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Minerales y Rocas - 1 ESO

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Nivel de primero de ESO.
Ciencias de la naturaleza.
GEOLOGÍA: Minerales y Rocas

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Minerales y Rocas - 1 ESO

  1. 1. MINERALES y ROCAS
  2. 2. LOS MATERIALES DE LA CORTEZA TERRESTRE ELEMENTOS MINERALES ROCAS
  3. 4. MINERALES <ul><ul><li>Un mineral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>se define como un </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sólido homogéneo con </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>estructura interna ordenada , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>de origen natural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e inorgánico , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>y con composición química definida (pero variable dentro de ciertos límites). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 14. ROCAS <ul><li>TIPOS DE ROCAS: </li></ul><ul><li>• ROCAS ÍGNEAS </li></ul><ul><li>• ROCAS SEDIMENTARIAS </li></ul><ul><li>• ROCAS METAMÓRFICAS </li></ul>
  5. 15. Ciclo de las rocas
  6. 16. ROCAS SEDIMENTARIAS <ul><li>Las ROCAS SEDIMENTARIAS </li></ul><ul><li>SE FORMAN A PARTIR DE SEDIMENTOS O PRECIPITACIÓN DE MINERALES EN SOLUCIONES SOBRESATURADAS. </li></ul>
  7. 19. TIPOS DE ROCAS SEDIMENTARIAS CLÁSTICAS O DETRÍTICAS NO CLÁSTICAS QUÍMICAS ORGÁNICAS EVAPORITAS
  8. 20. ROCAS CLÁSTICAS COMPUESTAS POR FRAGMENTOS DE ROCAS PREEXISTENTES, DE TODOS LOS TAMAÑOS.
  9. 21. Peracense y Rodenas
  10. 23. Rocas no clásticas (químicas) <ul><li>Caliza. </li></ul>
  11. 24. <ul><li>Halita (evaporita) </li></ul>Rocas no clásticas (químicas)
  12. 25. <ul><li>Turba </li></ul>Rocas no clásticas (orgánicas) <ul><li>Y antracita </li></ul>
  13. 26. <ul><li>SE CLASIFICAN EN: </li></ul><ul><li>CONGLOMERADOS Y BRECHAS: > 2 mm </li></ul><ul><li>ARENISCAS: 2 - 0,2 mm </li></ul><ul><li>LUTITAS (ARCILLOLITAS Y LIMOLITAS): < 0,2 mm </li></ul>
  14. 27. ROCAS ÍGNEAS ROCAS ÍGNEAS SON AQUELLAS ROCAS QUE SE ORIGINAN A PARTIR DE LA SOLIDIFICACIÓN DE UN MAGMA.
  15. 28. <ul><li>ROCAS ÍGNEAS </li></ul><ul><li>SON AQUELLAS ROCAS QUE SE ORIGINAN A PARTIR DE LA SOLIDIFICACIÓN DE UN MAGMA. </li></ul>
  16. 30. EL MAGMA ES UN material rocoso fundido (líquido + gases + cristales) QUE SE FORMA Y PERMANECE BAJO LA SUPERFICIE DE LA TIERRA. PUEDE SOLIDIFICAR BAJO LA SUPERFICIE O EXTRUIR COMO LIQUIDO AL EXTERIOR ( lava ).
  17. 32. <ul><ul><ul><li>Víctimas del monte Vesubio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuando el monte Vesubio entró en erupción, aquéllos que no pudieron escapar perecieron a causa de los gases tóxicos y quedaron cubiertos rápidamente por las cenizas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sus cuerpos se corrompieron, pero los arqueólogos han conseguido averiguar la posición exacta de los cadáveres en el momento de la muerte, vertiendo cemento líquido en la cavidad creada por sus cuerpos. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 33. <ul><li>EL MAGMA ES UN material rocoso fundido (líquido + gases + cristales) QUE SE FORMA Y PERMANECE BAJO LA SUPERFICIE DE LA TIERRA. PUEDE SOLIDIFICAR BAJO LA SUPERFICIE O EXTRUIR COMO LIQUIDO AL EXTERIOR (lava). </li></ul>
  19. 34. TIPOS DE ROCAS IGNEAS INTRUSIVAS EXTRUSIVAS PLUTÓNICAS HIPABISALES EFUSIVAS PIROCLÁSTICAS
  20. 35. <ul><li>Pumita </li></ul>
  21. 36. <ul><li>Sienita </li></ul>
  22. 38. <ul><li>Granito </li></ul>
  23. 40. ROCAS METAMÓRFICAS <ul><li>ESTAS SON ROCAS ÍGNEAS O SEDIMETARIAS </li></ul><ul><li>QUE SUFREN TRANFORMACIONES POSTERIORES </li></ul><ul><li>ORIGINADAS POR LOS CAMBIOS DE TEMPERATURA, o PRESIÓN, HÚMEDAD Y POR FACTORES </li></ul><ul><li>CLIMÁTICOS Y QUÍMICOS. </li></ul>
  24. 41. ESTRATOS PLEGADOS ESTRATOS FALLADOS
  25. 43. AGENTES DE METAMORFISMO TEMPERATURA: 250 - 650 °C PRESIÓN FLUIDOS QUÍMICAMENTE ACTIVOS TIEMPO (Ma)
  26. 44. <ul><li>Pizarra </li></ul>
  27. 46. <ul><li>Marmol </li></ul>
  28. 48. 1. COLADA DE LAVA (ERUPCIÓN) 2. COLADA DE LAVA (BASALTO) 3. ROCA PIROCLÁSTICA (TOBA CON VESÍCULAS)
  29. 50. CALIZA FOSILÍFERA
  30. 51. 1. CONGLOMERADO SEDIMENTARIO 2. ARENISCA 3. LUTITA
  31. 53. 1. GNEIS 2. MICAESQUISTO 3. PIZARRA
  32. 54. Identifica estas rocas o minerales:
  33. 55. <ul><li>Pizarra </li></ul><ul><li>Roca metamórfica </li></ul>
  34. 56. <ul><li>Pumita </li></ul><ul><li>Roca ígnea (volcánica) </li></ul>
  35. 57. <ul><li>Conglomerado (pudinga) </li></ul><ul><li>Roca sedimentaria </li></ul>
  36. 58. <ul><li>Antracita </li></ul><ul><li>Roca sedimentaria (orgánica) </li></ul>
  37. 59. <ul><li>Olivino </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral </li></ul>
  38. 60. <ul><li>Halita (NaCl) </li></ul><ul><li>¿Mineral? </li></ul>
  39. 61. <ul><li>Arenisca </li></ul><ul><li>Roca sedimentaria </li></ul>
  40. 62. <ul><li>Obsidiana </li></ul><ul><li>Roca ígnea </li></ul>
  41. 63. <ul><li>Granito </li></ul><ul><li>Roca ígnea </li></ul>
  42. 64. <ul><li>Cuarzo </li></ul><ul><li>mineral </li></ul>
  43. 65. <ul><li>Yeso </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral? </li></ul><ul><li>Rosa del desierto </li></ul>
  44. 66. <ul><li>Esquisto </li></ul><ul><li>Roca metamórfica </li></ul>
  45. 67. <ul><li>www.geocities.com/manualgeo_01/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://recursos.cnice.mec.es/biosfera/alumno/2ESO/agentes_2/contenidos11.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.montes.upm.es/Dptos/DptoSilvopascicultura/Edafologia/guia/indice.html </li></ul><ul><li>mazinger.sisib.uchile.cl/repositorio/ap/ciencias_forestales/m2003421849clase2gff.ppt </li></ul>

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