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Individual differences and call powerpoint


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Individual differences and call powerpoint

  1. 1. <ul><li>By Group 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Zulkipli </li></ul><ul><li>Eka Margianti S </li></ul><ul><li>Miftahuljannah </li></ul><ul><li>Qorri Atturahmah </li></ul><ul><li>Dhony </li></ul>
  2. 2. Background: <ul><li>Objective : Investigating what factors on learners/students that may affect the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). </li></ul><ul><li>The factors have been studied on the basis of learner variables which are assumed to be affecting the language learning process. And further study observed which individual variables which should be considered most relevant in affecting language learning outcomes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. PREVIOUS STUDIES ON RELATION BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES & LANGUAGE LEARNING <ul><li>T wo types of models of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) related to individual outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Models with independent learner variables  distinguishing between individual-related variables and other variables. These models include: </li></ul><ul><li>a. The ‘Good Language-Learner’ model </li></ul><ul><li>b. Monitor Theory model </li></ul><ul><li>c. Brown and Fraser’s framework </li></ul><ul><li>d. Levin’s schematic model. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Models with interdependent learner variables  assuming interrelationship between individual variables. These models include: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Gardner’s educational model </li></ul><ul><li>b. Skehan’s model of influences on language learning </li></ul><ul><li>c. Spolsky’s model of second language learning </li></ul>
  4. 4. MODEL WITH INDEPENDENT LEARNER VARIABLES <ul><li>A. The ‘Good Language-Learner’ model (Naiman et al , 1978) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>1. three independent variables: Learner, Teaching, Context </li></ul><ul><li>2. two dependent variables: Learning, Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Theory: “There is a direct link between each of the three ‘global’ independent variables and the learning variables.” </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: how the independent variables and which particular sub-variables affect the learning variable remain unclear. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The good language – learner model ( Naiman, et al,1978 )
  6. 6. <ul><li>B. Monitor Theory model (Krashen, 1978) </li></ul><ul><li>Variables: Affective filter (learner variable), input, cognitive organisers, and output. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory: “Affective filter, being a major source of variation, may cause the quality of acquisition (output) to be higher or lower.” </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: how learner variables affect the learning outcomes remains unclear. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Monitor Theory ( Dulay, Burt, and Krashen, 1982)
  8. 8. <ul><li>C. Brown and Fraser’s (1979) framework </li></ul><ul><li>Variables: Scene, Participant, Language Choices </li></ul><ul><li>This theory examines how individual situational (consists of Scene and Participant) variables affect language choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: There is no clear concept of how factors within this framework interrelate and affect language use (production). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Situational variables ( based on Brown and Frasher, 1979 in Ellis, 1989:8 )
  10. 10. <ul><li>D. Levin’s (1977) schematic model. </li></ul><ul><li>Variables: Input (learner variables) & Output </li></ul><ul><li>Theory focuses on describing individual differences in output, wherein input variables refer to those that differentiate learners in terms of traits, abilities, and prerequisites that are related to successful output-task performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: It is unclear which input variables that lead to learners’ variation in output or how the different variables influence one another. </li></ul>
  11. 11. II. MODEL WITH INTERDEPENDENT LEARNER VARIABLES <ul><li>A. Gardner’s (1979, 1985) educational model </li></ul><ul><li>Variables: social mile (cultural beliefs), individual differences, Second language acquisition contexts, and Outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>These models highlight the interrelationship between variables (social, individual, and context variables) in influencing language learning outcomes. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gardner’s ( 1979 ) schematic representation of the theoretical model model
  13. 13. Operational formulation of the socio-educational model ( Gardner, 1985 ) Language Aptitude
  14. 14. <ul><li>B. Skehan’s (1986, 1989) model of influences on language learning </li></ul><ul><li> improvement from Naiman’s ‘Good Language-Learner’ model, however Sekhan highlights the importance of a joined-variables effect on language learning.   </li></ul><ul><li>Variables: Classroom and materials, Social Context, Opportunities for target language use, The Learner, Learning, and Outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: This model does not clearly identify the role of individual learner related variables and how they relate to other variables. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Skehan’s ( 1989:120) influences on language learning Materials Syllabus Methodology resources Expectation of bilingualism Relationship to target language community attitudes to target language social class Classroom and Materials Opportunities for target language use Learning Outcome Social context Intelligence , Aptitude, Motivation, Attitude, Personality, Cognitive style
  16. 16. <ul><li>C. Spolsky’s (1989) model of second language learning  </li></ul><ul><li>Variables: Social context, condition of learner, learning opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>This model examines individual differences resulting from 74 restricted conditions. His model is based on 5 features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All aspects of second or foreign language learning were combined in a single theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted to the specific domain of second language learning and focused on individual differences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eclecticism, in which a model of second or foreign language learning should be “open” to different conditions instead of being limited to a particular pattern or set of condition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognising “social context” as an important domain which affects learning outcomes. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Two main clusters in Spolsky’s model: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Conditions of social context, i.e. conditions which influence learning in two ways </li></ul><ul><li>2. Conditions of learners </li></ul>
  18. 18. Spolsky’s ( 1989 : ) model of second language learning Age Personality Previous Knowledge Lead to Which appear in the learner as Which join with other personal characteristics such as All of which explain the use the learner makes of the available
  19. 19. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Language aptitude </li></ul><ul><li>Previous knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarities with computers </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with native-speakers of English </li></ul><ul><li>Language used for interaction with comunity </li></ul>