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Introduction to Robotics

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Robotics

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Introduction to Robotics

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTICS 10 December 2016Seminar on IOT & Robotics Zubayer Al Billal Khan Research Engineer, IICT BUET 01913469663 zubayer_007@yahoo.com
  2. 2. DEFINATION 10 December 2016Seminar on IOT & Robotics Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots . The word ROBOTICS is used to collectively define a field in engineering that covers the mimicking of various Human characteristics.  It is the application of electronics, mechanical, electrical and computer engineering.
  3. 3. Laws of Robotics  Isaac Asimov proposed three “Laws of Robotics” and later added the “ zeroth law ”.  Law 0: A robot may not injure humanity or through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.  Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being or through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higher order law.  Law 2: A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law.  Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law. 10 December 2016Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  4. 4.  Word robot was coined by a Czech novelist Karel Capek in a 1920 play titled Rassum’s Universal Robots (RUR).  Robot in Czech is a word for worker or servant.  In 1980s the robot industry entered a phase of rapid growth. Many institutions introduced programs and courses in robotics. Robotics courses were spread across mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics engineering and computer science departments. 10 December 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  5. 5. Uses of Robotics: Agriculture Automobile Construction Entertainment Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery , research, etc. Household purposes Laboratories: science, engineering , etc. Law en forcement : surveillance, air port Security, spying, etc. Manufacturing Military: demining, surveillance, attack, etc. Mining, excavation and exploration Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc. Utilities: gas, water and electricity Warehouses 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  6. 6. 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  7. 7. Uses of Robotics: Industrial Applications •Material handling •Material transfer •Machine loading and unloading •Spot welding •Continuous arc welding •Spray coating •Assembly •Inspection 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  8. 8. Uses of Robotics: Robots in Hazardous Environments Photo: TROV in Antarctica operating under water Photo: HAZBOT operating in atmospheres containing combustible gases Photo: Robot used in explosive mines 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  9. 9. Uses of Robotics: Research and Space Exploration 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  10. 10. Uses of Robotics: Military SPLIT STRIKE: Deployed from a sub’s hull, Manta could dispatch tiny mine-seeking AUVs or engage in more explosive combat. PREDATOR GLOBAL HAWK GOLDENEYE10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  11. 11. Uses of Robotics: Household Purposes Photo: Robotic Vacuum Cleaner Photo: Garbage Collector Photo: The SCRUBMATE Robot 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  12. 12. Uses of Robotics: Others 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  13. 13. Components of ROBOTS Power Supply  Sensors Controller Effectors Actuators 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  14. 14. POWER SUPPLY Suitable power supply is needed to run the motors and associated circuitry.  Typical power requirement ranges from 3V to 24V DC.  Power supply must be adjusted as per the ratings of the components.  Power supply must be regulated using voltage regulator and current regulator ICs. 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  15. 15. POWER SUPPLY Rechargeable 12V Battery LM317 Current Regulator IC with Heat Sink LM7805 Voltage Regulator IC 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  16. 16. What is a sensor? A sensor is a device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment. The specific input could be light, heat, motion, moisture, pressure. The output is generally a signal that is converted to human- readable form. 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  17. 17. SENSORS  Sensors are used to collect the information about an event, condition or the environment and send it to the controller.  Sensors convert the physical properties into the electronic signal.  Different kinds of sensors can be used depending upon the physical properties to be sensed and the function of robot. 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  18. 18. Physical Property Technology Contact Bump, Switch Distance Ultrasound, Radar, Infra Red Light Level Photo Cells, Cameras, LDRs Sound Level Microphones Strain Strain Gauges Rotation Encoders Magnetism Compasses Smell Chemicals Temperature Thermistors, Infra Red Inclination Inclinometers, Gyroscope Pressure Pressure Gauges Altitude Altimeters SENSORS 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  19. 19. SENSORS Contact or Touch Sensors Switch Bump Switch 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  20. 20. SENSORSLight Sensors LDR Photo Cell IR sensors 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  21. 21. SENSORS Proximity Sensors Infrared Ranging Sensor 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  22. 22. SENSORS Vision Sensors In-Sight Vision Sensors 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  23. 23. SENSORS Tilt Sensors To balance the robot. 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  24. 24. 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics What is a ultrasonic? ULTRA - BEYOND SONIC – SOUND The sound beyond human hearing range ( 20,000 Hz ) is known as ultrasonic. Ultrasonic sensor? Ultrasonic sensors are sensors that convert ultrasound waves to electrical signals or vice versa.
  25. 25. How does an ultrasonic sensor works?  How does a bat sense distance  Bats sense distance using sound.  They emit sound waves and receive back reflected waves.  The time it takes to receive the waves back provides them with a very good estimate of the distance.  This is exactly how ultrasonicsensors estimate distance. 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  26. 26.  calls made by mouth  ears hear reflected waves  brain decides what to do  wing muscles move  flight path changed, as 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  27. 27.  An ultrasonic sensor has two parts:  A transmitter that sends out a signal that humans cannot hear  A receiver that receives the signal after it has bounced off nearby objects  The sensor sends out its signal and determines how long the signal takes to come back. 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  28. 28.  If the object is very close to the sensor, the signal comes back quickly  If the object is far away from the sensor, the signal takes longer to come back  If objects are too far away from the sensor, the signal takes so long to come back (or is very weak when it comes back) that the receiver cannot detect it 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  29. 29. Ultrasonic Sensor connections Red - Power Yellow - Signal Black - Ground 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  30. 30. CONTROLLER Controller provides the necessary intelligence to control the action of the robot.  It receives the information from the sensors and activates the actuators to perform the task.  It comprises complex electronics circuit.  Micro Controllers are used in Automatic Robots whereas different electronic switching components are used in Manual Robots.  The set of instructions is written in High Level Language, compiled and converted into Machine Code(HEX code) and burnt in the Micro Controller with the help of Computer Software . 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  31. 31. CONTROLLER Arduino uno 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  32. 32. EFFECTORS Effectors are the parts of a Robot which execute the certain task.  Effectors pick up or modify objects or somehow cause an effect to the environment.  Examples: Mechanical grippers, Vacuum Grippers, Wheels, etc. 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  33. 33. ACTUATORS  Actuator is the actual mechanism that enables the effectors to execute an action. Actuators typically include electric motors, hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders, gears, etc. Gears Pneumatic Cylinder Pneumatic Motor 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  34. 34. • DC Motors o As the name suggests, a motor which uses a DC (Direct Current) power o Can run in both directions o Speed Controllable 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  35. 35. • Stepper Motors o Used for measured rotation o Can be held at a particular position of the shaft o Ideal for many autonomous robots requiring higher precision 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  36. 36. • Servo Motors : o Used in closed loop control systems in which work is the control variable. o An integral feedback device (resolver) or devices (encoder and tachometer) are either incorporated within the servo motor or are remotely mounted, often on the load itself 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  37. 37. • Wiper Motors : o This type of motor is called a "gear head" or "gear motor" and has the advantage of having high torque. o It draws more current than other motors. o The speed of motor is controllable. 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  38. 38. Wiper Motors RPM Current draw** + power supply - power supply 41 0.9 amps Low speed Common 70 1.6 amps High speed Common 106 4.0 amps High speed Low speed **No load current. These numbers will increase as the mechanical load increases. 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  39. 39. LOCOMOTION 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics • It is concerned with the motion of the robot. • Robot contains different types of drives: o Differential drive o Car type o Skid steer drive o Synchronous drive o Pivot drive o Articulated drive
  40. 40. Algorithm for obstacle avoidance robot 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  41. 41. Connections 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  42. 42. Applications  Obstacle sensing robot can be applied at toys where small children will play  It can be used for army applications  It can be used in mines 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics
  43. 43. Obstacle avoidance robot 10 Decembe r 2016 Seminar on IOT & Robotics

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