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Classification system, bacteria and viruses


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Classification system, bacteria and viruses

  1. 1. Lesson content • how biologists classify organisms • Scientific name • Binomial naming system
  2. 2. Classification • 1.7 million of the world's species of animals, plants and algae, as of 2010. • Why is there a need to group/classify organism in the world? • Why is there a need to give a scientific name to each of the known species?
  3. 3. Dichotomous Keys
  4. 4. Dichotomous Keys • Tools to help in the of organisms. Each object is named by using a flow chart that splits into choices at each cross road. • Example: the shark species classification exercise
  5. 5. The bigger picture • Carolus Linnaeus came out a system that classifies all organisms. • Species are classified according to a taxonomic hierarchy, where one large group is subdivided into subgroups, which in turn are divided into smaller groups. Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species There are 5 large kingdoms; Monera (bacteria), Protoctists, Fungi, Plants and animals
  6. 6. Question: Would two species belonging to the same family in the same order as well?
  7. 7. So the scientific name for a killer whale is : Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Cetacea Family: Delphinidae Genus: Orcinus Species: orca
  8. 8. Binomial nomenclature system (2 names) • Generic name • Specific name My binomial scientific name is: Amphiprion percula Generic name Specific name
  9. 9. Binomial naming system for scientific names • When talking about a species we don’t give the full classification, just the species and the genus, e.g. an earthworm is Lumbricus terrestrius. The genus is written first (starts with an upper case letter), followed by the species name (starts with a lower case letter). The entire name is written in Italics. If you are handwriting names, rather than attempting Italics, the name is underlined. •
  10. 10. Binomial naming system for scientific names • Using this binomial system (2 names) it is easy to tell the difference between similar species, e.g. the common domestic cat is Felix catus, whereas a wild cat is Felix sylvestris, a lion is Felix leonis and a lynx is Felix lynx.
  11. 11. Lesson objectives • show an understanding of the functions of the different parts of a cell, including the nucleus which contains genetic material that determines heredity, cytoplasm, mitochondria, and cell membrane (pg 17 - 24). • state how biologists classify organisms and able to use the binomial system of naming organisms. (pg 11)
  12. 12. Home work • Read up the following 2 notes : • Notes: summary of prokaryotes vs eukaryotes • Notes: viruses
  13. 13. Challenging questions
  14. 14. Lesson content • Prokyotes vs Eukaryotes (bacteria cell) vs (animal or plant cell) • Viruses • Why viruses are not considered a living organism
  15. 15. Prokaryotic Cell prokaryote Single circular DNA Made of protein and sugar
  16. 16. • Similarities • Differences
  17. 17. Basis for comparison Prokaryotic Cells Material for cell wall: made of protein and sugar Eukaryotic Cells made of cellulose (plants only
  18. 18. Genetic material
  19. 19. Eukaryotic Cell Eg:animal cell
  20. 20. Viruses
  21. 21. Lesson objectives • state the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. • compare the components of a cell wall in plant cells and bacterial cells. • describe the characteristics of living organisms and explain why viruses are considered non-living things. • know the general features of viruses and learn to recognize photomicrographs of viruses and bacteria.
  22. 22. Homework • Read up the notes and textbook on relevant chapters • Report to biolab next lesson (no goggles needed)