainage, water quality, air quality and noise.  Geology, Topography, Soils A review of relevant literature was performed on the geology, topography, sub- soil conditions of the project area.  Hydrology and Drainage A literature review was conducted to identify the components of the hydrological cycle that are likely to impact on the project and the possible impacts that the project could have on the hydrologic regime. Field assessment includes assessment of drainage issues, interviews with local community members, and round-table discussions with stakeholders.  Air Quality Ambient air quality measurements are essential to provide a description of the existing conditions, to provide a baseline against which changes can be measured and to assist in the determination of potential impacts of the proposed construction on air quality conditions. Ambient air quality was continuously monitored for Carbon Monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Particulate Matter (PM10), for 24 hours. CO was analyzed by Test 317-3 CO Analyzer, while SO2 and NO2 were analyzed according to the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) based on recognized method ISO 6767 and method ISO 6768 of USEPA respectively.  Noise Noise level readings were monitored at 03 (three) sampling point for 24 hours with the interval of one second and hourly average data was reported.
  31. 31. Section–1 Introduction EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ NESPAK Page 1-7 July, 2016  Water Quality The objective of water quality monitoring was to determine water quality condition before construction. It has been observed that the water and air quality are the most important environmental variables to be affected in a road project. The extent of water contamination in the project area was assessed based on the test results of chemical and microbiological parameters for water. Dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and conductivity measurements were taken in situ at all sampling stations. Laboratory analyses have been performed in SUPARCO laboratory. ii. Biological Environment The status of the flora and fauna of the study area was determined by ecological survey, a review of literature relevant to the area, and an assessment of terrestrial environments.  Flora The vegetative communities were identified and classified into community types. Identification was carried out of dominant tree species.  Fauna Information on fauna was gathered from existing literature on reported species as well as observations in the field. iii. Socio-Economic Environment The Consultants utilized a combination of desk research, field investigations, census data, structured interviews, maps and reports to generate the data required for description of the existing social environment and assessment of the potential impacts of the construction of the proposed project. Data was gathered on the following aspects of the social environment: - Land use and Municipal Status - Livelihoods - Poverty - Education - Health - Social Setup - Community Facilities - Solid Waste Management - Proposed Developments
  32. 32. Section–1 Introduction EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ NESPAK Page 1-8 July, 2016 - Recreational Activities - Archaeological and Cultural Heritage d) Identification and Evaluation of Environmental Impacts The impacts of the proposed project on the physical, biological and socio-economic environment prevalent in the project area were visualized at the Design, Construction and Operational Phases. e) Mitigation Measures and Implementation Arrangements Adequate mitigation measures and implementation mechanisms were proposed so that the Project Proponent could incorporate them beforehand in the design phase. 1.8 EXTENT OF THE STUDY This document covers introduction of project, project description, analysis of alternatives, baseline conditions, environmental impacts, mitigation measures, institutional requirements and Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan (EMMP) of the proposed coal conveyor route, in and around the Project Area covering the physical, ecological and socio-economic aspects. a) Study Area Before proceeding to the environmental assessment of the Project, it is imperative to delineate the area of project influence (referred to as the “Study Area”). While major construction activities of the project are expected to remain confined within the project area boundary, the environmental impact of these activities is expected to extend beyond these boundaries to nearby residential and industrial areas. Therefore, based on field visits and examination of the Study Area and surrounding neighborhoods, the Study Area boundary was delineated. Figure 1.1 shows the visual examination of Study Area and includes about 500 m buffer area on either side from the centerline of the median and around the stockyard. The description of the environment in this chapter pertains to the Study Area described above as the potential environmental impacts are expected to remain within this delineated boundary.
  33. 33. EIA OF COAL CONVEYING SYSTEM-PORT QASIM, KARACHI FIGURE 1.1: STUDY AREA OF COAL CONVEYING SYSTEM
  34. 34. Section–1 Introduction EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ NESPAK Page 1-9 July, 2016 1.9 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT The report has been structured as follows: Section 1: Introduction briefly presents the project background, objectives, methodology and need of the EIA study. Section 2: Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework comprises policy guidelines, statutory obligations and roles of institutions concerning EIA study of the proposed project. Section 3: Description of the Project furnishes information about the location of proposed project, cost and size of the project, detailed description of project, alternatives considered for the proposed project to select at the preferred alternative for detailed environmental assessment. Section 4: Environmental Baseline Profile establishes baseline conditions for physical, biological and socio-economic conditions prevalent in the project area. Section 5: Public Consultation identifies the main stakeholders and their concerns raised through scoping sessions, stakeholder meetings and deals with the measures to mitigate the social impacts. Section 6: Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures identifies, predicts and evaluates impacts of the project activities during the Construction and Operation stages and deals with the measures (including mitigation cost) proposed to mitigate Potential Environmental Impacts of the project. Section 7: Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan outlines institutional arrangements for the implementation of the proposed mitigation measures, training needs of the staff for implementation of the mitigation measures, monitoring requirements, monitoring cost etc. Section 8: Conclusions and Recommendations summarize findings of the study and present its conclusions and recommendations.
  35. 35. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-1 July, 2016 SECTION – 2 POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK 2.0 GENERAL This chapter deals with the relevant policy, legal and administrative frameworks instituted by the Government of Pakistan (GoP) and Government of Sindh (GoS) for the protection of the environment. All the relevant provisions of these policies and legal frameworks have been duly considered in this EIA study. 2.1 LEGAL FRAMEWORK GoS has promulgated laws/acts, regulations and standards for the protection, conservation, rehabilitation and improvement of the environment. In addition to this, they have also developed environmental assessment procedures governing developmental projects. Following are the excerpts of these laws and procedures relevant to the proposed project. 2.1.1 Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (Review of IEE /EIA Regulations, 2014 The Sindh Environmental Protection Agency review of IEE)/EIA Regulations, 2014 provide the necessary details on the preparation, submission and review of the IEE and the EIA. The regulation classifies projects on the basis of expected degree of adverse environmental impacts and lists them in two separate schedules. Schedule-I lists projects that may not have significant environmental impacts and therefore require an IEE. Schedule-II lists projects of potentially significant environmental impacts requiring preparation of an EIA. 2.1.2 Pakistan Environmental Assessment Procedures, 1997 Pakistan Environmental Assessment Procedures (1997) is in fact a package which contains the following sets of information relevant to the proposed project: a) Policy and Procedures for Filing, Review and Approval of Environmental Assessment Reports.
  36. 36. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-2 July, 2016 It describes environmental policy and administrative procedures to be followed for filing of environmental examination/assessment reports by the proponents and their review and approval by the concerned environmental protection agencies. b) Guidelines for the Preparation and Review of Environmental Reports These guidelines are developed to facilitate both the proponents and decision makers to prepare reports (inclusive of all the information contained therein) and carry out their review so as to take informed decisions. c) National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), 2010 Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) first approved these standards in 1993. They were later revised in 1995, 2000 and 2010. They furnish information on the permissible limits for discharges of municipal and industrial effluent parameters and industrial gaseous emissions in order to control environmental pollution. 2.1.3 Sindh Environmental Protection Act, 2014 Legislative assembly of Sindh province of Pakistan passed the bill on 24th February, 2014 to enact Sindh Environmental Protection Act 2014. The Act envisages protection, improvement, conservation and rehabilitation of environment of Sindh with the help of legal action against polluters. The Act is the basic legislative tool that empowers the government to frame regulations to protect the environment. It broadly applies to air, water, soil, and noise pollution. Under this Act no project including construction activities or any change in the existing physical environment can commence unless the fulfillment of prerequisite to IEE or EIA has been conducted and its approval obtained from the Responsible Authority, in the present case from Sindh EPA. It equally lays emphasis for the preservation of the natural resources of Sindh and to adopt ways and means for restoring the balance in its eco-system by avoiding all types of environmental hazards. 2.1.4 Sindh EPA (Review of IEE/EIA) Regulations, 2014 The Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (Review of EIA/IEE) Regulations 2014 define Schedules (I & II) of projects falling under the requirement of IEE or EIA taken account of the requirements of the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (Review of EIA/IEE) Regulations 2014 which define Schedules (I & II) as follows: Schedule I: A project falls in Schedule (I) if it is likely to have adverse environmental impacts, but of lesser degree or significance than those for category ‘A’ and all the
  37. 37. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-3 July, 2016 mitigation measures to handle the impacts are manageable. Such types of projects need IEE report including EMP. Schedule II: Projects are categorized in Schedule (II) if they generate significant adverse environmental impacts that require a comprehensive management plan or if the project is located within or passes through: a) Areas declared by the Government of Pakistan as environmentally sensitive (National Parks/Sanctuaries/Game Reserve), b) Areas of International significance (e.g. protected wetland as designated by the Ramsar Convention), or c) Areas designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as cultural heritage sites. According to Sindh Environmental Protection Agency Regulation, 2014, a proponent of a project falling in any category listed in Schedule II shall file an EIA with the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency, since the listed projects are generally major projects and have the potential to affect a large number of people. The proposed project falls under category J (Other Projects) of Schedule II, which requires EIA before commencement of construction. 2.2 SINDH ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARDS (SEQS), 2016 Sindh Environmental Protection Council (SEPC) first approved the SEQS in 2014. The standards were later revised in 2016 and furnish information on the permissible limits for discharges of municipal and industrial effluent parameters and industrial gaseous emissions in order to control environmental pollution. 2.2.1 Air Quality Standards In pursuance of the statutory requirement under Clause (g) of sub-section (1) of section (6) of the Sindh Environmental Protection Act, 2014, the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency with prior approval of the Sindh Environmental Protection Council, has published the SEQS for Ambient Air (amended) 2016, which are given in Table 2.1.
  38. 38. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-4 July, 2016 Table 2.1: Ambient Air Quality Standards # Pollutant SEQS Time-Weighted average Concentration standard 1 SO2 Annual average 80 µg/m 3 24 hours 120 µg/m 3 2 NO Annual average 40 µg/m 3 24 hours 40 µg/m 3 3 NO2 Annual average 40 µg/m 3 24 hours 80 µg/m 3 4 O3 1 hour 130 µg/m 3 - - 5 Suspended Particulate Matters (SPM) Annual average 360µg/m 3 24 hours 500 µg/m 3 6 PM10 Annual average 120 µg/m 3 24 hours 150 µg/m 3 7 PM2.5 Annual average 15 µg/m 3 24 hours 35 µg/m 3 1 hour 15 µg/m 3 8 Lead Annual average 1 µg/m 3 24 hours 1.5 µg/m 3 9 CO 8 hours 5 mg/m 3 1 hour 10 mg/m 3 SEQS= Sindh Environmental Quality Standards 2.2.2 Noise Quality Standards In pursuance of the statutory requirement under clause (g) of sub-section (1) of section (6) of the Sindh Environmental Protection Act, 2014, the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency with prior approval of the Sindh Environmental Protection Council, has published the SEQS for Noise (2015). These standards are established for the four different categories which include residential area, commercial area, industrial area and silent zone. These standards vary according to the day and night timing; day time hours are 6:00 am to 10:00 pm and night time hours are 10:00 pm to 6:00 am. Sindh Environmental Quality Standards for Noise effective from January, 2015 are used for bench marking purpose and given in Table 2.2. Table 2.2: Noise Quality Standards # Category of Area SEQS (dBA) Day Time Night Time 1 Residential Area 65 50 2 Commercial Area 70 60 3 Industrial Area 80 75 4 Silence Zone 55 45
  39. 39. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-5 July, 2016 2.2.3 Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Standards In pursuance of the statutory requirement under clause (g) of sub-section (1) of section (6) of the Sindh Environmental Protection Act, 2014 the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency with prior approval of the Sindh Environmental Protection Council, has published the National Standards for Drinking Water Quality, domestic Sewerage and wastewater effluent.(2016). Table 2.3: SEQS for Drinking Water Quality Sr.No. Parameters Concentration Standards SEQS (mg/L) Chemical Parameters 1 Aluminum (Al) < 0.2 2 Ammonium (NH3) - 3 Antimony (Sb) < 0.005 4 Arsenic (As) < 0.05 5 Barium (Ba) 0.7 6 Boron (B) 0.3 7 Cadmium (Cd) 0.01 8 Chloride (Cl) < 250 9 Chromium (Cr) < 0.05 10 Copper (Cu) 2 11 Cyanide (CN) < 0.05 12 Fluoride (F) < 1.5 13 Iron (Fe) - 14 Lead (Pb) < 0.05 15 Manganese (Mn) < 0.5 16 Mercury (Hg) < 0.001 17 Molybdenum (Mo) - 18 Nickel (Ni) < 0.02 19 Nitrate (NO3) < 50 20 Nitrite (NO2) < 3 21 Selenium (Se) 0.01 22 Silver (Ag) - 23 Sodium (Na) - 24 Sulphate (So3) - 25 Residual Chlorine 0.2-0.5 26 Zinc (Zn) 5.0
  40. 40. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-6 July, 2016 Sr.No. Parameters Concentration Standards SEQS (mg/L) Physical Parameters 27 Color < 15 TCU 28 Taste Non Objectionable/ Acceptable 29 Odour Non Objectionable/ Acceptable 30 Turbidity < 5 NTU 31 Total hardness < 500 mg/l 32 TDS < 1000 33 pH 6.5-8.5 Biological Parameters 34 E-Coli Must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample 35 Total Coliforms Must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample Table 2.4: SEQS for municipal &Liquid Industrial Effluents (mg/l) Sr. No. Parameter Into Inland Waters Into sewage Treatment Into Sea 1 Temperature 40 0 C or Temperature increase* ≤3 o C ≤3 o C ≤3 o C 2 pH value (H*) 6-9 6-9 6-9 3 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)5 at 20 o C 80 250 80** 4 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 150 400 400 5 Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 200 400 200 6 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 3500 3500 3500 7 Oil and Grease 10 10 10 8 Phenolic compounds (as phenol) 0.1 0.3 0.3 9 Chloride (as CT) 1000 1000 SC*** 10 Fluoride (as F) 10 10 10 11 Cyanide (as CN) total 1.0 1.0 1.0 12 An-ionic detergents (as MBAS) 20 20 20 13 Sulphate (S04 2 ) 600 1000 SC*** 14 Sulphate (S 2 ) 1.0 1.0 1.0 15 Ammonia 40 40 40 16 Pesticides 0.15 0.15 0.15 17 Cadmium 0.1 0.1 0.1 18 Chromium (trivalent and hexavalent) 1.0 1.0 1.0 19 Cooper 1.0 1.0 1.0 20 Lead 0.5 0.5 0.5 21 Mercury 0.01 0.01 0.01
  41. 41. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-7 July, 2016 22 Selenium 0.5 0.5 0.5 23 Nickel 1.0 1.0 1.0 24 Silver 1.0 1.0 1.0 25 Total toxic metals 2.0 2.0 2.0 26 Zinc 5.0 5.0 5.0 27 Arsenic 1.0 1.0 1.0 28 Barium 1.5 1.5 1.5 29 Iron 8.0 8.0 8.0 30 Manganese 1.5 1.5 1.5 31 Boron 6.0 6.0 6.0 32 Chlorine 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.3 OTHER RELEVANT LAWS 2.3.1 Canal and Drainage Act, 1873 This Act entails provisions for the prevention of pollution of natural or man-made water bodies. 2.3.2 The Forestry Act 1927 The Forestry Act 1927 provides rules and regulations for the protection of forests, control of timber and other forest-produce transit, village forest and social forestry. This act has been comprehensively formed and provides concerned agency the power to declare protected and reserved forests by government notification, powers entitled to forest settlement officers, power to acquire land over which right was claimed, powers to stop ways and water-courses in reserved forests, healing of claims relating to shifting cultivation, power to issue and publish notification to reserve trees, power to make rules for protected forests, power to declare forest no longer reserved, order on rights of pasture or transit forest-produce, record keeping by the forest settlement officer, commutation of right to appeal, time limit for resolution of claims and appeals, notification of acts prohibited in such forests (unlawful cutting of trees) and awarding penalties on violations. 2.3.3 Provincial Wildlife (Protection, Preservation, Conservation and Management) Acts, Ordinances and Rules (Act, 1972) The Act empowers provincial wildlife departments for the creation of three classes of special protected areas: national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves. It classifies wildlife by degree of protection, i.e, animals that may be hunted on a permit or special license, and species that are protected and cannot be hunted under any circumstances.
  42. 42. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-8 July, 2016 2.3.4 Sindh Wildlife Protection Act, 1974 Sindh Provincial Assembly passed the “Sindh Wildlife Protection Act” in 1974. The Act provides protection, conservation, preservation and management of wildlife and is applicable on entire areas of Sindh. The Act regulates the issuance and validity of licenses and permits to public or V.I.Ps, trapping or shooting near Game Reserves or Sanctuaries, empowering the government officers to warranting, seizure or inspection of any person or hunting equipment at any given time, prohibition of cooking of wild animals/birds meat in any public place, as well as providing a set of fee structure for various permits including hunting, trapping, possession or import and export of wild animals/birds. 2.3.5 Pakistan Penal Code, 1860 This defines the penalties for violations concerning pollution of air, water bodies and land. 2.3.6 Pakistan Explosives Act, 1884 This Act provides regulations for the handling, transportation and use of explosives during quarrying, blasting and other purposes. 2.3.7 Antiquities Act, 1975 The Antiquities Act of 1975 is designed to protect antiquities from destruction, theft, negligence, unlawful excavation, trade, export and other cultural resources in Pakistan. The act defines antiquities as ancient products of human activity, historical sites, or sites of anthropological or cultural interest, national monuments, etc. The law prohibits new developments in the proximity of a protected antiquity and empowers the Government of Pakistan to prohibit excavation in any area that may contain such articles of archaeological significance. Under the Act, the project proponents are obligated to ensure that no activity is undertaken within 61 m (200 ft) of a protected antiquity, and to report to the Department of Archaeology, Government of Pakistan any archaeological discovery made during the course of the project. 2.3.8 Pakistan Clean Air Program The Pakistan Clean Air Program (PCAP) is an initiative of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA) to comprehensively address the air quality issue in the country. Key elements of the PCAP include an Air Quality Monitoring Program, Air Quality Indicators, Research Program, Air Quality Resource
  43. 43. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-9 July, 2016 Centre, Regulatory Measures, Economic Instruments, Emissions Inventory, Air Dispersion Models, and Air Quality Abatement Technology Clearing House. The objectives of the program are to: Protect and enhance the quality of the country’s air resources; Protect public health and welfare against any actual or potential adverse effects that may reasonably be anticipated to accrue from air pollution; Preserve, protect, and enhance the air quality in urban areas and the countryside and in areas of natural, recreational, scenic, cultural, or historic value, in particular, the protected areas of the country, i.e., national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, game reserves, and national monuments. Ensure that economic growth will occur in a manner consistent with the preservation of existing clean air resources; Assure that emissions from any source in any province do not interfere with pollution prevention programs in any other province; and Assure that Pakistan’s international obligations regarding the trans-boundary effects of air pollution are met. 2.3.9 Pakistan Guidelines for Public Consultation, (October 1997) These guidelines deal with possible approaches to public consultation and techniques for designing an effective program of consultation that reaches out to all major stakeholders and ensures the incorporation of their concerns in any impact assessment study. These guidelines cover: Consultation, involvement and participation of stakeholders; Effective public consultation (planning, stages of EIA where consultation is appropriate); and Facilitation involvement (including the poor, women and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). 2.3.10 Cutting of Trees Act, 1975 This Act prohibits cutting or chopping of trees without permission of the Forest Department. The act presents fine or imprisonment or both, for illegal cutting of tree but has not mentioned any compensatory afforestation. However, it’s a common practice to plant 7-10 trees for compensation of 1 tree to be rooted up. 2.3.11 Hazardous Substance Rules, 2003 These Rules make provisions for the granting of licences for the collection, treatment, storage, importation, transportation, etc. of hazardous substances. They consist of 22 Rules and 5 Schedules. Substances prescribed as hazardous substances are listed in Schedule I. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of
  44. 44. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-10 July, 2016 the project involving hazardous substances shall accompany the application to obtain a licence (Rule 5). Rules 7 and 8 deal with the issuance of licences, along with the conditions and requirements of obtaining licensees. Packaging and labelling provisions are outlined in Rule 9. General safety precautions and precautions for workers are covered in Rules 11 and 12, respectively. Provisions on the validity, renewal and cancellation of licences are set out in Rules 13-15, respectively. Authorized staff of the Federal Agency/Provincial Agency is entitled to enter and inspect the premises in which hazardous substances are generated, collected, treated, disposed of, stored etc. (Rule 16). Safety plans and waste management plans shall be submitted to the Provincial Agency (Rules 17-19). Details to be provided for the application to licences for the importation and transportation of hazardous substances are given in Rules 20 and 21, respectively. 2.3.12 Disaster Management Act, 2010 This act declares the establishment of Pakistan's multi-tiered system for disaster management. The act is divided into eleven sections: - Section 01 defines the terms used in the act, such as 'disaster' and 'disaster management'; - Section 02 declares the establishment of the National Disaster Management Commission, and explains its structure and responsibilities; - Section 03 declares the establishment of a Provincial Disaster Management Commission for each province, and explains its structure and responsibilities; - Section 04 declares the establishment of a District Disaster Management Authority for each district, and explains its structure and responsibilities; - Section 05 explains the various measures that the government is prepared to take for the purpose of disaster management; - Section 06 explains the functions of local authorities in terms of disaster management; - Section 07 declares the establishment of the National Institute of Disaster Management, and explains the Institute's responsibilities in research and training; - Section 08 declares the establishment of a National Disaster Response Force for more specialized management of disaster events;
  45. 45. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-11 July, 2016 - Section 09 explains how the sources of funding the government use to finance the new disaster management projects; - Section 10 warns of the punishments for those who abuse the disaster management system; and - Section 11 discusses other important factors of the disaster management projects, such as a policy against discrimination and a plan for developing an annual disaster management report. 2.3.13 Seismic Building Code of Pakistan, 2007 The objective of the provisions described in this code is to prescribe the minimum requirements for the earthquake design and construction of buildings and building- like structures and/or their components subjected to earthquake ground motions. 2.3.14 Land Acquisition Act, 1894 The Pakistani law governing land acquisition is the Land Acquisition Act (LAA) of 1894 and successive amendments. The LAA regulates the land acquisition process and enables the provincial government to acquire private land for public purposes. Land acquisition is a provincial responsibility and provinces have also their own province specific implementation rules like Punjab and Sindh Land Acquisition Rules, 1983. The LAA and its Implementation Rules require that, following an impact identification and valuation exercise, land and crops are compensated in cash at the current market rate to titled landowners. The LAA mandates that land valuation is to be based on the last 3 to 5 years average registered land-sale rates. 2.3.15 Occupational Health, Labor Laws (Amended) Ordinance, 1972 Construction and operational activities can affect the occupational health of the workers. Quantitative national standards with respect to the above aspect are yet to be developed in Pakistan. However, guidance in qualitative terms can be obtained from the Labor Laws (Amended) Ordinance, 1972. 2.3.16 Toxic Or Hazardous Waste, Pakistan Penal Code (PPC), 1860. Environment Protection Agency, Sindh Protection of the environment with regards to toxic and hazardous waste is covered by the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC), 1860. Environment Protection Agency, Sindh, is mandated to monitor the transportation of hazardous materials within the provincial limits.
  46. 46. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-12 July, 2016 2. 3.17 Preservation of Cultural Heritage, The Antiquities Act, 1975, The Antiquities Act, 1975, administered by the Provincial Government, is aimed at safeguarding the preservation of cultural heritage, destruction, damage or defacement of antiquities is an offence under the Act. 2.4 POLICY FRAMEWORK The Federal and Provincial Ministries dealing with the Environment are responsible authorities for policy making on environmental protection in Pakistan and respective provinces. 2.4.1 National Environment Policy, 2005 In March 2005, the GOP launched its National Environmental Policy, which provides an overarching framework for addressing the environmental issues. Section 5 of the policy commits for integration of environment into development planning as instrument for achieving the objectives of National Environmental Policy. It further states in clause (b) of subsection 5.1 that EIA related provisions of Environmental Protection Act, 1997, shall be diligently enforced for all development projects. It also provides broad guidelines to the federal government, provincial governments, federally administered territories and local governments to address their environmental concerns and to ensure effective management of their environmental resources. 2.4.2 National Resettlement Policy, 2002 In March, 2002 Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (PEPA), GoP issued its National Resettlement Policy, which explains the basis for compensation, rehabilitation and relocation of the affectees. It also explains the requirements and implementation of Resettlement Action Plan (RAP). The Policy still is in the draft form and has not yet passed Cabinet approval. 2.4.3 National Power Policy, 2013 The Ministry of Water and Power of the Government of Pakistan has developed an ambitious power policy to support the current and future energy needs of the country. This bold strategy has been developed to set Pakistan on a trajectory of rapid economic growth and social development. Simultaneously, it addresses the key challenges of the power sector in order to provide much needed relief to the citizens of Pakistan. This policy has been designed to frame the broad contours of the energy
  47. 47. Section–2 Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 2-13 July, 2016 policy articulating the vision for the power sector, highlighting its key challenges, setting major goals, summarizing policy principles, and highlighting the strategy devised to achieve Pakistan’s aspirations. The policy does not elaborate on issues surrounding operational strategy, nor does it lay out detailed implementation plans. The process of policy and strategy formulation is informed by the following organizing principles: a) Efficiency; b) Competition; and c) Sustainability. 2.5 ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK 2.5.1 Port Qasim Authority (PQA) The project falls under administration of Port Qasim Authority (PQA). The management of PQA will ensure that all the proposed measures are effectively implemented at the design and construction stages. PQA will be responsible for the operation and maintenance. 2.5.2 Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) Sindh Environmental Protection Council is the apex inter-ministerial and multi- stakeholders decision-making body, which is headed by the Chief Minister. While Sindh Environmental Protection Agency is meant for the enforcement of environmental laws in Sindh, it has powers to review, approval and monitoring of environmental examination/assessment projects. As regards the proposed Project, Sindh EPA shall be responsible for reviewing the report, issuing No Objection Certificate (NOC) and overall/broad-based monitoring of the proposed project activities.
  48. 48. Section–3 Description of the Project EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 3-1 July 2016 SECTION –3 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT 3.1 RATIONALE OF THE PROJECT The total power generation in the country, after completion of Chashma Hydro Power Plant, stands at 15,746 MW as per information from National Transmission and Dispatch Company Limited (NTDCL). Current deficit of power supply is around 7000 MW which results in load shedding throughout the country. The future power demand for Pakistan is projected through National Power System Expansion Plan which provides load forecast. The future demand, even with a low growth scenario, in years 2019-20 and 2029-30 is estimated as 42,612 MW and 82,457 MW respectively. The situation is, therefore, alarming and needs an immediate and efficient solution. The GoP is working to attract investment of adequate quantum into the power generation platform. Coal, being considered as an economical power generation source, is seen as a major source for fuelling power generation plants. Coal fired power generation, based on imported coal, at supercritical and pulverized coal is a viable option for meeting future demand. However, necessary infrastructure for efficient transportation of bulk coal cargoes does not exist in Pakistan. The proposed project will provide an important link in the establishment of coal transportation infrastructure. The project derives its need from being an integral part of imported coal based power projects. Port Qasim is Pakistan’s main deep sea port located on the coastline of the Arabian Sea. Port Qasim is the second largest port of Pakistan that handles 45% of national cargo. Port Qasim Authority (PQA) does not have any dedicated coal handling facility at present. However, limited quantity of coal is being handled at Marginal Wharf Berths. Pakistan Steel is handling coal for its own use through Iron Ore and Coal Berth (IOCB). A new facility is being developed at PIBT for handling coal, clinker & cement
  49. 49. Section–3 Description of the Project EIA of Coal Conveying System - Port Qasim, Karachi NESPAK Page 3-2 July 2016 up to 12.0 Million tonnes per annum (MTPA). The locations of the above mentioned facilities are shown in Figure 3.1. 3.2 EXISTING COAL HANDLING FACILITIES AT PORT QASIM 3.2.1 Marginal Wharf Berth Facility Marginal Wharf berths 1 to 4 have shallow draft (up to 9m) and as such, only small vessels of 25,000 to 35,000 DWT can be berthed. No facility is available to transport the coal to existing railway siding located to the north of the Marginal Wharf Berths 1 to 4. The coal from Marginal Wharf is transported to a temporary stock pile located in Term Storage Area-A&B of Port Operation Zone. From the stock piles, the coal is being transported to up-country through trucks and railway. However, due to low draft and non-availability of requisite equipment, coal cargo handling capacity at Marginal Wharf is constrained and bulk handling cannot take place. 3.2.2 Iron Ore and Coal Berth (IOCB) Ships up to 50,000 DWT can be berthed at the Iron Ore and Coal Berth. This berth can handle cargo of up to 3.03 MTPA with ship to shore un-loaders of 1,000 tonnes / hr. The Coal from IOCB is transported to Steel Mill Plant through 3.9 km long belt conveyor. Bulk handling facility of IOCB can be made available after necessary repair and maintenance for coal handling. However, IOCB cannot be considered for the coal unloading terminal of this project because of the on-going privatization process of Pakistan Steel Mills. 3.2.3 Pakistan International Bulk Terminal (PIBT) A dedicated terminal is being constructed at Port Qasim to handle coal, clinker and cement by M/s. PIBT on BOT Basis. Under the present Implementation Agreement, PIBT will handle cargo including coal, up to 8.0 MTPA. However, PIBT has plans to expand its terminal for handling cargo up to 12.0 MTPA. In the backup area of the terminal, 1.0 million tonnes of coal can be stacked.
  50. 50. pJIO.l!Cf'! CONVEYING SYSTEM FROM PIBT COAL TERMINAL TO EXISTING RAILWAY NETMJRK AT PORT QASIM PORT QASIM AUTHORITY CCINIUL.TANT: ••• NATIONAL ENGINEERING SERVICES .... PAKISTAN (PVI) LIMITID ::..'7"��/n �� ��,1�E-tMil:.....,......Rl.ftllfll EXISTING COAL HANDLING FACILITIES AT PORT QASIM FIOURE No. 3.1

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