Hormones artifact!


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Hormones artifact!

  1. 1. Introduction: 1. How do the nervous and endocrine systems work together? To put it simply, your nervous and endocrine systems continuously monitor thewell-being of each of the billions of cells in your body, and they continuously take actionthrough messenger systems to keep all of your cells as healthy as possible. (14) © The nervous and endocrine systems are related in three main areas, structure,chemical, and function. The endocrine and nervous system work parallel with eachother and in conjunction function in maintaining homeostasis, development andreproduction. Both systems are the communication links of the body and aid the body’slife systems to function correctly and in relation to each other. (13) © 2. What is the method in which the endocrine system undergoes its functions? Hormones regulate bodily functions and are specific in what responses theyelicit. As hormones are released into the bloodstream they can only initiate responses intarget cells, which are specifically equipped to respond. Each hormone due to itschemical structure is recognized by those target cells with receptors compatible withtheir structure. Once a hormone is released, the first step is the specific binding of thechemical signal to a hormone receptor, a protein within the target cell or built into theplasma membrane. The receptor molecule is essential to a hormones function. Thereceptor molecule translates the hormone and enables the target cell to respond to thehormones chemical signal. The meeting of the hormone with the receptor cell initiatesresponses from the target cell. These responses vary according to target cell and lipidsolubility. (13) © (18) ©
  2. 2. Functions:Tropic hormones (stimulate growth), sex hormones (target reproductive tissues), and anabolichormones (stimulate anabolism in their target cells) are all hormones classified by their generalfunctions.Structures:Hormones get classified by their chemical structureSteroid Hormones:Manufactured by endocrine cells from cholesterol, an important type of lipid in the human body.Because steroids are lipid soluble, they can easily pass through the phospholipid plasma membrane oftarget cells.Non-steroid Hormones:Synthesized primarily from amino acids rather than from cholesterol. Some are protein hormones; theyare long folded chains of amino acids, and a structure type of protein molecules of any sort.How do Hormones work? 1. Lock and Key: The amino acid structure of the hormone is the key and the receptor is a lock. In order for the key hormone to fit in the lock receptor, the hormone –receptor complex must be an exact match. 2. What happens when hormones combine? : A specific hormone combines with a specific receptor site, and forms a combination and a reaction of both.
  3. 3. Prostaglandins are a unique group of lipid molecules that serve important and widespread integrativefunctions in the body but do not meet the usual definition of a hormone. They are rapidly metabolized,so that circulating levels are extremely low. There are at least 16 different types of prostaglandins thatfall into nine structural classes. They have been isolated and identified from a variety of tissues, the firstbeing found in semen, attributed to the prostate gland. Other tissues that secrete prostaglandins arekidneys, lungs, iris, and brain. ©8The pituitary gland is small but mighty located within the skill on the ventral surface of the brain. It hasa stem like stalk and connects to the hypothalamus. It may look like one gland but it is actually 2, theanterior and posterior pituitary glands. The anterior is divided into 2 parts, the pars anterior and thepars intermedia. Their secretions are classified by these 5 types, somatotrophs, which secrets growthhormone, corticotrophs, responsible for secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyrotrophs, thatsecrete thyroid stimulating hormone, lactotrophs, who secret prolactin, and gonadotrophs, they secretsluteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. The posterior pituitary serves as storage andrelease site for two hormones, antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. ©8The pineal gland is a pine cone shaped structure located on the dorsal aspect of the brain’sdiencephalon region. It works as a member of the nervous system and the endocrine system. Itfunctions to support the body’s biological clock that regulated out patterns of eating, sleeping,reproduction, and behavior. Melatonin, the principal pineal secretion is thought to induce sleep. It alsoplays into a person’s mood. ©8The thyroid gland is made up of 2 large central lobes and a narrow connecting isthmus. It’s located inthe neck. It’s composed of tiny structural units called follicles, the site of thyroid hormone synthesis.Each follicle is a small hollow sphere with a wall of simple cuboidal glandular epithelium that’s filled withthick fluid called the thyroid colloid which contains thyroglobulin. The thyroid hormone is actually 2different hormones, tetraiodothyronine or triiodothyronine. There is another gland produced calledcalcitonin, which technically isn’t called a thyroid hormone because it was discovered after the others.©8Parathyroid gland- Function: Controls and distributes the calcium in our blood and bones. Location: Located next to, and sometimes inside the thyroid gland. Hormones: Parathormone or Parathyrin.Adrenal Gland- Function: Releases hormones in response to stress. Location: above kidney, and next to pancreas. Hormones: Cortisol, Aldosterone and Androgens.Pancreatic Islets- Function: secretes Insulin and Glucagon Location: Pancreas
  4. 4. Hormones: Insulin and GlucagonGonads- Function: Produces gametes Location: Testes in males, Ovaries in Females Hormones: GametesPlacenta- connects fetus to utirne wall, produces pregnancy related hormones, including chorionicgonadotropin, estrogen, and progesterone.Thymus- located in upper chest, underneath breast bone, helps the body make white blood cells thathelp fight against infectionsGastric and intestinal mucosa- allow efficient transport of nutrients across the epithelium whileexcluding passage of harmful molecules and organisms, located in a layer of the stomachHeart- pumps oxygen-rich blood to every living cell in the body, non-beating heart results in death, theheart beats approximately 80,000 to 100,000 pumps per day. it is located in the chest. Blood is pumpedthrough arteries, it is all a continuous cycle. Hormones ChartHormone Source Target Principal ActionGrowth hormone Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates secretion ofreleasing hormone (somatotrophs) growth hormone(GRH)Growth hormone- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhibits secretion ofinhibiting hormone (somatotrophs) growth hormone(GIH) or somatostatinCorticotropin-releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release ofhormone (CRH) (corticotrophs) ACTHThyrotropin-releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release ofhormone (TRH) (thyrotrophs) TSHGonadotropin-releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates release ofhormone (GNRH) (gonadotrophs) (FSH) and (LH)Prolactin-releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates secretion ofhormone (PRH) (coritcotrophs) prolactinProlactin-inhibiting Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhibits secretion ofhormone (PIH) (corticotrophs) prolactinGrowth hormone Adenohypophysis General Promotes growth bysomatotropin (STH) (somatotrophs) stimulating protein anabolism and fat mobilizationProlactin (PRL) Adenohypophysis Mammary Glands Promotes milk secretion (lactotrophs)Thyroid-stimulating Adenohypophysis Thyroid Gland Stimulateshormone (TSH) (thyrotrophs) development and secretion in the thyroid glandACTH Adenohypophysis Adrenal Cortex Promotes development (corticotrophs) and secretion in the
  5. 5. adrenal cortexFollicle-stimulating Adenohypophysis Gonads Female: promoteshormone (gonadotrophs) development of ovarian follicle, simulates estrogen secretion Male: promotes development of testis; stimulates sperm productionLuteinizing hormone Adenohypophysis Gonads Female: triggers(LH) (gonadotrophs) ovulation; promotes development of corpus leteum Male: stimulates production of testosteroneAntidiuretic hormone Nuerohypophysis Kidney Promotes water(ADH) retention by kidney tubulesOxytocin (OT) Nuerohypophysis Uterus and mammary Stimulates uterine glands contractions; stimulates ejection of milk into mammary ductsTriiodothyronine Thyroid gland (follicular General Increases rate of cells) metabolismTetraiodothyronine or Thyroid gland (follicular General Increases rate ofthyroxine cells) metabolism usually converted to T3 firstCalcitonin Thyroid gland Bone tissue Increases calcium (parafollicular cells) storage in bone, lowering blood Ca ++ levelsParathyroid hormone Parathyroid glands Bone tissue and kidney Increases calcium(PTH) removal from storage in bone and produces the active form of vitamin D in the kidneysAldosterone Adrenal cortex (zona Kidney Stimulates kidney glomerulosa) tubules to conserve sodium- release of ADHCortisol Adrenal cortex (zona General Influences metabolism fasciculate) of food moleculesAdrenal Androgens Adrenal cortex (zona Sex organs May support sexual reticularis) functionAdrenal estrogens Adrenal cortex (zona Sex Organs Insignificant reticularis)
  6. 6. Epinephrine Adrenal medulla Sympathetic effectors Enhances and prolongs the effects of the sympathetic division of the ANSNorepinephrine Adrenal medulla Sympathetic effectors Enhances and prolongs the effects of the sympathetic division of the ANSGlucagon Pancreatic Islets (A General Promotes movement of cells) glucose from storage into the bloodInsulin Pancreatic Islets (B General Promotes movement of cells) glucose out of the blood and into the cellsSomatostatin Pancreatic Islets (D cells) Pancreatic cells and other Regulation of secretion of effectors other pancreatic hormonesPancreatic Polypeptide Pancreatic Islets (F cells) Intestinal cells and other Seems to influence absorption in the digestive tract. effectors©8