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intel 8086 introduction

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intel 8086 introduction

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intel 8086 introduction

  1. 1. Introduction to 8086 Microprocessor
  2. 2. Architecture of 8086  The architecture of 8086 includes  Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)  Flags  General registers  Instruction byte queue  Segment registers
  3. 3. EU & BIU  The 8086 CPU logic has been partitioned into two functional units namely Bus Interface Unit (BIU) and Execution Unit (EU)  The major reason for this separation is to increase the processing speed of the processor  The BIU has to interact with memory and input and output devices in fetching the instructions and data required by the EU  EU is responsible for executing the instructions of the programs and to carry out the required processing
  4. 4. EU & BIU
  5. 5. Architecture Diagram
  6. 6. Execution Unit  The Execution Unit (EU) has  Control unit  Instruction decoder  Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU)  General registers  Flag register  Pointers  Index registers
  7. 7. Execution Unit  Control unit is responsible for the co-ordination of all other units of the processor  ALU performs various arithmetic and logical operations over the data  The instruction decoder translates the instructions fetched from the memory into a series of actions that are carried out by the EU
  8. 8. Execution Unit - Registers  General registers are used for temporary storage and manipulation of data and instructions  Accumulator register consists of two 8-bit registers AL and AH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register AX  Accumulator can be used for I/O operations and string manipulation
  9. 9. Execution Unit - Registers  Base register consists of two 8-bit registers BL and BH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register BX  BX register usually contains a data pointer used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing  Count register consists of two 8-bit registers CL and CH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register CX  Count register can be used as a counter in string manipulation and shift/rotate instructions
  10. 10. Execution Unit - Registers  Data register consists of two 8-bit registers DL and DH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register DX  Data register can be used as a port number in I/O operations  In integer 32-bit multiply and divide instruction the DX register contains high-order word of the initial or resulting number
  11. 11. Execution Unit - Registers
  12. 12. Execution Unit - Flags
  13. 13. Execution Unit - Flags  Overflow Flag (OF) - set if the result is too large positive number, or is too small negative number to fit into destination operand  Direction Flag (DF) - if set then string manipulation instructions will auto-decrement index registers. If cleared then the index registers will be auto-incremented  Interrupt-enable Flag (IF) - setting this bit enables maskable interrupts  Single-step Flag (TF) - if set then single-step interrupt will occur after the next instruction
  14. 14. Execution Unit - Flags  Sign Flag (SF) - set if the most significant bit of the result is set.  Zero Flag (ZF) - set if the result is zero.  Auxiliary carry Flag (AF) - set if there was a carry from or borrow to bits 0-3 in the AL register.  Parity Flag (PF) - set if parity (the number of "1" bits) in the low-order byte of the result is even.  Carry Flag (CF) - set if there was a carry from or borrow to the most significant bit during last result calculation
  15. 15. Execution Unit - Flags
  16. 16. Execution Unit - Pointers  Stack Pointer (SP) is a 16-bit register pointing to program stack  Base Pointer (BP) is a 16-bit register pointing to data in stack segment. BP register is usually used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing.  Source Index (SI) is a 16-bit register. SI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a source data addresses in string manipulation instructions.  Destination Index (DI) is a 16-bit register. DI is used for indexed, based indexed and register indirect addressing, as well as a destination data addresses in string manipulation instructions.
  17. 17. Execution Unit - Pointers
  18. 18. Bus Interface Unit  The BIU has  Instruction stream byte queue  A set of segment registers  Instruction pointer
  19. 19. BIU – Instruction Byte Queue  8086 instructions vary from 1 to 6 bytes  Therefore fetch and execution are taking place concurrently in order to improve the performance of the microprocessor  The BIU feeds the instruction stream to the execution unit through a 6 byte prefetch queue  This prefetch queue can be considered as a form of loosely coupled pipelining
  20. 20. BIU – Instruction Byte Queue  Execution and decoding of certain instructions do not require the use of buses  While such instructions are executed, the BIU fetches up to six instruction bytes for the following instructions (the subsequent instructions)  The BIU store these prefetched bytes in a first-in-first out register by name instruction byte queue  When the EU is ready for its next instruction, it simply reads the instruction byte(s) for the instruction from the queue in BIU
  21. 21. Segment: Offset Notation  The total addressable memory size is 1MB Most of the processor instructions use 16-bit pointers the processor can effectively address only 64 KB of memory  To access memory outside of 64 KB the CPU uses special segment registers to specify where the code, stack and data 64 KB segments are positioned within 1 MB of memory
  22. 22. Segment: Offset Notation  A simple scheme would be to order the bytes in a serial fashion and number them from 0 (or 1) to the end of memory  The scheme used in the 8086 is called segmentation  Every address has two parts, a SEGMENT and an OFFSET (Segmnet:Offset )  The segment indicates the starting of a 64 kilobyte portion of memory, in multiples of 16  The offset indicates the position within the 64k portion  Absolute address = (segment * 16) + offset
  23. 23. Segment Registers  The memory of 8086 is divided into 4 segments namely  Code segment (program memory)  Data segment (data memory)  Stack memory (stack segment)  Extra memory (extra segment)
  24. 24. Different Areas in Memory  Program memory – Program can be located anywhere in memory  Data memory – The processor can access data in any one out of 4 available segments  Stack memory – A stack is a section of the memory set aside to store addresses and data while a subprogram executes  Extra segment – This segment is also similar to data memory where additional data may be stored and maintained
  25. 25. Segment Registers  Code Segment (CS) register is a 16-bit register containing address of 64 KB segment with processor instructions  The processor uses CS segment for all accesses to instructions referenced by instruction pointer (IP) register  Stack Segment (SS) register is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program stack  By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by the stack pointer (SP) and base pointer (BP) registers is located in the stack segment
  26. 26. Segment Registers  Data Segment (DS) register is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment with program data  By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by general registers (AX, BX, CX, DX) and index register (SI, DI) is located in the data segment  Extra Segment (ES) register is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment, usually with program data  By default, the processor assumes that the DI register references the ES segment in string manipulation instructions
  27. 27. Segment Registers
  28. 28. Pin Diagram
  29. 29. Immediate addressing When one of the operand is specified as part of the instruction, the addressing mode is known as immediate addressing. MOV CX, 2345H SUB AL, 24H
  30. 30. Register addressing When both destination and source operands are specified by the names of the registers, the addressing mode is known as register addressing MOV AX,BX AND AL,BL
  31. 31. Direct addressing When one of the operand addresses is specified as part of the instruction, the addressing mode is known as direct addressing mode
  32. 32. Register indirect addressing When one of the operand addresses is specified via a register, the addressing mode is known as register indirect addressing mode.
  33. 33. Based Indexed register addressing
  34. 34. Register relative addressing When one of the operand addresses is specified via a register and a relative displacement, the addressing mode is known as register relative addressing mode.
  35. 35. String addressing In this, the operands are not specified in instruction rather they are implicitly available in the registers.
  36. 36. Data Transfer Instructions
  37. 37. Data Transfer Instructions
  38. 38. Arithmetic Instructions
  39. 39. Arithmetic Instructions
  40. 40. Logical Instructions
  41. 41. String Instructions
  42. 42. Program Transfer Instructions
  43. 43. Program Transfer Instructions
  44. 44. Processor Control Instructions
  45. 45. Assembler Directives  Assembler directives give instruction to the assembler where as other instructions discussed in the above section give instruction to the 8086 microprocessor  Assembler directives are specific for a particular assembler  However all the popular assemblers like the Intel 8086 macro assembler, the turbo assembler and the IBM macro assembler use common assembler directives
  46. 46. Important Directives  The ASSUME directive tell the assembler the name of the logical segment it should use for a specified segment  The DB directive is used to declare a byte-type variable or to set aside one or more storage locations of type byte in memory (Define Byte)  The DD directive is used to declare a variable of type doubleword or to reserve memory locations which can be accessed as type doubleword (Define Doubleword)  The DQ directive is used to tell the assembler to declare a variable 4 words in length or to reverse 4 words of storage in memory (Define Quadword)
  47. 47. Important Directives  The ENDS directive is used with the name of a segment to indicate the end of that logical segment  The EQU is used to give a name to some value or symbol
  48. 48. Assembly Language Program  Writing assembly language programs for 8086 is slightly different from that of writing assembly language programs for 8085  In addition to the instructions that are meant for solving the problem, some additional instructions are required to complete the programs  The purpose of these additional programs is to initialize various parts of the system, such as segment registers, flags and programmable port devices  Some of the instructions are to handle the stack of the 8086 based system
  49. 49. Assembly Language Program  Another purpose of these additional instructions is to handle the programmable peripheral devices such as ports, timers and controllers  The programmable peripheral interfaces should be assigned suitable control words to make them to function in the way as we expect  The best way to approach the initialization task is to make a checklist of all the registers, programmable devices and flags in the system we are working on
  50. 50. Assembly Language Program  An 8086 assembly language program has five columns namely  Address  Data or code  Labels  Mmnemonics  Operands  Comments
  51. 51. Assembly Language Program  The address column is used for the address or the offset of a code byte or a data byte  The actual code bytes or data bytes are put in the data or code column  A label is a name which represents an address referred to in a jump or call instruction  Labels are put in the labels column
  52. 52. Assembly Language Program  The operands column contains the registers, memory locations or data acted upon by the instructions  A comments column gives space to describe the function of the instruction for future reference

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