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Wind power


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  • 1.There is no close relationship between mean wind profile and mean temperature profile over hills. 2.Whilst the directional wind profiles are practically uninfluenced by wind speed, they are largely determined by: (a) the hill profile in the immediate neighbourhood of the site of measurements, and (b) the hill profile further upwind in relation to that near the measurements site .3.The effect of thermal stratification is important for all wind speeds with the curves of wind ratio as a function of temperature gradient exhibiting a both minimum and a maximum, the location of which on the scale of temperature gradient depending on the hill profile .Very interesting topic.
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Wind power

  1. 1. Wind Power<br />风 能<br />
  2. 2. 风有天出来大显身手,<br />他横扫挡道的云彩,<br />吹散的树叶纷纷乱飞,<br />树木弯下身来树枝也低下了头,<br />让大船飘洋过海,<br />也吹走了我的风筝。<br />“The wind came out to play one day.<br />He swept the clouds out of his way.<br />He blew the leaves and away they flew.<br />The trees bent low and their branches did too!<br />The wind blew the great big ships at sea.<br />The wind blew the kite away from me.”<br />
  3. 3. Wind Power is Nothing New 风能不是什么新东西<br />14th century windmill 14世纪风磨<br />
  4. 4. Classic ‘Dutch Style’ Wind Mills 荷兰式古典凤磨<br />人们对荷兰的第一个影像是风磨之国。荷兰在好几个世纪前就建起许多风磨,用来磨谷物、大地灌溉、锯木材以及其他种种工业用途。<br />The first fact people recall about The Netherlands as a country is of course its ‘Windmills’. Windmills have been built in The Netherlands for many centuries. In the beginning, the mills were developed for corn milling, land drainage, saw milling and for many other industrial purposes.<br />
  5. 5. 凤动力是由风能转变的,如风能涡轮机用于发电、风磨系利用其机械能,风动水泵用于抽水灌溉,风帆可驱动帆船。<br />Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships.<br />
  6. 6. Producing electric power with wind is a simple process.Most turbines have three huge blades that are aerodynamically designed to turn easily as possible when the wind blow on them. Three turning blades spin a shaft which connects to a generator that produces electricity.<br />风力发电过程很简单。大多数涡轮机具有三个巨大的叶片,叶片按照空气动力学原理设计,有风时极易转动。叶片使低速轴旋转,通过增速器、高速轴带动发电机。<br />
  7. 7. Wind Turbine 1888 by Charles Brush<br />Charles F. Brush’s 60 foot, 80,000 pound turbine that supplied 12kW of power to 350 incandescent lights, 2 arc lights, and a number of motors at his home for 20 years. It today is believed to be the first automatically operating wind turbine for electricity generation and was built in the winter of 1887 – 1888 in his back yard. Its rotor was 17 meters in diameter.<br />布勒什设计制造的涡轮机高60英尺重80000磅,供电功率12kW ,为他家里350个白炽灯、2个弧光灯及若干电动机供电20年。今天大家确信这是第一台用于发电的风力涡轮机,在1887-1888年建于布勒什家后院,转子直径17m。<br />
  8. 8. Wind power: worldwide installed capacity<br />全世界风力发电安装容量<br />At the end of 2010, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 197 gigawatts (GW), which is about 2.5% of worldwide electricity usage.<br />截止到2010年年底全世界风力发电机的名牌能力为197 GW,约全世界用电量的2.5%。<br />Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration, such as 21% of stationary electricity production in Denmark, 18% in Portugal, 16% in Spain, 14% in Ireland and 9% in Germany in 2010.<br />有些国家的风能力用率已达到相当高水平,例如2010 年丹麦已达到固定发电量的21%,葡萄牙18%,西班牙16%,爱尔兰14%,德国9%。<br />worldwide installed capacity forecast <br />全世界风力发电安装容量预测<br />
  9. 9. Top 10 wind power countries <br />十大风力发电国家<br />Top 10 electricity generation EU countries<br />十大欧盟国家 <br />
  10. 10. A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm may also be located offshore.<br />一个大型风电场可能安装几百台风力涡轮机,占地几百平方英里。场地还可用于耕种或其他用途。风电场也可能建在近海。<br />
  11. 11. World Largest onshore wind farms<br />世界最大陆上风电场<br />
  12. 12. In 2005, Orion Energy announced plans to develop a 450-megawatt wind farm with 225 turbines at Biglow Canyon in the Columbia River Gorge, at the time the largest project of its kind in Oregon. The wind farm development became operational in December 2007.<br />2005年俄里昂能源公司计划在俄勒冈开发建有225台涡轮机的450MW风电场,风电场已于2007年运行。<br />
  13. 13. The San Gorgonio Pass wind farm is one of the largest in California, generating 615 MW of power and comprised of 3,218 turbines. <br />圣高果尼奥山口风电场是美国加州最大的风电场之一,容量615MW,共3218台涡轮机。<br />
  14. 14. Horse Hollow wind energy center is the world s largest wind farm at all time.<br />美国德州Horse Hollow风能中心一直是世界最大的风电场。<br />
  15. 15. Effects on the environment from wind power are generally less problematic than those of any other power source. The intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when using wind power to supply up to 20% of total electricity demand, but as the proportion rises, increased costs, a need to upgrade the grid, and a lowered ability to supplant conventional production may occur.<br />同其他发电相比风电队环境冲突问题较小。风力发电占总发电容量20%以下时风的间歇性对风力发电影响甚小。但比例增加时由于电网需要升级会提高成本并可能降低常规生产能力。<br />
  16. 16. Aerial view of a wind farm in Spain<br />In 2010, Spain became Europe's leading producer of wind energy, achieving 42,976 GWh. <br />2010年西班牙成为欧洲欧洲最大风能生产国家,达到42976 GWh。<br />
  17. 17. Texas Hill county, USA<br />美国德州希尔县风电场<br />
  18. 18. A planed wind power project in California’s Mojave Desert<br />美国加利福尼亚莫哈韦沙漠拟建风电工程。<br />
  19. 19. A wind farm in Germany<br />德国<br />
  20. 20. 中国新疆达坂城风电场<br />Dabancheng Windfarm, China<br />
  21. 21. Turbine blade convoy passing through Edenfield in the UK,<br />涡轮机叶片途径英国伊顿菲尔德<br />
  22. 22. Middelgrunden Off-Shore Wind Farm<br />丹麦米德尔格伦登近海风电场<br />
  23. 23. Lillgrund Wind Farm,Swedon<br />瑞典里尔格伦德近海风电场<br />
  24. 24. South Korea Planning Massive Off Shore Wind Farm<br />南韩拟建大量近海风电场<br />
  25. 25. Livestock ignore wind turbines, and continue to graze as they did before wind turbines were installed<br />家畜并不过不在乎涡轮机,建立风电场后照旧在原处放牧。<br />
  26. 26. Danish wind turbines near Copenhagen<br />Wind energy "penetration" refers to the fraction of energy produced by wind compared with the total available generation capacity. There is no generally accepted "maximum" level of wind penetration. The limit for a particular grid will depend on the existing generating plants, pricing mechanisms, capacity for storage or demand management, and other factors.Studies have indicated that 20% of the total electrical energy consumption may be incorporated with minimal difficulty.At present, a few grid systems have penetration of wind energy above 5%, Denmark keeps thr highest (values over 19%).<br />丹麦哥本哈根附近的风电场<br />
  27. 27. Magnetic levitation is a very efficient method of capturing wind energy. The blades of the turbine are suspended on a cushion of air, and the energy is directed to linear generators with minimal fiction losses. But the big advantage with maglev is that it reduces maintenance costs, and increases the lifespan of the generator. The manufacturer claims that it requires less land space than hundreds of conventional turbines. The MagLev wind turbine was invented by Ed Mazur, a researcher of variable renewable energy sources since 1981. There are already several MagLev wind turbines in operation in China.<br />磁力漂浮是捕获风能的一种高效方法。涡轮机的叶片悬挂在一空气垫上能量直接导向直线发电机使其摩擦阻力为最小。但maolev最大优点在于降低维护费用、提高发电机寿命。制造商声称其占地面积少于几百台常规涡轮机。MagLev是由可再生能源研究人员Ed Muzur与1981年发明的。目前已有几台MagLev风力涡轮机在中国运行。<br />MadLev can generate one Gigawatt of power (enough to power 750,000 homes) and delivers clean power for less than one cent per kilowatt hour using this wind turbine.<br />MagLeV发电容量达到1GW,足够供应750000个家庭使用的洁净电力。用这种涡轮机发电每千瓦小时电费不到一美分。<br />
  28. 28. Small-scale wind power is the name given to wind generation systems with the capacity to produce up to 50 kW of electrical power. Isolated communities may use wind turbines to displace diesel fuel consumption. Individuals may purchase these systems to reduce or eliminate their dependence on grid electricity for economic or other reasons, or to reduce their carbon footprint. Wind turbines have been used for household electricity generation in conjunction with battery storage over many decades in remote areas.<br />小型风力发电系统的容量在50kW以下,孤立社区可用来代替柴油发电机,个人为了经济打算或其他原因也可购买这种系统减少或消除对电网的依赖,降低碳足迹。同蓄电池相接合,风力涡轮机用于发电在边远地区已用了好几十年。<br />
  29. 29. Sky Serpent – An Array of Small Rotors<br />Sky Serpent(天蛇):具有一系列小转子<br />
  30. 30. Many people think wind turbines are ugly but what about these unique and colourful residential street wind turbines? Conventional turbines are best suited to wide open spaces where there’s plenty of wind. So this nifty vertical axis, helical design is a much better solution for urban settings.<br />The Queen of England seems to agree. XCO2, a UK company behind the unconventional design, has applied for planning permission to build one outside her London residence, Buckingham Palace.<br />许多人认为风力涡轮机不美观,看看这些独特的彩色街道涡轮机如何?常规涡轮机适用于风大的空旷地区,这种漂亮的立轴螺旋型设计是城市涡轮机设施更好的方案。英国女皇好像已同意英国一家公司的非常规设计在她的白金汉宫外伦敦居民区建造一套的申请计划。<br />
  31. 31. The Highway Turbine<br />公路上的涡轮机,用于路灯照明<br />
  32. 32. The ‘Nano Skin’ Spiral Twist Wind Turbine<br />'Nano Skin(纳米皮肤)'风力涡轮机发明人奥特古认为未来绿色建筑物的出路不是我们在许多工程中见到的大型风力涡轮机,也不是巨型太阳能板。取而代之的是称为Nanovent Skin纳米排气皮肤的新设计方案,建筑物的外层由微小、具有仿生自维护功能的风力涡轮机组成。风吹到建筑物的‘皮肤’上时这些涡轮机能旋转产生能量向建筑物的电网供电,还能吸收二氧化碳。<br />Agustin Otegu, the inventor of the ‘Nano Skin’ wind turbine thinks that the future of green buildings lies not in the giant wind turbines we’ve seen in so many other projects, nor in huge solar panels. Instead his new design proposal, called Nano-vent Skin, would incorporate tiny, biological self-repairing wind turbines into the outer layer of a building. As wind played over the building’s “skin,” the turbines would spin and create energy that would be fed into the building’s electrical grid. They would also absorb carbon dioxide.<br />
  33. 33. Helix Wind公司推出了可靠的(VAWT)立轴风力涡轮机新品种,可能改变家庭用风方式。Savonious 2.0型采用独特的转子可万向取风,为城市家庭提供更安静更和善的小量风电。<br />A new breed of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) from Helix Wind offers a promising design that may change the way we do wind at home. The Helix Wind Savonious 2.0 uses a unique rotor capable of capturing omni-directional winds to provide quieter, kinder small wind power for your urban home.<br />
  34. 34. zqPei/<br />