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Biochip and its application


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Biochip and its application

  2. 2. CONTENTS• What is biochip?• Biochip history.• Biochip Technology.• Implant System Of Biochip• Size• Insertion Of Biochip• Application Of Biochip• Medical Implementation Of Biochip
  3. 3. What is bio-chip??• Bio-chip is a microprocessorchip ,an outcome of the fieldof computer sciences,electronics and biology.• It is collection of microarraysarrange on a solid substrateand permit many test.
  4. 4. BIOCHIPHISTORY• Developed in 1983 formonitoring fisheries.• A large scale biochips startdeveloping in 1990.• The major biochipcompanies are A.V.I.D and
  5. 5. BIOCHIPTechnology• It is a micro computer chip,inserted under skin (dermis) foridentification purposes.• The biochip system is a radiofrequency identification (RFID)system, using low-frequencyradio signals to communicate
  6. 6. IMPLANT SYSTEMOF BIOCHIPImplant system of biochip isconsist of two component:• The transponder• The reader
  7. 7. Transponder
  8. 8. READER
  9. 9. THETRANSPONDER• The transponder is the actual biochipimplant also known as passivetransponder and active transponder.• It is inactive until the readeractivate it by sending a lowpower electrical charge.• The communication betweenthe biochip and reader is
  10. 10. The TransponderThe transponder consist of 4parts• Computer Microchip• Antenna Coil• Tuning Capacitor• Glass Capsule
  11. 11. ComputerMicrochip• Computer microchip stores aunique identification numberfrom 10 to 15 digits long.• The storage capacity ofcomputer microchip islimited, capable of storingonly a single ID number.
  13. 13. Antenna Coil• This is normally a simplecopper coil around a ironcore. This is tiny primitiveradio antenna “receives andsends” signals from readeror scanner.
  14. 14. ANTENNA COIL
  15. 15. Tuning Capacitor• The capacitor store the smallelectrical charge send by thereader which activates thetransponder. This activationallows the transponder tosend back the ID numberencoded by the computer
  16. 16. • Because radio waves areutilize to communicatebetween the transponderand reader, the capacitor istuned at the same frequencyas the reader.
  17. 17. Glass Capsule• It houses the computer chip,antenna coil and capacitor.• Capsule is made up ofbiocompatible material i-esoda lime glass.
  18. 18. READER• Reader consist of an “excitercoil ,which reads anelectromagnetic fieldthat,throuth radio signalsprovide a necessary energy,to excite or “activate” theimplanted biochip.
  19. 19. • The reader also carry thereceiving coil that receive theID number that is sent backfrom the activated“implanted” biochip.• Also carry the software thatdecode the received codeand display the result in an
  20. 20. Size OfBiochipIts size ranges from2 to 12 inches like
  21. 21. Insertion Of Biochip
  22. 22. Applications OfThe Biochip–Biochip help in the tracingof person/animal anywhere in the world.–Also potent in replacingpassports ,cash andmedical records.
  23. 23. MedicalImplementation OfBiochip• Biochip can detect cancerbefore symptoms develops
  24. 24. Biochip As GlucoseDetector• The chip canbe integratedwith aglucosedetector. Thechip allow thediabetics to
  25. 25. How The GlucoseIs Detected
  26. 26. Biochip AsOxygen sensor• The biochip can also beintegrated with an oxygensensor .The oxygen sensorwill be useful to monitorbreathing rate.
  27. 27. Principal Of OxygenSensor In Biochip• The oxygen sensor chipsends light pulses out in tothe body. The light absorbedto varying extent, dependingon how much oxygen isbeing carried in the blood,and the chip detect the light
  28. 28. Biochip as an BloodPressure sensor:• A sensors is available to detect theflow of fluid. It’s always possible toembed this type of sensors into abiochip. Blood Flow detectingcircuits with the Biochip can makethe chip to continuously monitor theblood flow rate & when thepressure is in its low or high
  29. 29. Adding sound tolife:• The cochlear implant deliverselectrical pulses directly to thenerve cells in the cochlea, thespiral-shaped structure thattranslates sound in to nerve pulses.• In normal hearing individuals,sound waves set up vibrations inthe walls of the cochlea, and hair
  30. 30. Biochip RestoreSight
  31. 31. Advantages ofbiochip
  32. 32. • To rescue the sick• To find lost people.• To identify person uniquely.• They can perform thousands ofbiological reactions operationsin few seconds.• In monitoring health condition ofindividuals in which they arespecifically employed.
  33. 33. Disadvantages OfBiochip• They raise critical issues ofpersonal privacy.• They mark the end of humanfreedom and dignity.• They may not be supported bylarge % of people.• There is a danger of turningevery man ,women, and