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# Basics of Aerodynamics

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Its just a 101 of Aerodynamics.

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### Basics of Aerodynamics

1. 1. Basics ofBasics of AerodynamicsAerodynamics Presented by: Zubayer Al Billal Khan Consultant zubayer_007@yahoo.com www.zubayer.name 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 1
2. 2. AerodynamicsAerodynamics “A branch of dynamics that deals with the motion of air and other gaseous fluids and with the forces acting on bodies in motion relative to such fluids.” Source: Merriam-Webster Online
3. 3. Forces of FlightForces of Flight
4. 4. Forces Of FlightForces Of Flight Lift Weight Thrust Drag 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 4
5. 5. Definitions: Forces Of FlightDefinitions: Forces Of Flight10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 5
6. 6. LiftLift
7. 7. LiftLift In addition to allowing the aircraft to fly, changing the force of lift on various parts of the aircraft allows the aircraft to be maneuvered in flight ◦ We will review how lift is created first 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 7
8. 8. Physics ReviewPhysics Review Newton’s laws summed up. ◦ 1st - A body at rest tends to stay at rest and a body in motion will stay in motion unless acted on by a force. ◦ 2nd – Force = Mass * Acceleration ◦ 3rd – For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 8
9. 9. Bernoulli’s Theory of LiftBernoulli’s Theory of Lift Bernoulli’s principal summed up: ◦ as the velocity of a fluid increase, its internal pressure decreases. 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 9
10. 10. LiftLift 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 10
11. 11. LiftLift Changing the basic shape of the airfoil allows for different flow patterns about the wing changing the amount of lift created Changing the amount of lift created by various airfoils on the aircraft allows the pilot to maneuver the aircraft in-flight 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 11
12. 12. TermsTerms
13. 13. TermsTerms 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 13
14. 14. Chord LineChord Line Chord Line : An imaginary line leading from the leading edge to the trailing edge of an airfoil 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 14
15. 15. Angle Of AttackAngle Of Attack Angle of attack: Referred to as “AOA”, is the angle made up between the chord line and the relative wind 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 15
16. 16. StallsStalls
17. 17. Airspeed and StallsAirspeed and Stalls We can only increase AOA so much before we induce an aerodynamic stall Though airspeed is often associated with a stall, a stall can happen at any airspeed and in any attitude if the critical AOA is exceeded 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 17
18. 18. StallsStalls For a given airfoil, we can only increase AOA so much before we experience an aerodynamic stall Airfoil in normal flight Airfoil in stalled condition 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 18
19. 19. StallsStalls 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 19
20. 20. Maneuvering FlightManeuvering Flight
21. 21. Primary Flight ControlsPrimary Flight Controls 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 21
22. 22. Maneuvering FlightManeuvering Flight The flight controls allow pilots to maneuver the aircraft by changing the pressure distribution (and the amount of lift created) on various parts of the aircraft. The primary flight controls do this by changing the AOA to change the lift created thereby allowing the aircraft to pitch bank and yaw 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 22
23. 23. AileronsAilerons 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 23
24. 24. RudderRudder 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 24
25. 25. DragDrag
26. 26. DragDrag Drag is broken into two types ◦ Parasite ◦ Induced 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 26
27. 27. DragDrag Parasite drag: ◦ Further broken into  Form drag  Skin friction drag  Interference drag 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 27
28. 28. DragDrag Parasite / form drag 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 28
29. 29. DragDrag Parasite / Skin friction drag ◦ Airflow is stagnate near the surface of the wing 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 29
30. 30. DragDrag Parasite / Interference drag ◦ Airflow is disrupted by how various objects are arranged on the aircraft 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 30
31. 31. DragDrag Parasite drag increases with velocity 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 31
32. 32. DragDrag Induced drag ◦ Any time a wing is producing lift their is induced drag ◦ The higher the AOA the more induced drag ◦ Slow aircraft = high AOA = high induced drag 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 32
33. 33. DragDrag Combined drag curves gives us total drag ◦ 1 airspeed gives us least total drag 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 33
34. 34. Wake TurbulenceWake Turbulence
35. 35. Wingtip VorticesWingtip Vortices Aircraft producing lift produce a wake (wingtip vortices) 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 35
36. 36. Wingtip VorticesWingtip Vortices Airflow moves from high to low – at the wing tips it is allowed to spill over the top creating a vortex 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 36
37. 37. Wake TurbulenceWake Turbulence Avoid flight where the wake turbulence could be. Taking Off Landing 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 37
38. 38. Secondary FlightSecondary Flight ControlsControls
39. 39. Secondary Flight ControlsSecondary Flight Controls On most training aircraft secondary flight controls are limited to: ◦ Flaps ◦ Trim 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 39
40. 40. Secondary Flight ControlsSecondary Flight Controls Flaps ◦ Allow decreased minimum flight speed ◦ Allow increased drag / Steeper descents  Often used during landing for this purpose 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 40
41. 41. Secondary Flight ControlsSecondary Flight Controls Flaps 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 41
42. 42. TrimTrim Accelerate you get more tail down force ◦ Not desirable if you want to maintain level flight 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 42
43. 43. Multi Rotor Flying PrincipalMulti Rotor Flying Principal 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 43
44. 44. Weight Balance MechanismWeight Balance Mechanism 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 44
45. 45. TrimTrim Trim reduces pilot workload (yes) 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 45
46. 46. ConclusionConclusion Concluding RemarksConcluding Remarks What was not discussed ◦ Transonic flow ◦ Drag-divergence Mach number ◦ Supersonic flow ◦ Wave drag ◦ Swept wings ◦ Compressibility effects ◦ Boundary layer theory ◦ The history of aerodynamics 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 46