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  1. 1. Fracture <ul><li>A Broken Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely Common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 6.8 million Americans Break a Bone Each Year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On Average, Every Person in the United States Will Experience Two Broken Bones Over the Course of a Lifetime.  </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. How Do Bones Break? <ul><li>Bones are made up of bone cells, proteins, and minerals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although Bones Are Amazingly Tough (One Cubic Inch Can Withstand Loads of Almost 19,000 Pounds, About Four Times the Strength of Concrete) - they can still break. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Like a Wooden Pencil, Bones Can Bend To A Certain Extent, However, Once the Pressure Is Too Much or Too Sudden, the Bone Might Break, or Fracture. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Fractures <ul><li>There's More Than One Type of Fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Can Be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hairline Fracture (Very Thin Break in the Bone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken or Shattered Into Two or More Pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fractures Occur in the Following Ways: Oblique; Comminuted; Spiral; Compound; Greenstick; Transverse and Simple </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Fractures <ul><li>Oblique: Break Occurs Diagonally Across the Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Comminuted: Bone Is Broken, Splintered or Crushed Into a Number of Pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral: The Break Travels Around the Bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Compound: The Bone Sticks Through the Skin </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Fractures <ul><li>Greenstick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone Cracks One Side Only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not All the Way Through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually Only Seen in Children Due to Softness of Their Bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transverse :Complete Fracture in Which the Break Is Straight Across the Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Or Closed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial Break on Bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Open Skin Wound </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Compound Fracture <ul><li>Also Called an Open Fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs When There is a Break in the Skin Around a Broken Bone. </li></ul><ul><li>To Be Classified as Compound Fracture, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside Air (and Dirt and Bacteria) Must Be Able to Get to the Fracture Site Without a Barrier of Skin or Soft-Tissue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore,Bone Does Not Need to be Through the Skin in Order for the Injury to be Called a Compound Fracture . </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Fuss About Compound Fractures <ul><li>Injuries Are Open to the Outside World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There Is a Very Significant Risk of Developing an Infection Around the Fracture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Infection Develops,There Can Be Problems with Healing Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therefore, Compound Fractures Are Generally Treated with Surgery to Clean the Site of Injury and Stabilize the Fracture. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Spiral Fracture <ul><li>Also Called Torsion Fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Break Spirals Around the Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Common In a Twisting Injury </li></ul><ul><li>Can Only Be Caused If a Limb (Arm or Leg) Is Twisted in Such a Way That Causes the Bone to Break. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Spiral Fracture <ul><li>Caused by Certain Types of Accidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially in Sports, Especially Skiing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arm or Leg is Twisted by the Abuser </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Causes of Spiral Fractures <ul><li>In Skiing - skiers lock their feet into the skis in sturdy ski boots, if a ski breaks or the skier loses control and the ski rotates, the leg may be violently twisted in one direction, creating a textbook spiral fracture. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral Fracture has become famous as a warning sign of abuse, especially in children, because the twisting motion necessary could be caused by something such as a parent or guardian grabbing and twisting the arm or leg of a child. When doctors see spiral fractures in children, it may set off warning bells. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Greenstick Fractures <ul><li>Commonly Seen in Children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones Are softer and More Flexible Than Those of an Adult, So They're More Likely to Bend Than Break Completely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility Can Result in a Greenstick Fracture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone Cracks but doesn't Break All the Way Through - Like When One Tries to Break a Green Stick of Wood </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. GreenStick Fractures <ul><li>May Occur When a Child Falls While Playing or Participating in Sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Arm Bones Are the Most Likely to be Harmed Because of the Instinct to Throw out the Arms to Catch Fall. </li></ul><ul><li>Can Be Difficult to Diagnose, Because It May Not Cause All the Classic Signs and Symptoms of a Broken Bone </li></ul>
  13. 13. Greenstick Fractures - Test/Diagnosis <ul><ul><li>X-rays of Both Injured and UnInjured Limbs for Comparison Purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasound or Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan for Harder to See Cases </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Greenstick Fractures - Treatment <ul><li>Immobilization of Injured Bone So It Can Grow Back. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cast: Most Common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removable Splint: Maybe Taken Off Briefly So Child May Bathe or Shower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>X-Ray Taken Again in 7 - 10 Days to Ensure Healing Process Is Occurring </li></ul>
  15. 15. GreenStick Fractures - Prevention <ul><li>Encourage Regular Exercise, Which Builds Strong Bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure Child Always Wears Safety Gear for Sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Car Seats and Seat Belts </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Adequate Calcium in Child's Diet </li></ul>
  16. 16. Possible Fracture Care For All Types <ul><li>Fixation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Traction </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences and Aids Healing Process </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Fixation As Fracture Care <ul><li>External (Pictured Left) - Casts, Splints and Pins Inserted Through the Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Internal (Pictured Right) - Pins, Plates, Rods, Screws and Wires Applied During Open Reduction </li></ul>
  18. 18. Reduction as Fracture Care <ul><li>Correction Done By Realigning Bone Fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Closed - Manipulation Without Entering the Body </li></ul><ul><li>Open - Making Surgical Incision at Site of Fracture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary When Bony Fragments Need to Be Removed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary When Internal Fixation Such as Plates or Pins Required </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Sample Fracture Care - Compound Fracture Treated With Open Reduction Then Internal Fixation
  20. 20. Role of Nutrition In Fracture Care <ul><li>Healing Time for Broken Bones Influenced by a Number of Variables Impacted by the Availability of key Nutrients to Support Bone Healing and a Healthy Blood Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Good Supply of Nutrients Such as Calcium, Vitamin D, Vitamin A and Vitamin C Play a Key Role </li></ul>
  21. 21. Roles of Key Nutrients <ul><li>Calcium : With vitamin D, Essential Combination for the Production and Maintenance of Healthy Bones and Prevention of Osteoporosis. Supplementation May Also Reduce Fracture Rates by as Much as 50%. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin D : Facilitates the Absorption of Calcium in the Intestinal Tract; Can Increase Calcium Absorption by 65%. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Present in 40% of Those Admitted to the Hospital for a Hip Fracture. Systemic Vitamin D Production Decreases in the Elderly, in People Who are House Bound, and During the Winter </li></ul>
  22. 22. Roles of Key Nutrients <ul><li>Vitamin A :Helps Promote the Growth of Strong Bone and, Along with Beta Carotene, Is Also an Antioxidant and Excellent Free Radical Quencher. Deficiency Has Been Linked with an Increase in Wound Healing Time </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C :Important in Repair of Bones and Connective Tissue. Plays a Crucial role in the Manufacture of Collagen, which Forms the Connective Tissue in Skin, Bones, Teeth,Cartilage, Ligaments, Vertebral Discs, Joint Linings and Capillary Walls. Vitamin C Deficiency May Prolong Healing Time </li></ul>
  23. 23. References <ul><li>Images and Information Gathered From: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>