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Basics ofBasics of
AerodynamicsAerodynamics
Presented by:
Zubayer Al Billal Khan
Consultant
zubayer_007@yahoo.com
www.zuba...
AerodynamicsAerodynamics
“A branch of dynamics that deals with the motion of air and
other gaseous fluids and with the for...
Forces of FlightForces of Flight
Forces Of FlightForces Of Flight
Lift
Weight
Thrust
Drag
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 4
Definitions: Forces Of FlightDefinitions: Forces Of Flight10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 5
LiftLift
LiftLift
In addition to allowing the aircraft to fly,
changing the force of lift on various parts
of the aircraft allows ...
Physics ReviewPhysics Review
Newton’s laws summed up.
◦ 1st
- A body at rest tends to stay at rest and a
body in motion w...
Bernoulli’s Theory of LiftBernoulli’s Theory of Lift
Bernoulli’s principal summed up:
◦ as the velocity of a fluid increa...
LiftLift
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 10
LiftLift
Changing the basic shape of the airfoil
allows for different flow patterns about the
wing changing the amount of...
TermsTerms
TermsTerms
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 13
Chord LineChord Line
Chord Line : An imaginary line leading
from the leading edge to the trailing edge
of an airfoil
10/2...
Angle Of AttackAngle Of Attack
Angle of attack: Referred to as “AOA”, is
the angle made up between the chord line
and the...
StallsStalls
Airspeed and StallsAirspeed and Stalls
We can only increase AOA so much before
we induce an aerodynamic stall
Though air...
StallsStalls
For a given airfoil, we can only increase
AOA so much before we experience an
aerodynamic stall
Airfoil in n...
StallsStalls
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 19
Maneuvering FlightManeuvering Flight
Primary Flight ControlsPrimary Flight Controls
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 21
Maneuvering FlightManeuvering Flight
The flight controls allow pilots to
maneuver the aircraft by changing the
pressure d...
AileronsAilerons
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 23
RudderRudder
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 24
DragDrag
DragDrag
Drag is broken into two types
◦ Parasite
◦ Induced
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 26
DragDrag
Parasite drag:
◦ Further broken into
 Form drag
 Skin friction drag
 Interference drag
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Bi...
DragDrag
Parasite / form drag
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 28
DragDrag
Parasite / Skin friction drag
◦ Airflow is stagnate near the surface of the wing
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan...
DragDrag
Parasite / Interference drag
◦ Airflow is disrupted by how various objects are
arranged on the aircraft
10/27/18...
DragDrag
Parasite drag increases with velocity
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 31
DragDrag
Induced drag
◦ Any time a wing is producing lift their is
induced drag
◦ The higher the AOA the more induced dra...
DragDrag
Combined drag curves gives us total drag
◦ 1 airspeed gives us least total drag
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan ...
Wake TurbulenceWake Turbulence
Wingtip VorticesWingtip Vortices
Aircraft producing lift produce a wake
(wingtip vortices)
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Kha...
Wingtip VorticesWingtip Vortices
Airflow moves from
high to low – at the
wing tips it is allowed
to spill over the top
cr...
Wake TurbulenceWake Turbulence
Avoid flight where the wake turbulence
could be.
Taking Off
Landing
10/27/18 Zubayer Al ...
Secondary FlightSecondary Flight
ControlsControls
Secondary Flight ControlsSecondary Flight Controls
On most training aircraft secondary flight
controls are limited to:
◦ ...
Secondary Flight ControlsSecondary Flight Controls
Flaps
◦ Allow decreased minimum flight speed
◦ Allow increased drag / S...
Secondary Flight ControlsSecondary Flight Controls
Flaps
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 41
TrimTrim
Accelerate you get more tail down force
◦ Not desirable if you want to maintain level
flight
10/27/18 Zubayer Al...
Multi Rotor Flying PrincipalMulti Rotor Flying Principal
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 43
Weight Balance MechanismWeight Balance Mechanism
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 44
TrimTrim
Trim reduces pilot workload (yes)
10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 45
ConclusionConclusion
Concluding RemarksConcluding Remarks
What was not discussed
◦ Transonic flow
◦ Drag-divergence Mach ...
Ask your question:Ask your question:
For more information
Youtube:
https://www.youtube.com/user/imagineer
ingstudiobd
Con...
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Basics of Aerodynamics

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Basics of Aerodynamics

  1. 1. Basics ofBasics of AerodynamicsAerodynamics Presented by: Zubayer Al Billal Khan Consultant zubayer_007@yahoo.com www.zubayer.name 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 1
  2. 2. AerodynamicsAerodynamics “A branch of dynamics that deals with the motion of air and other gaseous fluids and with the forces acting on bodies in motion relative to such fluids.” Source: Merriam-Webster Online
  3. 3. Forces of FlightForces of Flight
  4. 4. Forces Of FlightForces Of Flight Lift Weight Thrust Drag 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 4
  5. 5. Definitions: Forces Of FlightDefinitions: Forces Of Flight10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 5
  6. 6. LiftLift
  7. 7. LiftLift In addition to allowing the aircraft to fly, changing the force of lift on various parts of the aircraft allows the aircraft to be maneuvered in flight ◦ We will review how lift is created first 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 7
  8. 8. Physics ReviewPhysics Review Newton’s laws summed up. ◦ 1st - A body at rest tends to stay at rest and a body in motion will stay in motion unless acted on by a force. ◦ 2nd – Force = Mass * Acceleration ◦ 3rd – For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 8
  9. 9. Bernoulli’s Theory of LiftBernoulli’s Theory of Lift Bernoulli’s principal summed up: ◦ as the velocity of a fluid increase, its internal pressure decreases. 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 9
  10. 10. LiftLift 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 10
  11. 11. LiftLift Changing the basic shape of the airfoil allows for different flow patterns about the wing changing the amount of lift created Changing the amount of lift created by various airfoils on the aircraft allows the pilot to maneuver the aircraft in-flight 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 11
  12. 12. TermsTerms
  13. 13. TermsTerms 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 13
  14. 14. Chord LineChord Line Chord Line : An imaginary line leading from the leading edge to the trailing edge of an airfoil 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 14
  15. 15. Angle Of AttackAngle Of Attack Angle of attack: Referred to as “AOA”, is the angle made up between the chord line and the relative wind 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 15
  16. 16. StallsStalls
  17. 17. Airspeed and StallsAirspeed and Stalls We can only increase AOA so much before we induce an aerodynamic stall Though airspeed is often associated with a stall, a stall can happen at any airspeed and in any attitude if the critical AOA is exceeded 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 17
  18. 18. StallsStalls For a given airfoil, we can only increase AOA so much before we experience an aerodynamic stall Airfoil in normal flight Airfoil in stalled condition 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 18
  19. 19. StallsStalls 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 19
  20. 20. Maneuvering FlightManeuvering Flight
  21. 21. Primary Flight ControlsPrimary Flight Controls 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 21
  22. 22. Maneuvering FlightManeuvering Flight The flight controls allow pilots to maneuver the aircraft by changing the pressure distribution (and the amount of lift created) on various parts of the aircraft. The primary flight controls do this by changing the AOA to change the lift created thereby allowing the aircraft to pitch bank and yaw 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 22
  23. 23. AileronsAilerons 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 23
  24. 24. RudderRudder 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 24
  25. 25. DragDrag
  26. 26. DragDrag Drag is broken into two types ◦ Parasite ◦ Induced 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 26
  27. 27. DragDrag Parasite drag: ◦ Further broken into  Form drag  Skin friction drag  Interference drag 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 27
  28. 28. DragDrag Parasite / form drag 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 28
  29. 29. DragDrag Parasite / Skin friction drag ◦ Airflow is stagnate near the surface of the wing 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 29
  30. 30. DragDrag Parasite / Interference drag ◦ Airflow is disrupted by how various objects are arranged on the aircraft 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 30
  31. 31. DragDrag Parasite drag increases with velocity 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 31
  32. 32. DragDrag Induced drag ◦ Any time a wing is producing lift their is induced drag ◦ The higher the AOA the more induced drag ◦ Slow aircraft = high AOA = high induced drag 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 32
  33. 33. DragDrag Combined drag curves gives us total drag ◦ 1 airspeed gives us least total drag 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 33
  34. 34. Wake TurbulenceWake Turbulence
  35. 35. Wingtip VorticesWingtip Vortices Aircraft producing lift produce a wake (wingtip vortices) 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 35
  36. 36. Wingtip VorticesWingtip Vortices Airflow moves from high to low – at the wing tips it is allowed to spill over the top creating a vortex 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 36
  37. 37. Wake TurbulenceWake Turbulence Avoid flight where the wake turbulence could be. Taking Off Landing 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 37
  38. 38. Secondary FlightSecondary Flight ControlsControls
  39. 39. Secondary Flight ControlsSecondary Flight Controls On most training aircraft secondary flight controls are limited to: ◦ Flaps ◦ Trim 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 39
  40. 40. Secondary Flight ControlsSecondary Flight Controls Flaps ◦ Allow decreased minimum flight speed ◦ Allow increased drag / Steeper descents  Often used during landing for this purpose 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 40
  41. 41. Secondary Flight ControlsSecondary Flight Controls Flaps 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 41
  42. 42. TrimTrim Accelerate you get more tail down force ◦ Not desirable if you want to maintain level flight 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 42
  43. 43. Multi Rotor Flying PrincipalMulti Rotor Flying Principal 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 43
  44. 44. Weight Balance MechanismWeight Balance Mechanism 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 44
  45. 45. TrimTrim Trim reduces pilot workload (yes) 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 45
  46. 46. ConclusionConclusion Concluding RemarksConcluding Remarks What was not discussed ◦ Transonic flow ◦ Drag-divergence Mach number ◦ Supersonic flow ◦ Wave drag ◦ Swept wings ◦ Compressibility effects ◦ Boundary layer theory ◦ The history of aerodynamics 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 46
  47. 47. Ask your question:Ask your question: For more information Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/user/imagineer ingstudiobd Contact with me in social media: https://www.facebook.com/zubayer.billal. khan/ Email: zubayer_007@yahoo.com 10/27/18 Zubayer Al Billal Khan 47

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