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Semantic roles week 5


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Semantic roles week 5

  1. 1. Semantic roles<br />Hyponymy<br />Definition:<br />When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another.<br />Examples. Animal/dog; dog/poodle; vegetable/carrot, flower/rose.<br />With Hyponomy, we look at words in connection with others, a type of hierarchical relationship.<br />Consider the following chart:<br />
  2. 2. Hyponymy<br /> Living thing<br />Creature plant<br />Animal insect vegetable flower tree<br />Dog ant carrot rose plain<br />
  3. 3. Hyponymy<br />Superordinate<br />A superordinate is the higher level in the hierarchy. <br />For example: animal and insect are called the superordinate.<br />Co-hyponyms<br />The words that share the same superordinate, are called co-hyponyms.<br />
  4. 4. Hyponymy<br />For example:<br />The words horse/dog are co-hyponyms of the superordinateanimal.<br />
  5. 5. Exercice<br />Find the different hyponyms/co-hyponyms for the following words:<br />Words:<br />To cook, color, door, writer<br />
  6. 6. Prototypes<br />At times in semantics, we do not associate certain creatures as prototypical birds. For instance, when we think of a bird, we tend to think of the usual bird like a ‘robin’, but we usually don’t regard the following as birds, like an ostrich or penguin (technically they are birds).<br />
  7. 7. Polysemy<br />Two are more words with the same form and related meaning:<br />Head (body, school, etc)<br />Foot (person, mountain, table)<br />Run (person, river, …ect)<br />
  8. 8. homonymy<br />Let’s remember these first….<br />Homophone: same sound, different written form. Example: right/write, to/too/two<br />Homograph: same written form, same or different sound, different meaning. Bear (animal)/bear (vb. To carry), conduct (with accent on first syllable) means behavior, accent on second syllable, verb ‘to maneuver’, others include: can you think about the possible meanings?<br />do, desert, dove, use<br />Homonyms: same sound, same orthography, but different meaning <br />Bank (of a river)-bank (institution)<br />bat (flying creature)-bat (cricket)<br />Race (car race)-race (ethnic group)<br />
  9. 9. summary<br />