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XMPP Intro - The camp2012


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XMPP Intro that also involves more advanced topics like pub/sub, using components and plugins on the XMPP server side.

The Last section covers recommendations of servers and how to install a full XMPP setup for a web scenario (using pure HTML and Strophe.js for client side).

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XMPP Intro - The camp2012

  1. 1. XMPP intro & 101 TheCamp - July 2012 Steffen Larsen (, August 2, 12
  2. 2. This Presentation I) Intro and presentation of the protocol What is it?, Usage Basics and architecture Examples II) Advanced Topics and loose talk Extensions Plugins and components III) XMPP 101 - Kick start and play!Thursday, August 2, 12
  3. 3. About me (blah blah) Studied Computer Science @ Copenhagen CEO / Founder of BrainTrust ApS 2010 (Solo Ent.) Prof. Software Developer for 15+ years Java (JSE / JEE), C, Erlang, Ruby, Perl. Open Source developer.. Tigase, Strophe-plugins, XMPPConsole etc.Thursday, August 2, 12
  4. 4. My XMPP Involvement Member of XMPP Standard Foundation (XSF) Developing XMPP since 2007 (Ms.Thesis, pidgin/VOIP) Done XMPP design and impl. for: WAOO, Nordija (Set-top-boxes and over-the-top TV and IPTV) Thrane&Thrane (Maritime Satellite Communication project) Danske Spil / BetWare (Game software for Bingo etc)Thursday, August 2, 12
  5. 5. XMPP Intro What is it? XMPP - eXtensible Message and Presence Protocol Earlier known as Jabber - 1998 Real time messages system for communication Routes small snipplets of XML - called stanzasThursday, August 2, 12
  6. 6. XMPP - What? Who uses it? Most of you use it every day as chat.. You? Jabber client (pidgin/adium/messenger (m$)) Google (gmail, google hangouts) Cisco (webex) Facebook (chat) Even Micro$oft have XMPP gateways integrated into their messaging systemThursday, August 2, 12
  7. 7. XMPP Basics What can you do with it? Everything that you can imagine (almost) :-) More than just chat -- Its about presence, routing and real-time communication! Real time web!.. its there - push it!Thursday, August 2, 12
  8. 8. XMPP Basics Basic Services and applications Encryption / Authentication Presence Contact / Buddy lists Messaging (1-1 or group chat) Push Notifications (individual or publish/subscribe) Service discovery and device capability advertisement Geolocation and notifications Voice over IP (VOIP) Collaborative text editing etc.Thursday, August 2, 12
  9. 9. XMPP applications Set-top box and OTT implementation done my self.. Taxi service real-time: - work in social context (ala facebook) - DISTRIBUTED twitter (micro blog) - download and federate.. JIVE sbs - big social site for business / whiteboarding Apple mobile push stand-alone - adium/pidgin clients etc. Customer Service - chat and voip - call forwarding/queue games: tic-tac toe / chess Energy Trading softwareThursday, August 2, 12
  10. 10. XMPP Basics Why XMPP? just use normal HTTP (polling), or we (almost) have websockets and others..) XMPP is an Open Standard (like HTTP) - XSF and the council does the work openly. Proven tech. Almost 15 years of dev. Secure - Channel encryption and strong auth. Decentralized. no stand-alone silos (hello twitter and fb..) Huge community Extensibility!.. We have above 300 extensions to the XMPP coreThursday, August 2, 12
  11. 11. XMPP Protocol Core specifies (RFC 6120 / RFC 6121) Connect with TCP or other transport protocols (HTTP/ websockets, specified in extensions) Opening a Stream tag with with streaming XML stanzas (<stanza>.. stanza xml .. </stream>) stanzasThursday, August 2, 12
  12. 12. XMPP Architecture XMPP can consist of many modules: Servers (many through federation) Plugins Components (XEP-0114) Clients (typically many..) Proxies Database, LDAP, SIP and other systems (gateways)Thursday, August 2, 12
  13. 13. XMPP ArchitectureThursday, August 2, 12
  14. 14. XMPP Addressing & Routing Standard routing through JID full JID: <id>@<domain>/<resource> bare JID: <id>@<domain> (autom. resource) Domain routing like normal mail (smtp).Thursday, August 2, 12
  15. 15. XMPP Connection Lifecycle To illustrate a chat client connecting • Initiating TCP connection to the XMPP server • Opening an XML <stream> for session.. • Negotiating stream features and SASL negotiation (Simple Authentiation and Security Layer) •Auth mechanisms: PLAIN, DIGETS-MD5, SCRAM, EXTERNAL etc. • TLS secure layer (authentication towards the server) • The clients resource gets bound to the session • The client sends out initial presence • The client can now communicate (send/receive stanzas) • The client ends session • </stream> is send. And TCP connection is closed.Thursday, August 2, 12
  16. 16. Communication Primitives Simple, we only have 3 ways: Stanzas (xml snipplets that flow async.) Presence Message IQ (Information/Query)Thursday, August 2, 12
  17. 17. Stanzas: Presence Sets and shows the availability of the entity that is connected. chat away dnd (do not disturb) Presence for the system and the subscribers of the entity (e.g. buddylist) Specialized Presence extension (PEP) shows what music you are playing..Thursday, August 2, 12
  18. 18. Stanzas: Presence // initial simple presence <presence/> // sending away to subscribers <presence> <show>away</show> </presence> <presence> <show>dnd</show> <status>I am working.. </status </presence> // before logging off.. more realtime <presence type=unavailable/>Thursday, August 2, 12
  19. 19. Stanzas: Presence // direct presence <presence balcony’> // Capabilities.. version, voip etc. <presence> <c xmlns= hash=sha-1 node= ver=q07IKJEyjvHSyhy//CH0CxmKi8w=/> </presence>Thursday, August 2, 12
  20. 20. Stanzas: Message Using it to communicate with other clients TO attribute full JID: direct messaging to specific entity (e.g. device/computer). bare JID: will route to one or more of the connected resources - depends of status, presence, message type etc. Type attribute (chat, normal, groupchat, headline etc) - presentation and routing Body Element - the messageThursday, August 2, 12
  21. 21. Stanzas: Message normal message <message id=ktx72v49 type=chat xml:lang=en> <body>Hi romeo where art thou?</body> </message> direct message <message id=ktx72v50 type=chat xml:lang=en> <body>will you come and visit?</body> </message>Thursday, August 2, 12
  22. 22. Stanzas: IQ A more request / response model. For getting information and query the server / entities. Request: GET / SET Response: RESULT / ERROR Using it for getting roster, ad-hoc command and statistics for server (if admin).. etc.Thursday, August 2, 12
  23. 23. Stanzas: IQ Example 1: User requests current roster from server UC: <iq id=hf61v3n7 type=get> <query xmlns=jabber:iq:roster/> </iq> Example 2: User receives roster from server US: <iq id=hf61v3n7 type=result> <query xmlns=jabber:iq:roster> <item name=Juliet subscription=both> <group>Friends</group> </item> <item name=Benvolio subscription=to/> <item name=Mercutio subscription=from/> </query> </iq>Thursday, August 2, 12
  24. 24. Now.. Lets have Coffee! While having a break and if you want to play with XMPP later on.. Install java sdk Install apacheThursday, August 2, 12
  25. 25. II) Advanced Topics Extensions: Pub / Sub (XEP-0060) BOSH (XMPP over HTTP) External Database and LDAP Internal routing and modifications via. plugins ComponentsThursday, August 2, 12
  26. 26. XMPP Extensions XSF defines a set of XMPP Extension Protocols (XEPs). > 300 at the moment Jingle (Gtalk), MUC (hangouts), file transfer, etc.. publish/subscribe We will concentrate on: publish / subscribe & BOSH (XMPP on the web)Thursday, August 2, 12
  27. 27. Publish / Subscribe (XEP-0060) Pub/Sub embbeds in IQ stanza Put JIDs into groups and push out messages to many subscribers! Let people subscribe/unsubscribe for data on a node Setup roles and affiliates..Thursday, August 2, 12
  28. 28. Publish / Subscribe (XEP-0060) <iq type=set     from=hamlet@denmark.lit/blogbot     to=pubsub.shakespeare.lit     id=pub1>   <pubsub xmlns=>     <publish node=princely_musings>       <item>         <entry xmlns=>           <title>Soliloquy</title>           <summary> To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them?           </summary>           <link rel=alternate type=text/html                 href=http://denmark.lit/2003/12/13/atom03/>           <id>tag:denmark.lit,2003:entry-32397</id>           <published>2003-12-13T18:30:02Z</published>           <updated>2003-12-13T18:30:02Z</updated>         </entry>       </item>     </publish>   </pubsub> </iq>Thursday, August 2, 12
  29. 29. Publish / Subscribe (XEP-0060) Subscribers receives published data <message from=pubsub.shakespeare.lit to=francisco@denmark.lit id=foo>   <event xmlns=>     <items node=princely_musings>       <item id=ae890ac52d0df67ed7cfdf51b644e901>         [ ... ENTRY ... ]       </item>     </items>   </event> </message> <message from=pubsub.shakespeare.lit to=bernardo@denmark.lit id=bar>   <event xmlns=>     <items node=princely_musings>       <item id=ae890ac52d0df67ed7cfdf51b644e901>         [ ... ENTRY ... ]       </item>     </items>   </event> </message>Thursday, August 2, 12
  30. 30. BOSH (XEP-0124) Bidrectional streams Over Synchronous Http (BOSH) HTTPs api are great - Polling sucks. Long Polling. XMPP embedded into HTTP why? simple, known tech. use compress etc. Small problem: cross origin policy (diff. ports) default BOSH port 5280 - HTTP 80Thursday, August 2, 12
  31. 31. BOSH HTTP hold the connection until there is something to sendThursday, August 2, 12
  32. 32. BOSH - XMPP over HTTP POST /webclient HTTP/1.1 Host: Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate Content-Type: text/xml; charset=utf-8 Content-Length: 188 <body rid=1249243562       sid=SomeSID       xmlns=>   <message            xmlns=jabber:client>     <body>Good morning!</body>   </message> </body>Thursday, August 2, 12
  33. 33. BOSH - XMPP over HTTP • No data - empty body tag from server • Works through header setup and timeouts HTTP/1.1 200 OK Content-Type: text/xml; charset=utf-8 Content-Length: 64 <body xmlns= httpbind/>Thursday, August 2, 12
  34. 34. Plugins & ComponentsThursday, August 2, 12
  35. 35. Some advanced features Normal client “bots” easy to do, but have limitations To incorporate your own business logic you need some more.. To make advanced features on the server side Server Plugins Components External Auth.. either plain db, ldap or others.Thursday, August 2, 12
  36. 36. Server Plugins Located on the server Change routing strategy Filter packages / Drop packages Do statistics etc. Bound to the server implementation - not portable Can hog mem/cpu from the server. Its embedded!. (take care)Thursday, August 2, 12
  37. 37. Components (XEP-0114) Components conn. to the server or vice versa (normal TCP) Handshakes and authenticates (trusted by server) Portable Can be run externally with code implemented in almost every language.Thursday, August 2, 12
  38. 38. Components (XEP-0114) Acts almost like a “normal” client. e.g. JID ( Can act and interact on the whole domain.. not multiple Can alter the to/from fields... Can’t drop/filter packages for every domain.Thursday, August 2, 12
  39. 39. Break!! ... Next developing XMPP 101 Lets have some hands-on experience. Install Java (version 6 and up is fine) Install Apache web server Get XMPP server up and running Play..Thursday, August 2, 12
  40. 40. XMPP 101 - playtime! Install your very own XMPP server! Setup Apache or other httpd / proxy Download Strophe and setup examples.. Play!Thursday, August 2, 12
  41. 41. Developing XMPP Learned so far: XMPP can run on every device, on mobile, on the web on XMPP makes a bridge and makes the device present and available to communicate with other entities.. Client frameworks for almost every language Java, Javascript, C / C++, Erlang, C#, Python, Ruby, Perl etc. We will focus on the web (client side) and hence do javascriptThursday, August 2, 12
  42. 42. XMPP Kick Start! But first! to make it work, we need a server • Choose your favorite XMPP server! • The list is long: • Be ware of the license. Some are commercial/gpl/gpl3/apache etc.Thursday, August 2, 12
  43. 43. XMPP Servers Administrators would look for monitoring and tools. Extensions.. E.g. some can pub/sub, some can’t. So choose from your specific application. Clustering or not? What is your demand? 5k users? 500k users?Thursday, August 2, 12
  44. 44. My recommendations Ejabberd 2.1.11 ( cool features dist. out-of-the-box. Thanks erlang! high load factor Tigase 5.1.x (linux, mac etc. *NIX.) very flexible. Code injection on the fly. Groovy / Java. Easy to understand Many extensions available Good monitoring tools!Thursday, August 2, 12
  45. 45. Windows users?... If you can’t run shell scripts etc. Openfire might be easier: Should be easy to setup.. I’ll help later. No worry. :-)Thursday, August 2, 12
  46. 46. Tigase XMPP server Install Java if you dont have it! Install tigase: download run the downloaded jar file: java -jar tigase...jar Setup easy. in step 7, choose only base, extras and derby database. in the other steps just press next! cd {TIGASE_HOME} (where you installed it) Start: ./scripts/ start etc/tigase.conf Stop: ./scripts/ stop add a new user to the server (use a client: PSI, Adium , Pidgin etc)Thursday, August 2, 12
  47. 47. Proxy setup because of same origin policy.. if you have a CORS enabled browser, this is not needed proxy_module should be enabled. in httpd.conf (proxy port 80 to port 5280) ProxyPass /http-bind/ http://localhost:5280/http-bind/Thursday, August 2, 12
  48. 48. XMPP libraries.. There a many! Native or BOSH (XMPP over HTTP) We focus on BOSH.. lets enable real-time push on the web. Strophe.js!Thursday, August 2, 12
  49. 49. Strophe Install Download here: unzip / untar the downloaded package into your Apache web folder (on mac: Library/WebServer/ Documents). You can change the folder in the httpd.conf if you want. change in examples/echobot.js : var BOSH_SERVICE = /http-bind/; Ready to run!. if server is running, fire up your browser and use the user created just before when logging in.Thursday, August 2, 12
  50. 50. Strophe Pure javascript XMPP library (integrated with jquery) Using BOSH as connection type Simple manipulations with Stanzas Build everything like DOM Light and Event driven.. Here is my example: http://localhost/webchatThursday, August 2, 12
  51. 51. Strophe Make connection on the BOSH URL defined in apache proxy: var conn = new Strophe.connection(“localhost/http-bind”); Connect with JID (full/bare) and make cb function: conn.connect(JID, password, callbackfn);Thursday, August 2, 12
  52. 52. Strophe Strophe have static status to check on the connection function onConnection () { if (status == Strophe.Status.CONNECTED) { // do something! } else if (status ... .. }Thursday, August 2, 12
  53. 53. Strophe - Sending / Receiving conn.send(xml);.... conn.addHandler(on_message, null, “message”, “chat”); on_message(message) { console.log(“Hi there: “ + message); return true; }Thursday, August 2, 12
  54. 54. Strophe.. 1. function onMessage(msg) { 2. $(msg).find("message[type=chat][from]:has(body)") 3. .each(function () { 4. var body = $(this).find("body:first").text(); 5. var from = $(this).attr("from"); 6. 7. log(ECHOBOT: I got a message from + from + : + body); 8. 9. var reply = $msg({to: from, type: "chat"}) 10. .c("body") 11. .t(body); 12. connection.send(reply.tree()); 13. 14. log(ECHOBOT: I sent + from + : + body); 15. }); 16.}Thursday, August 2, 12
  55. 55. Strophe - Stanzas.. Strophe have convenience methods: $pres(attributes..); $msg(attributes..); $iq(attributes..);Thursday, August 2, 12
  56. 56. Strophe - Stanzas Sending initial presence: $pres(); Building a message stanza: $msg({to: ‘’, ‘type’ : ‘chat’}).c(‘body’).t(‘Hello zool!’);Thursday, August 2, 12
  57. 57. </stream>..the end.. Contact me at Email/XMPP: / LinkedIn: Illustrations by Adrian Teh (Too lazy to draw my self..) XMPP standard foundation: Links Server list: Client list: Libraries: Strophe:Thursday, August 2, 12