Semantics –week 10Meaning relations (part 1)<br />With certain utterances, we know that at times we paraphrase a sentence,...
3. Implication<br />Mary has a Burmese cat implies that…<br />Mary has a cat<br />.<br />
Antonyms<br />Test:<br />What would you say are the opposites of the following words:<br />Hot -------------------------	(...
Binary antonym (also called complementary)<br />Def. <br />These are words which come in pairs and between them exhaust al...
2. Relational antonyms (also called converses)are opposites where one word describes a relationship between two objects, a...
Exercice:<br />Are the following pairs of expressions converses:<br />below/above<br />Grandparent/grandchils<br />Love/ha...
Use the following logic to answer the following questions:<br />If John bought a car from Fred, is it the case that Fred s...
Semantic networks or semantic fields<br />This is an important concept because the words in a semantic field are not synon...
Exercice<br />Classify the following words into their semantic fields and you should use one of these as the superordinate...
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Semantics –week 10

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Semantics –week 10

  1. 1. Semantics –week 10Meaning relations (part 1)<br />With certain utterances, we know that at times we paraphrase a sentence, contradict a statement or through implication.<br />1. Paraphrase<br />Bill bought this car from Alex<br />Alex sold this car toBill<br />2. Contradiction<br />Maria’s husband never does the washing<br />Maria’s husband sometimes does the washing<br />
  2. 2. 3. Implication<br />Mary has a Burmese cat implies that…<br />Mary has a cat<br />.<br />
  3. 3. Antonyms<br />Test:<br />What would you say are the opposites of the following words:<br />Hot ------------------------- (5) male ----------------------------------<br />Thick----------------------- (6) dead----------------------------------<br />Buy----------------------- (7) lunch-----------------------------------<br />Lend ----------------------- (8) liquid-----------------------------------<br />Notice that all the given opposites do not function in the same way. We will talk not just opposites of meanings but the types of opposites.<br />There are four types of antonyms.<br />
  4. 4. Binary antonym (also called complementary)<br />Def. <br />These are words which come in pairs and between them exhaust all relevant possibilities.<br />Example: true/false are binary antonyms . If a sentence is true, it cannot be false. If it is false, it can not be true.<br />Exercice: are these binary antonyms?<br />Chalk/cheese, same/different, copper/tin, dead/alive, married/unmarried, love/hate<br />If two words have opposite meanings they are called antonyms.<br />There are two types of antonyms:<br />Complementary antonyms and relational antonyms<br />
  5. 5. 2. Relational antonyms (also called converses)are opposites where one word describes a relationship between two objects, and the other word describes the same relationship when the two objects are reversed.   For example, parent and child, teacher and student, or buy and sell.<br />
  6. 6. Exercice:<br />Are the following pairs of expressions converses:<br />below/above<br />Grandparent/grandchils<br />Love/hate<br />Conceal/reveal<br />Greater than/less than<br />
  7. 7. Use the following logic to answer the following questions:<br />If John bought a car from Fred, is it the case that Fred sold a car to John?<br />6. Are buy/sell converses?<br />7. borrow/lend<br />8. give/take<br />9. come/go<br />
  8. 8. Semantic networks or semantic fields<br />This is an important concept because the words in a semantic field are not synonymous, but are all used to talk about the same general phenomenon.<br />Example: Under the word book, we have ‘plays’ and ‘novels’ and under ‘play’ we have Romeo and Juliet. Under novel, we have ‘war and peace’<br />
  9. 9. Exercice<br />Classify the following words into their semantic fields and you should use one of these as the superordinate.<br />body parts-tools-arm-sister-foot-country-aunt-family-elements-knife-rain-city-wind-sun-ear-moon-urban life-hammer<br />

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