Mitosis meiosis-fernando biodeluna2011

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Mitosis meiosis.
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Mitosis meiosis-fernando biodeluna2011

  1. 1. MITOSIS & MEIOSIS + terms exercise
  2. 2. Role of Mitosis <ul><li>Formation of a multicellular organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction e.g. Amoeba, yeast and vegetative reproduction of plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell replacement and regeneration. </li></ul><ul><li>Gamete formation in the flowering plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Faithful copying of genes and their transfer to the next generation of nuclei or cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains the correct chromosome number of somatic cells. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073031216/student_view0/exercise13/mitosis_movie.html </li></ul><ul><li>Movie from mc graw hill about mitosis </li></ul>
  4. 5. Can u identify each phase? http://buenconsejoicod.com/wordpress/?p=60 Real microscopic images:
  5. 6. PRO MET ANA TELO http://buenconsejoicod.com/wordpress/?p=60 Real microscopic images:
  6. 7. <ul><li>? phase </li></ul><ul><li>chromatin condenses forming chromosomes each chromosome composed of two identical sister chromatids connected at the centromere spindle fibres forming nuclear membrane breaks down towards the end of prophase </li></ul>Draw the phase Texts from: http://www.skoool.ie/skoool/examcentre_sc.asp?id=2848
  7. 8. <ul><li>? phase </li></ul><ul><li>chromosomes placed individually along the equatorial plane of the cell each chromosome is connected to both sides of the cell by spindle fibres attached to the centromeres </li></ul>Draw the phase Texts from: http://www.skoool.ie/skoool/examcentre_sc.asp?id=2848
  8. 9. <ul><li>? phase </li></ul><ul><li>separation of sister chromatids, now termed chromosomes the centromeres spit when the spindle fibres shorten continued shortening results in two identical sets of chromosomes at opposite sides of the cell </li></ul>Draw the phase Texts from: http://www.skoool.ie/skoool/examcentre_sc.asp?id=2848
  9. 10. Draw the phase <ul><li>? phase </li></ul><ul><li>each chromosome group becomes a nucleus when a membrane is formed around it the chromosomes uncoil to chromatin </li></ul>Texts from: http://www.skoool.ie/skoool/examcentre_sc.asp?id=2848
  10. 11. Idnetify the phases Images from http://www.microscope-microscope.org/activities/school/mitosis.htm
  11. 12. Chromosome
  12. 13. Types of chromosomes
  13. 14. Cell Division Mitosis is the process of cell division in which one cell becomes two identical daughter cells. <ul><li>It is required for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>renewal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regeneration </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. MEIOSIS
  15. 18. Meiosis <ul><li>Specialized form of cell division with two successive rounds (MEIOSIS I + MEIOSIS II) of cell division without DNA replication in between . </li></ul><ul><li>Produces haploid cells (n) </li></ul>
  16. 19. Meiosis <ul><li>Start with 46 double stranded chromosomes (2n) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After 1st division - 23 double stranded chromosomes (n) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 2nd division - 23 single stranded chromosomes (n) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occurs in our germ cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cells that produce our gametes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>egg and sperm </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. MEIOSIS = MEIOSIS I + MEIOSIS II <ul><li>Meiosis I : the reduction division </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis II : the equational division </li></ul>
  18. 21. Meiosis I : the reduction division crossing over . Chromosomes splitting apart (not chromatids)r . Prophase I (early) (diploid) Prophase I (late) (diploid) Metaphase I (diploid) Anaphase I (diploid) Telophase I (diploid) Nucleus Spindle fibers Nuclear envelope
  19. 22. Meiosis II : the equational division Prophase II (haploid) Metaphase II (haploid) Anaphase II (haploid) Telophase II (haploid) Four nonidentical haploid daughter cells
  20. 23. Results of meiosis <ul><li>Gametes </li></ul><ul><li>Four haploid cells </li></ul><ul><li>One copy of each chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>One allele of each gene </li></ul><ul><li>Different combinations of alleles for different genes along the chromosome </li></ul>
  21. 24. Why do we have meiosis? To generate haploid gametes! To make new combinations of genes. <ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random (independent) assortment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recombination </li></ul>
  22. 25. Why do we need meiosis? <ul><li>- to bring two haploid gametes together to form a diploid zygote. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>n (mom) + n (dad) = 2n (offspring) </li></ul></ul>It is the fundamental basis of sex. What is the purpose of sex ?
  23. 26. MEIOSIS Difference between mitosis and meiosis I
  24. 27. Why form gametes? <ul><li>Goal: Reduce genetic material by half </li></ul>from mom from dad child meiosis reduces genetic content too much!
  25. 30. <ul><li>Make a table with the differences </li></ul><ul><li>Meioisis vs. Mitosis </li></ul>http:// dobsomnimedia.blogspot.com /
  26. 31. Meioisis vs . Mitosis Mitosis Meiosis Number of divisions 1 2 Number of daughter cells 2 4 Genetically identical? Yes No Chromosome # Same as parent Half of parent Where Somatic cells Germline cells When Throughout life At sexual maturity Role Growth and repair Sexual reproduction
  27. 32. Class-room exercise <ul><li>GUESS THE 10 WORDS </li></ul>
  28. 33. <ul><li>The cell genetically identical </li></ul><ul><li>to another. </li></ul>1
  29. 34. <ul><li>A network of filaments that collectively form a mitotic spindle (in mitosis ) and meiotic spindle (in meiosis ). It is chiefly involved in moving and segregating the chromosomes during nuclear division. </li></ul>2
  30. 35. <ul><li>The constricted region joining the two sister chromatids that make up an X-shaped chromosome . </li></ul>3
  31. 36. <ul><li>A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of </li></ul><ul><li>eukaryotic cells . </li></ul>4
  32. 37. <ul><li>They are the products of the division of the parent cell. </li></ul>5
  33. 38. <ul><li>A form of cell division happening in sexually reproducing organisms by which two consecutive nuclear divisions occur without the chromosomal replication in between, leading to the production of four haploid gametes ( sex cells ) </li></ul>6
  34. 39. <ul><li>The stage of the cell or nucleus when it is not in mitosis , hence comprising most of the cell cycle . </li></ul>7
  35. 40. <ul><li>The final stage of mitosis, when chromosome separation is completed. </li></ul>8
  36. 41. <ul><li>Body cells are called </li></ul><ul><li>................ ............... </li></ul>9
  37. 42. <ul><li>It is the process that our body uses to grow and replace cells. </li></ul>10
  38. 43. ANSWERS
  39. 44. Clone <ul><li>The cell genetically identical </li></ul><ul><li>to another. </li></ul>1
  40. 45. Spindle fibres <ul><li>A network of filaments that collectively form a mitotic spindle (in mitosis ) and meiotic spindle (in meiosis ). It is chiefly involved in moving and segregating the chromosomes during nuclear division. </li></ul>2
  41. 46. Centromere <ul><li>The constricted region joining the two sister chromatids that make up an X-shaped chromosome . </li></ul>3
  42. 47. Chromosome <ul><li>A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of </li></ul><ul><li>eukaryotic cells . </li></ul>4
  43. 48. Daughter cells <ul><li>They are the products of the division of the parent cell. </li></ul>5
  44. 49. Meiosis <ul><li>A form of cell division happening in sexually reproducing organisms by which two consecutive nuclear divisions occur without the chromosomal replication in between, leading to the production of four haploid gametes ( sex cells ) </li></ul>6
  45. 50. Interphase <ul><li>The stage of the cell or nucleus when it is not in mitosis , hence comprising most of the cell cycle . </li></ul>7
  46. 51. Telophase <ul><li>The final stage of mitosis, when chromosome separation is completed. </li></ul>8
  47. 52. Somatic cells <ul><li>Body cells are called </li></ul><ul><li>................ ............... </li></ul>9
  48. 53. Mitosis <ul><li>It is the process that our body uses to grow and replace cells. </li></ul>10
  49. 54. http :// www.biology - online.org / dictionary / <ul><li>Some definitions were taken from </li></ul>http://www.goboxy.com/vector_stock/vector-cool-design/
  50. 55. <ul><li>http://www.webdesignhot.com/free-vector-graphics/free-vector-colorful-dots-background/ </li></ul><ul><li>Some graphics were taken from </li></ul>
  51. 56. Thanks for your attention http://www.designbyhumans.com

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