Reading Review


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Reading Review

  1. 1. Grad Exam Review<br />Reading <br />
  2. 2. I-1 Identify Supporting Details<br />P. 41<br />-The author uses elements of literature to identify the rich details and sequence of a story. -A reader should look for images, ideas, and actions that change the direction or plot of a story.<br />-Here are several tips you can use to better recognize and remember the details of a story.<br />1. First, as you read the story, you might start a &quot;catalog&quot; on a separate sheet of paper on which you list objects, places, characters&apos; names, and other details that you think may be significant in the story. Record the page numbers where you found the details.<br />2. Make sure that you remember the setting, or time and place, of the actions within the story.<br />3. Try to visualize what the characters, the setting, and the objects look like in the story. <br />4. Use your five senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell) to scope out the details.<br />5. Focus on the details about the characters. What does each character love, hate, fear, dread, wish for, try to get, etc.? Add these details to your catalog.<br />
  3. 3. I-2 Determine Sequence of Events<br />P. 95<br />-Sequence- Stories are not always organized chronologically by starting at a set point in time and moving forward. Some writers use flashback, which means they loop back in time to an earlier event and then jump forward in time to where they were before the flashback.<br />-Writers also use foreshadowing, which is giving hints, clues, or images about the future.<br />-Always try to visualize and organize the sequence of events into a logical order, even if the story doesn’t move chronologically.<br />-There are several ways to organize the sequence of events from a story. You can write out plot routes in which you summarize the actions of a section or chapter. You could also create a timeline and place each story event in chronological order on the line.<br />-Use transitional words and phrases such as next, then, before, or after that to establish sequence.<br />
  4. 4. I-2 Determine Sequence of Events<br />-You can also make a plot chart that answers the questions: “Somebody, Wanted, But, So?”<br />1. Somebody: (S) What characters are involved in the story?<br />Example: Sally. Cindy. Who?<br />2. Wanted: (W) What are the characters’ goals?<br />Example: The ring. The map. What did Sally want?<br />3. But: (B) What actually happened? What conflicted with Sally’s goals?<br />Example: She didn’t get the ring or the map. She wanted something, BUT...?<br />4.So: (S) What happened next? How did the characters react? What did Sally do?<br />Example: She didn’t get the ring or the map, so she went to the zoo instead. So, what happened?<br />
  5. 5. I-2 Determine Sequence of Events<br />-You may be able to visualize the sequence of events better by drawing them out without using words. Just draw small picture frames like a cartoon. Sketch out the action and sequence of the story.<br />-If the story jumps around in time, you could replot the story by going back to the earliest event and working forward to the future.<br />-Use these steps to replot the sequence of events:<br />1. First:<br />2. Then:<br />3. Finally:<br />
  6. 6. I-3 Follow Directions<br />P. 100<br />You will encounter different kinds of directions when reading. Some are clear, and some are not. The trick is being able to find, to understand, and to follow the clear and not so clear ones. <br />Read carefully, ask yourself questions as you go<br />Watch for clues<br />Mark steps and number them if necessary<br />Pay close attention so that your actions mirror the instructions<br />Review before moving on<br />
  7. 7. II-1 Identify Main Idea<br />P. 41<br />-The main idea of a piece of writing is the primary topic or objective. The theme is the central idea of the writing.<br />-There are a few techniques that can help you focus on main ideas. The main idea will usually (but not always) be presented at or near the beginning of the paragraph.<br />-As you read a paragraph or story, you can get a good idea about the main idea by explaining in one word what the subject of the reading is. Identifying the subject is important to determine what is being said about the topic.<br />
  8. 8. II-1 Identify Main Idea<br />-A topic sentence states the main idea of a paragraph. All the paragraphs together support the theme. The topic sentence is usually the first or second sentence of a paragraph.<br />-One method to determine an implied or unstated idea is to answer who, what, where, when, why, or how about the piece. Who or what is the subject of the story? Where did the story happen? What is the author trying to tell the reader about the subject?<br />-After a main idea has been stated in a topic sentence, you should find supporting sentences that surround the topic sentence. Supporting sentences supply the necessary details that enrich and develop the main idea. Supporting sentences may contain details such as examples, anecdotes, facts, and statistics.<br />
  9. 9. II-2 Draw Conclusions<br />P. 119<br />-To draw a conclusion means to make an informed decision based on the supporting facts and details of a reading selection. A conclusion can be an opinion of the reader that is based on specific information in the story.<br />
  10. 10. II-3 Determine Cause and Effect<br />P. 109<br />-The effect is what happens, or the result of the cause.<br />-Linking words and phrases often give clues that identify a cause or effect. For example, a word as simple as thus can indicate an effect.<br />-When you see any of these words or phrases that indicate an effect, be aware that there is a cause somewhere near. Causes are usually, but not always, stated before effects.<br />As a result because<br />But consequently<br />due to for<br />for this reason if. . .then<br />Nevertheless resulted<br />Since so<br />so therefore<br />
  11. 11. II-3 Determine Cause and Effect<br />-Here are some examples of how linking words and phrases are used to signal cause and effect.<br />-If/then<br /> If I save my money (cause) then I will be able to buy a ticket to the concert (effect).<br />-Due to<br /> Due to the thorough notes that I took during the professor’s lecture (cause), I was able to make a high grade on his exam (effect).<br />-Because<br /> Because I have a painful sore throat (cause), I’m going to the doctor (effect).+<br />
  12. 12. II-4 Detect propaganda; distinguish fact from opinion<br />P. 79<br />-A fact is a statement that can be proved, either by personal knowledge or through a reliable source. Here are some examples of facts and how they can be proved:<br /> President Kennedy was assassinated. <br /> Proven by a history book or by living witnesses.<br />Jason won the election. <br /> Proven by the number of votes.<br />-Opinions cannot be proved. They are based on someone’s thoughts, feelings, or judgments. Here are some examples of opinions:<br /> President Kennedy was the best President.<br /> Jason is a great person.<br /> Professor Lowe’s lectures are hard to follow.<br /> Mr. Hopkins felt the college needed a new athletic facility.<br />
  13. 13. II-4 Detect propaganda; distinguish fact from opinion<br />-Opinions often use words that appeal to emotion. The material will include words that give the reader a feeling of anger, happiness, sorrow, pity, or any emotion that will persuade the reader.<br />-Opinions are unprovable statements that express a writer’s beliefs. Sometimes, however, a writer presents an opinion as if it were a fact. Be aware. Try to recognize which statements are facts and which are opinions.<br />-What is propaganda?<br /> A star athlete assures you that Pain No More is the best headache remedy on the market.<br /> A local politician asks you to vote for him because he’s “the worker’s friend,” and promises to create more jobs, raise wages, and cut taxes.<br />A car dealership uses an image of “Uncle Sam” holding a large American flag to sell the latest model to the public.<br />
  14. 14. II-4 Detect propaganda; distinguish fact from opinion<br />-Propaganda can be defined as information that is spread for the purpose of promoting a cause. Propaganda includes ideas, opinions, and beliefs.<br />-Propaganda can also take the form of a scientific study or research that promotes a point of view.<br />-Newspapers have used editorials to spread propaganda about a political, social, or economic viewpoint. One of the most famous examples of newspaper propaganda was yellow journalism, also known as the yellow press. These newspapers used sensational and often distorted stories to increase circulation<br />
  15. 15. II-4 Detect propaganda; distinguish fact from opinion<br />-There are many techniques for spreading propaganda, some of which are listed below. By recognizing the clues, you can make wiser and more educated assessments about the information with which you are presented.<br />-Transferring ideas<br />loaded words-words that appeal to people’s emotions rather than their sense of logic<br />name calling-mudslinging is using a negative term to create an unfavorable response<br />Bandwagon-urges people to do something just because someone else does<br />Testimonials-use an expert or famous person to persuade people<br />flag waving-connects the use of a product with patriotism<br />Statistics-a set of numbers that describe circumstances <br />glittering generalities-broad, sweeping statements <br />cause and effect-uses an illogical approach to sell<br />
  16. 16. II-5 Recognize Summary Statements<br />P. 104<br />Summarizing is how we take larger selections of text and reduce them to their bare essentials: the gist, the key ideas, the main points that are worth noting and remembering. Webster’s calls a summary the “general idea in brief form”; it’s the distillation, condensation, or reduction of a larger work into its primary notions<br />We strip away the extra verbiage and extraneous examples. We focus on the heart of the matter. We try to find the key words and phrases that, when uttered later, still manage to capture the gist of what we’ve read. We are trying to capture the main ideas and the crucial details necessary for supporting them.<br />
  17. 17. III-1 Recognize logic and arguments<br />P. 104<br />-An author uses supporting evidence in persuasive writing to try to influence the reader’s point of view. The author may want to move the reader to take an action such as voting for a presidential candidate.<br />-Newspaper editorials and columns are usually persuasive writing. The author uses information, analysis, and examples to try to influence the viewpoint or opinion of the reader.<br />-One of the most important skills a reader can develop is the ability to make good judgments. Readers must learn to analyze reading material to better understand the author’s purpose. Learning to distinguish between fact and opinion will help you to make better judgments. People often try to persuade you to do or believe something. Sometimes they try to persuade you with facts; other times they just offer opinions.<br />
  18. 18. III-1 Recognize logic and arguments<br />-Logic- a particular mode of reasoning viewed as valid or faulty<br />-Strength of arguments- Focus on validity and soundness, not on your agreement or disagreement. To examine the validity or soundness of an argument is an attempt to discover the truth, not an attempt to vindicate yourself or your beliefs, to defeat an opponent, or to “win”. <br />
  19. 19. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />P. 135<br />-Point of view is the perspective from which the author tells a story. The most commonly used point of view is third person, in which someone tells the story as an observer. When an author uses first person point of view, one of the characters tells the story.<br />A narrator has a limited point of view if his or her knowledge only extends to the internal thoughts of one character. The narrator is using an omniscient, or all-knowing, point of view in a story when he or she has knowledge of the internal thoughts and actions of any or all of the characters. <br />-Mood and tone are definitely changed by the author’s use of diction (choice of words).<br />Mood<br />-Mood refers to a feeling or emotion such as happiness, sadness, anger, etc. that the reader gets from reading a literary work.<br />In Shakespeare’s play Macbeth, the descriptions of blood, violence, and darkness create a mood of uneasiness and despair for the reader.<br />For example, in Act I, Scene 2, King Duncan says, “What bloody man is that?” Mood has been created.<br />
  20. 20. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />-Tone is an author’s moral view or attitude that he or she portrays to the audience. Tone is developed through the author’s choice of words and details.<br />In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, a grievous tone is set when Juliet says, “O Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy father and refuse thy name; Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love and I’ll no longer be a Capulet.”<br />Remember that tone is the author’s personal attitude toward his or her characters, subject, audience, and plot. The author’s tone may actually affect the mood of a story.<br />-The entire tone of a story may be formal, informal, serious, or silly. The tone creates an emotional response from the reader that contributes to the mood of a story.<br />
  21. 21. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />-Imagery is the use of sensory words and phrases to create vivid mental pictures in the reader’s mind. Imagery relates to one or more of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. The use of imagery increases the impact and effect of the story by producing a mental image for the reader.<br />-Poets attempt to share their thoughts and experiences with us by appealing to our imaginations and emotions. One way a poet is able to make an experience seem real to us is through the careful use of vivid imagery.<br />-You can see how mood and tone work together to evoke different emotions in the reader. -A writer may choose to be solemn or ecstatic.<br />-Generally, mood and tone will mirror each other. Most of the time you will not find a humorous tone in a story with a serious mood. However, there are exceptions to this rule. <br />
  22. 22. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />-Analogy- <br />similarity in some respects between things otherwise unlike; partial resemblance <br />the likening of one thing to another on the basis of some similarity between the two <br />Logic an inference from certain admitted resemblances between two or more things to a probable further similarity between them<br />-Setting-the time, place, environment, and surrounding circumstances of an event, story, play, etc.<br />-Plot- the arrangement of the incidents in a play, novel, narrative poem, etc.<br />
  23. 23. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />-Characterization- Characterization refers to the manner in which an author introduces a character in a story, poem, or play. The author may use a specific description of the character’s appearance, personality, or actions, or the author may choose to provide only a vague description that allows the reader to draw inferences about the character.<br />Authors create characters by using several methods: description, dialogue, action, other characters’ reactions, and setting. They sometimes use their own statements or analyses to characterize.<br />1. DIRECT CHARACTERIZATION — the writer makes direct statements about a character’s personality and tells what the character is like.2. INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION — the writer reveals information about a character and his personality through that character’s thoughts, words, and actions, along with how other characters respond to that character, including what they think and say about him.<br />
  24. 24. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />ExpositionThe introductory material which gives the setting, creates the tone, presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understanding the story.<br />ForeshadowingThe use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the story.<br />Inciting ForceThe event or character that triggers the conflict.<br />ConflictThe essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can usually be identified as one of four kinds. (Man versus…Man, Nature, Society, or Self)<br />Rising ActionA series of events that builds from the conflict. It begins with the inciting force and ends with the climax.<br />
  25. 25. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />CrisisThe conflict reaches a turning point. At this point the opposing forces in the story meet and the conflict becomes most intense. The crisis occurs before or at the same time as the climax.<br />ClimaxThe climax is the result of the crisis. It is the high point of the story for the reader. Frequently, it is the moment of the highest interest and greatest emotion. The point at which the outcome of the conflict can be predicted.<br />Falling ActionThe events after the climax which close the story.<br />Resolution (Denouement)Rounds out and concludes the action.<br />
  26. 26. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />MAJOR CHARACTERSAlmost always round or three-dimensional characters. They have good and bad qualities. Their goals, ambitions and values change. A round character changes as a result of what happens to him or her. A character who changes inside as a result of what happens to him is referred to in literature as a DYNAMIC character. A dynamic character grows or progresses to a higher level of understanding in the course of the story. <br />ProtagonistThe main character in the story<br />AntagonistThe character or force that opposes the protagonist.<br />FoilA character who provides a contrast to the protagonist.<br />MINOR CHARACTERSAlmost always flat or two-dimensional characters. They have only one or two striking qualities. Their predominant quality is not balanced by an opposite quality. They are usually all good or all bad. Such characters can be interesting or amusing in their own right, but they lack depth. Flat characters are sometimes referred to as STATIC characters because they do not change in the course of the story. <br />
  27. 27. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />POINT OF VIEW<br />First PersonThe narrator is a character in the story who can reveal only personal thoughts and feelings and what he or she sees and is told by other characters. He can’t tell us thoughts of other characters.<br />Third-Person ObjectiveThe narrator is an outsider who can report only what he or she sees and hears. This narrator can tell us what is happening, but he can’t tell us the thoughts of the characters.<br />Third-Person LimitedThe narrator is an outsider who sees into the mind of one of the characters.<br />Omniscient The narrator is an all-knowing outsider who can enter the minds of more than one of the characters.<br />
  28. 28. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br /> CONFLICT<br />Conflict is the essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can usually be identified as one of four kinds.<br />Man versus ManConflict that pits one person against another.<br />Man versus NatureA run-in with the forces of nature. On the one hand, it expresses the insignificance of a single human life in the cosmic scheme of things. On the other hand, it tests the limits of a person’s strength and will to live.<br />Man versus SocietyThe values and customs by which everyone else lives are being challenged. The character may come to an untimely end as a result of his or her own convictions. The character may, on the other hand, bring others around to a sympathetic point of view, or it may be decided that society was right after all.<br />Man versus SelfInternal conflict. Not all conflict involves other people. Sometimes people are their own worst enemies. An internal conflict is a good test of a character’s values. Does he give in to temptation or rise above it? Does he demand the most from himself or settle for something less? Does he even bother to struggle? The internal conflicts of a character and how they are resolved are good clues to the character’s inner strength.<br />Often, more than one kind of conflict is taking place at the same time. In every case, however, the existence of conflict enhances the reader’s understanding of a character and creates the suspense and interest that make you want to continue reading. <br />
  29. 29. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />FORESHADOWING<br />An author’s use of hints or clues to suggest events that will occur later in the story. Not all foreshadowing is obvious. Frequently, future events are merely hinted at through dialogue, description, or the attitudes and reactions of the characters.<br />Foreshadowing frequently serves two purposes. It builds suspense by raising questions that encourage the reader to go on and find out more about the event that is being foreshadowed. Foreshadowing is also a means of making a narrative more believable by partially preparing the reader for events which are to follow.<br />
  30. 30. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />IRONY <br />Irony is the contrast between what is expected or what appears to be and what actually is.<br />Verbal IronyThe contrast between what is said and what is actually meant.<br />Irony of SituationThis refers to a happening that is the opposite of what is expected or intended.<br />Dramatic IronyThis occurs when the audience or reader knows more than the characters know.<br />SYMBOLISM<br />A person, place or object which has a meaning in itself but suggests other meanings as well. Things, characters and actions can be symbols. Anything that suggests a meaning beyond the obvious.Some symbols are conventional, generally meaning the same thing to all readers. For example: bright sunshine symbolizes goodness and water is a symbolic cleanser. <br />
  31. 31. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />THEME<br />The main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work. A theme may be stated or implied. Theme differs from the subject or topic of a literary work in that it involves a statement or opinion about the topic. Not every literary work has a theme. Themes may be major or minor. A major theme is an idea the author returns to time and again. It becomes one of the most important ideas in the story. Minor themes are ideas that may appear from time to time.<br />IMAGERY:Language that appeals to the senses. Descriptions of people or objects stated in terms of our senses.<br />
  32. 32. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE<br />Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using figurative language. Any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject. The most common figures of speech are simile, metaphor, and alliteration.<br />SimileA figure of speech which involves a direct comparison between two unlike things, usually with the words like or as. Example: The muscles on his brawny arms are strong as iron bands.<br />MetaphorA figure of speech which involves an implied comparison between two relatively unlike things using a form of be. The comparison is not announced by like or as. Example: The road was a ribbon of moonlight.<br />
  33. 33. III-2 Analyze Literary Elements<br />Aliteration- Repeated consonant sounds occurring at the beginning of words or within words. Alliteration is used to create melody, establish mood, call attention to important words, and point out similarities and contrasts. Example: wide-eyed and wondering while we wait for others to waken.<br />PersonificationA figure of speech which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea. It is a comparison which the author uses to show something in an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to control the way a reader perceives it. Example: a brave handsome brute fell with a creaking rending cry—the author is giving a tree human qualities.<br />OnomatopoeiaThe use of words that mimic sounds. They appeal to our sense of hearing and they help bring a description to life. A string of syllables the author has made up to represent the way a sound really sounds. Example: Caarackle!<br />HyperboleAn exaggerated statement used to heighten effect. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point. Example: She’s said so on several million occasions<br />Idiom: An idiom is an expression used by a particular group of people with a meaning that is only known through common use. One example of an idiom would be to say, “I’m just waiting for him to kick the bucket.” Many idioms that are frequently used are also considered clichés. <br />Symbolism: Symbolism occurs when a noun which has meaning in itself is used to represent something entirely different. One example of symbolism would be to use an image of the American flag to represent patriotism and a love for one’s country.<br />
  34. 34. IV-1 Determine Meaning of Words<br />P. 91<br />-Using the context of a word means that when you hear an unfamiliar word in a conversation or come across it in reading, you can use the words, phrases, or sentences that surround that word to decipher its meaning.<br />In other words, look for clues about the meaning of a word in its context, or in the sentence or paragraph in which it is used.<br />-Did you notice the prefix con? If you have already studied prefixes, you might recall that this prefix means with. Text means words; therefore, context means with words.<br />-You can use definitions and restatements that surround a word to determine its meaning.<br />Some unfamiliar words may be accompanied by examples within the sentence.<br />-The square hatchment, bearing the coat of arms of the man who died, was carried through the town by four friends of the deceased.<br />-Synonyms can also serve as sources for context clues.<br />
  35. 35. IV-1 Determine Meaning of Words<br />-The diaconate, or deacons, passed the collection plates.<br />Deacons is a synonym for diaconate.<br />-Look for comparisons in a sentence to serve as context clues.<br />The archaeologists studied the giant fossil of the extinct mastodon, which resembles an elephant but is actually larger.<br />A mastodon is compared to an elephant in this sentence, giving a clue as to what a mastodon is and to what it can be compared.<br />-The opposite of comparison is contrast. Look for context clues that show how two things are different.<br />Next to the German shepherd, the toy poodle was minuscule.<br />The contrast of the large dog to the tiny poodle is a contextual clue that minuscule means very small.<br />Look for a cause and effect relationship within a sentence to give context clues.<br />Because her snood covered the bottom of her bun, her hair stayed in place during the roller coaster ride.<br />The cause and effect relationship is this: because she wore a snood, her hair did not get blown. A snood is a net or fabric bag designed to cover the hair and/or hold it in place.<br />
  36. 36. IV-2 Preview, predict<br />P. 125, 128<br />Previewing<br />-Previewing a text means gathering as much information about the text as you can before you actually read it. You can ask yourself the following questions: <br />What is my Purpose for Reading?<br />What can the Title Tell Me About the Text?<br />Who is the Author?<br />How is the Text Structured?<br />-An outcome is a result or consequence of some action or event in a story. Many stories have more than one possible outcome.<br />-To predict the outcome of a reading selection, consider the information you have been presented and make an informed guess as to what will occur next in the story. The author usually provides clues to help the reader predict what will happen. Sometimes an author will use techniques such as foreshadowing to help the reader predict an outcome of the story.<br />
  37. 37. IV-3 Discern organizational patterns<br />P. 95<br />Chronological order- order of time from the first step to the last<br />Spatial order- uses details and describes according to closeness to each other<br />Order of importance- from least to greatest or greatest to least importance<br />Comparing/contrasting- using similarities and differences- look for transition words<br />Main idea/details and heading- states main idea and follows with details<br />
  38. 38. IV-4 Demonstrate reference material usage<br />Dictionary- a book of alphabetically listed words in a language, with definitions, etymologies, pronunciations, and other information; lexicon<br /> <br />Glossary- a list of difficult, technical, or foreign terms with definitions or translations, as for some particular author, field of knowledge, etc., often included in alphabetical listing at the end of a textbook<br /> <br />Table of contents- is a list of the parts of a book or document organized in the order in which the parts appear.<br /> <br />Index- (in a nonfiction book, monograph, etc.) a more or less detailed alphabetical listing of names, places, and topics along with the numbers of the pages on which they are mentioned or discussed, usually included in or constituting the back matter.<br /> <br />Appendix- supplementary material at the end of a book, article, document, or other text, usually of an explanatory, statistical, or bibliographic nature.<br />
  39. 39. IV-4 Demonstrate reference material usage<br />Atlas- a bound collection of maps.<br /> <br />Almanac- an annual publication containing a calendar for the coming year, the times of such events and phenomena as anniversaries, sunrises and sunsets, phases of the moon, tides, etc., and other statistical information and related topics.<br /> <br />Encyclopedia- a book or set of books containing articles on various topics, usually in alphabetical arrangement, covering all branches of knowledge or, less commonly, all aspects of one subject.<br /> <br />Reader’s guide- An index to magazine or periodical articles which helps to find information that appeared in an article. Very good for finding recent or up-to-date information.<br /> <br />Card catalog- a file of cards of uniform size arranged in some definite order and listing the items in the collection of a library or group of libraries, each card typically identifying a single item.<br />