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Hominid Evolution
Origins of Hominids
◊ Most crucial change was Bipedal
Locomotion
◊ Other changes include
• Expansion of the brain, larger ...
Why did Bipedalism occur?
◊ See farther
◊ Carry food
◊ Carry tools and weapons
Australopithecines
◊ First definite Hominids
◊ Genus of Hominids until C. 2 Mill yrs.
Ago
◊ Somewhere b/t 3 and 4 mill. yr...
Types of Species
◊ Australopithecus afarensis
◊ Australopithecus africanus
◊ Australopithecus robustus
◊ There are more  ...
Australopithecus Afarensis
◊ Debate as to whether diff. species or
not
◊ Footprints found to prove bipedalism
◊ Between 3 ...
Australopithecus Africanus
◊ Jaw of ape
◊ Teeth of humans
◊ S-shape spine similar to man
Afarensis vs. Africanus
◊ Features of skull, teeth, and jaws that
are less apelike in africanus
◊ Some debate different sp...
Australopithecus robustus
◊ 2-1 million years ago
◊ Larger molars and premolars
◊ Smaller canines
◊ Well-developed cranial...
Ancestor?
◊ Australopithecus robustus is not
thought to be an ancestor to the Homo
species
◊ Lived during same relative ti...
Changes
◊ Expansion of brain
◊ Reduction of face, teeth, and jaws
◊ Babies born less mature at birth
◊ Journal Entry #2
Expansion of the brain
◊ Had relatively small cranial capacities
◊ Reason?
• Why would brain size have increased? (Think
E...
Reduction of Face, Teeth, and
Jaws
◊ Lower face not as protruding
◊ Reduction in size of
• Face
• Cheek bone
• Jaw
Now on to species of Homo
◊ Different ideas on how Homo genus
evolved
◊ Some say from Africanus
◊ Some say from Afarensis
...
Homo habilis
◊ Larger brain absolutely and relatively
than Australopithecus
◊ Found in East Africa
◊ Slightly Larger and m...
Homo erectus
◊ 1.6 to 1.3 millions years ago
◊ Skull generally long, low, and thickly
walled
◊ Flat frontal face
◊ Promine...
Cont…
◊ Fully developed vision area of brain
◊ Larger areas of speech, sensory,
memory and motor areas of brain
◊ Neck dow...
Fire
◊ Fire first appears 1.5 mill. Years ago
◊ Only able to spread out after
development of fire
◊ Journal Entry
Stone tools
◊ Acheulean “hand axe”
• 1.5 mil. Years ago
• Used for butchering, digging, pounding
◊ Toolmaker first shaped ...
Hunting
◊ Homo erectus began to hunt medium
sized animals
• Spears, stone throwing, and fire
• Needed to plan and work in ...
Neanderthal
◊ Becoming Human
Hominid evolution
Hominid evolution
Hominid evolution
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Hominid evolution

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Hominid evolution

  1. 1. Hominid Evolution
  2. 2. Origins of Hominids ◊ Most crucial change was Bipedal Locomotion ◊ Other changes include • Expansion of the brain, larger birth canal, reduction of face, teeth and jaws ◊All of these occurred 2 million yrs. After bipedalism ◊ Journal Entry 1
  3. 3. Why did Bipedalism occur? ◊ See farther ◊ Carry food ◊ Carry tools and weapons
  4. 4. Australopithecines ◊ First definite Hominids ◊ Genus of Hominids until C. 2 Mill yrs. Ago ◊ Somewhere b/t 3 and 4 mill. yrs ago. ◊ At Laetoli footprints found proving bipedal locomotion ◊ Although Bipedal, still may have spent time in trees for sleep and shelter
  5. 5. Types of Species ◊ Australopithecus afarensis ◊ Australopithecus africanus ◊ Australopithecus robustus ◊ There are more  Think of hominids as a Bush, not a timeline!
  6. 6. Australopithecus Afarensis ◊ Debate as to whether diff. species or not ◊ Footprints found to prove bipedalism ◊ Between 3 and 4 million years ago
  7. 7. Australopithecus Africanus ◊ Jaw of ape ◊ Teeth of humans ◊ S-shape spine similar to man
  8. 8. Afarensis vs. Africanus ◊ Features of skull, teeth, and jaws that are less apelike in africanus ◊ Some debate different species
  9. 9. Australopithecus robustus ◊ 2-1 million years ago ◊ Larger molars and premolars ◊ Smaller canines ◊ Well-developed cranial crests and ridges ◊ Much heavier ◊ Taller: 4.5- 5 ft. tall
  10. 10. Ancestor? ◊ Australopithecus robustus is not thought to be an ancestor to the Homo species ◊ Lived during same relative time as Homo species
  11. 11. Changes ◊ Expansion of brain ◊ Reduction of face, teeth, and jaws ◊ Babies born less mature at birth ◊ Journal Entry #2
  12. 12. Expansion of the brain ◊ Had relatively small cranial capacities ◊ Reason? • Why would brain size have increased? (Think Evolution types) ◊ Possible reasons: • Increased as a result of tool making
  13. 13. Reduction of Face, Teeth, and Jaws ◊ Lower face not as protruding ◊ Reduction in size of • Face • Cheek bone • Jaw
  14. 14. Now on to species of Homo ◊ Different ideas on how Homo genus evolved ◊ Some say from Africanus ◊ Some say from Afarensis ◊ About 2 millions years ago
  15. 15. Homo habilis ◊ Larger brain absolutely and relatively than Australopithecus ◊ Found in East Africa ◊ Slightly Larger and more developed brain ◊ Stone tools?
  16. 16. Homo erectus ◊ 1.6 to 1.3 millions years ago ◊ Skull generally long, low, and thickly walled ◊ Flat frontal face ◊ Prominent brow ridges ◊ Relatively small teeth modern arrangement
  17. 17. Cont… ◊ Fully developed vision area of brain ◊ Larger areas of speech, sensory, memory and motor areas of brain ◊ Neck down, almost same as Homo sapiens
  18. 18. Fire ◊ Fire first appears 1.5 mill. Years ago ◊ Only able to spread out after development of fire ◊ Journal Entry
  19. 19. Stone tools ◊ Acheulean “hand axe” • 1.5 mil. Years ago • Used for butchering, digging, pounding ◊ Toolmaker first shaped the core, and prepared a striking platform at one end ◊ Knock off flakes
  20. 20. Hunting ◊ Homo erectus began to hunt medium sized animals • Spears, stone throwing, and fire • Needed to plan and work in groups
  21. 21. Neanderthal ◊ Becoming Human

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