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Presentation1 Skin


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For Students and Professor Abdullah of Medical Terminology Course, Truman College

Published in: Health & Medicine, Lifestyle
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Presentation1 Skin

  1. 1. SKIN <ul><li>Outer Covering of the Body </li></ul>
  2. 2. Integument and Cutaneous Membrane - Alternative Names for Skin <ul><li>Major Organ of the Integumentary System </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts for about 15 percent of the Body’s Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Repairing </li></ul><ul><li>Protective Boundary Between the Body and the External Environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Components <ul><li>Three Primary Layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypodermis (Subcutaneous Adipose Layer) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pigmentation or Melanin </li></ul>
  4. 4. Layers of the Skin
  5. 5. Epidermis <ul><li>Outermost Layer of the Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Forms Waterproof, Protective Wrap Over Body’s Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Made Up of Stratified Squamous Epithelium With Underlying Basal Lamina </li></ul><ul><li>Has Five Layers </li></ul>
  6. 6. Layers of the Epidermis and Their Charcteristics <ul><li>Stratum basale - Deepest Layer; Site of Continuous Cellular Reproduction; Contains the Only Cells of the Epidermis that Receive Nutrition; Cells Are Constantly Undergoing Division and Pushing Up to the Body Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum Spinosum - Many Keratinocytes with Spiny Appearance; Some Keratin </li></ul>
  7. 7. Layers of the Epidermis (Con’t) <ul><li>Stratum Granulosum - Three to Five Rows of Flat Cells; Site of Keratohyalin and Keratin Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum lucidum - Only in the Thick Sking of the Palms and Soles; Consists of Clear, Flat, Dead Cells; Cells Contain Eleidin </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum Corneum - Outermost Layer of Epidermis; 25 to 30 Rows Flat, Dead Cells Filled with Keratin; Continuously Shed and Replaced </li></ul>
  8. 8. Two Important Items Found in the Epidermis <ul><li>Keratin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives Skin Rigidity and Water-Repellent Features </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melanocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces Black Pigment Called Melanin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for Color of the Skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protects Against Damage from Ultraviolet Rays </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Skin with Layers of the Epidermis
  10. 10. Dermis <ul><li>Lies Beneath the Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Cushions the Body from Stress and Strain </li></ul><ul><li>Structurally Divided into Two Areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Papillary Region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reticular Region </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Papillary Region of the Dermis <ul><li>Composed of Loose Areolar Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Named for Its Fingerlike Projections Called papillae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extend Toward the Epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide Dermis with “Bumpy” Surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms Contours in the Skin’s Surface Called Friction Ridges In Palms, Fingers, Soles and Toes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help Hand or Foot Grasp By Increasing Friction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occur in Patterns - Genetically and Epigenetically Determined and Therefore Unique to the Individual </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Reticular Region of the Dermis <ul><li>Lies Deep in the Papillary Region </li></ul><ul><li>Much Thicker </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of Dense Irregular Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Gives The Dermis Its Protective Strength, Extensibility, and Elasticity </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hypodermis <ul><li>Also Called the Subcutaneous Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Third and Deepest Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of Fat Cells Called Lipocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach the Skin to Underlying Bones and Muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects Deepe Tissues of the Body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as Insulation for Heat and Cold </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Functions of the Skin <ul><li>Protection: Acts as Barrier from Pathogens and Damage Between Internal and External In Bodily Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation: Contains Variety of Nerve Endings that React to Heat and Cold, Pressure, Vibration and Tissue Injury </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Regulation: Contains Blood Supply Far Greater than Its Requirement, Allowing Precise Control of Energy Loss by Radiation, Convection and Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Control of Evaporation: The Skin Provides a Relatively Dry and Semi-Permeable Barrier to Fluid Loss </li></ul>
  15. 16. Functions of the Skin <ul><li>Aesthetics and Communication: Others See Our Skin and Assess Our Mood, Physical State and Attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Storage and Synthesis: Acts as Storage Center for Lipidsn and Water. As Well as a Means of Synthesis of Vitamin D by Action of UV on Certain Parts of the Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion: Sweat, Released from Skin Contains Urea, a Waste Product </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption: Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide Can Diffuse Into the Epidermis in Small Amounts. Additionally, Medicine Can Be Administered Through the Skin by Ointments or Adhesive Patch </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resistance: Acts as Barrier So Essential Nutrients Are Not Washed Out of the Body </li></ul>
  16. 17. Possible Diseases and Injuries to the Skin <ul><li>Rash: Change of the Skin which Affects Color, Appearance or Texture. It Can Be Localized in One Area or Affect All Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Sunburn: Burn to Living Tissue Caused by Over Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation Commonly From Sun’s Rays. It Is Leading Cause of Non-Malignant Skin Tumors </li></ul><ul><li>Skin Cancer - Malignant Growth On the Skin. Most Common Types Are: Basal Cell, Squamous Cell and Melanoma - Which All Trace Back to Mutation of Melanin Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Albinism: Form of Hypopigmentary Congenital Disorder, Characterized by Partial or Total Lack of Melanin Pigmen in Eyes, Skin and Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Acne: Most Common in Adolescence and Characterized by Lesions, Most Commonly Called Pimples </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Sores - Infection by Herpes Simplex Virus and Causes Small Blister or Sores Around the Mouth </li></ul>
  17. 18. References <ul><li>Fremgen, Bonnie F and Frucht Suzanne S. Medical Terminology, A Living Language (4th Ed).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentic Hall. Pp. 50-52. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Images From, </li></ul>