Cardiovascular system- Fernando / Nov 2009


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- Cardiovascular system -
What is in blood?
Plasma, blood cells and functions.
Blood vessels: Arteries, veins and capillaries.
Double circulation.
Heart anatomy and heart cycle (diastole and systole)

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  • Overview of the main chambers of the heart
    The left side is the thicker side because it has to pump blood all around the body
    The left side pumps blood that has oxygen in it to the body
    The right side pumps blood that has carbon dioxide in it to the lungs.
    The heart pumps by squeezing it’s walls which are thick muscles.
  • Get some real sheep’s hearts from the butcher for the students to examine.
    Give them 2 hearts per group:
    One cut in half to see the inside chambers and one left intact to see the overall size and muscularity of the heart.
  • Cardiovascular system- Fernando / Nov 2009

    1. 1. Circulatory system.
    2. 2. What’s in red blood cells white blood cells platelets plasma carbon dioxide digested food waste (urea) hormones oxygen
    3. 3. Functions of Blood System • Transport: to and from tissue cells – • Nutrients to cells: amino acids, glucose, vitamins, minerals, lipids (as lipoproteins). – • Oxygen: by red blood corpuscles (oxyhaemoglobin - 4 x O2 molecules/haemoglobin). – • Wastes from cells: urea, CO2 (mainly as HCO3 in solution in the plasma). • Temperature Regulation: by altering the blood flow through the skin. • Immunity: protection against pathogens — blood clotting; phagocytes, lymphocytes and antibodies distributed in blood. • Communication: hormones distributed to all parts of the body in the blood. • Defence: clotting following a wound
    4. 4. The Blood plasma red blood cell white blood cell platelets
    5. 5. Red Blood Cells contain haemoglobin, a molecule specially designed to hold oxygen and carry it to cells that need it. can change shape to an amazing extent, without breaking, as it squeezes single file through the capillaries. a biconcave disc that is round and flat without a nucleus
    6. 6. White Blood Cells there are many different types and all contain a big nucleus. the two main ones are the lymphocytes and the macrophages. some lymphocytes fight disease by making antibodies to destroy invaders by dissolving them. other lymphocytes make antitoxins to break down poisons. macrophages ‘eat’ and digest micro- organisms .
    7. 7. Platelets Platelets are bits of cell broken off larger cells. Platelets produce tiny fibrinogen fibres to form a net. This net traps other blood cells to form a blood clot.
    8. 8. Plasma A straw- coloured liquid that carries the cells and the platelets which help blood clot. • carbon dioxide • glucose • amino acids • proteins • minerals • vitamins • hormones • waste materials like urea. It also contains useful things like;
    9. 9. Make a mind map to explain what is in blood?
    11. 11.  The circulatory system carries blood and dissolved substances to and from different places in the body. Function of the circulatory system
    12. 12.  The Heart pumps blood and substances around the body in tubes called blood vessels.  The Heart has the job of pumping these things around the body.  The Heart and blood vessels together make up the Circulatory System.
    13. 13. lungs head & arms liver digestive system kidneys legs pulmonary artery aorta pulmonary vein main vein LeftRight How does this system work? Circulatory System
    14. 14. Lungs Body cells Our circulatory system is a double circulatory system. This means it has two parts. the right side of the system deals with deoxygenated blood. the left side of the system deals with oxygenated blood.
    15. 15. Why do we say we have a double circulatory system? What is the Pulmonary circuit? What is the Systemic circuit? Answer these questions:
    16. 16. blood from the heart gets around the body through blood vessels There are 3 types of blood vessels a. ARTERY b. VEIN c. CAPILLARY
    17. 17. The ARTERY thick muscle and elastic fibres Arteries carry blood away from the heart. the elastic fibres allow the artery to stretch under pressure the thick muscle can contract to push the blood along.
    18. 18. The VEIN Veins carry blood towards from the heart. thin muscle and elastic fibres veins have valves which act to stop the blood from going in the wrong direction. body muscles surround the veins so that when they contract to move the body, they also squeeze the veins and push the blood along the vessel.
    19. 19. The CAPILLARY Capillaries link Arteries with Veins the wall of a capillary is only one cell thick they exchange materials between the blood and other body cells. The exchange of materials between the blood and the body can only occur through capillaries.
    20. 20. A collection of capillaries is known as a capillary bedcapillary bed.
    21. 21. SUMMARY Complete the following text: Arteries take blood ______ from the heart. The walls of an artery are made up of thick _________ walls and elastic fibres. Veins carry blood ________ the heart and also have valves. The _________ link arteries and veins, and have a one cell thick wall. Blood is made up of four main things ______, the liquid part of the blood; Red Blood Cells to carry ______; White Blood cells to protect the body from disease and _________ to help blood clot. away platelets towards capillaries plasma oxygen muscular
    22. 22. Complete the table with the blood vessels differences. Type of blood Direction Elastic wall Valves ARTERIES VEINS CAPILLARIES
    23. 23. •How big is the heart? •Where is the heart?
    24. 24. Explanation of Heart Right Atrium Right Ventricle Left Atrium Left VentricleValves The heart has 4 chambers: 2 on the Right: received blood and 2 on the left: pumps the blood out How does the heart pump? What kind of blood does each side pump? Which side of the heart is thicker
    25. 25. Real Heart
    26. 26. The Heart Left Ventricle Left Atrium Right Atrium Right Ventricle valve Vein from Lungs Artery to Head and BodyArtery to Lungs Vein from Head and Body valve
    27. 27. How does the Heart work? blood from the body blood from the lungs The heart beat begins when the heart muscles relax and blood flows into the atria. STEP ONE
    28. 28. The atria then contract and the valves open to allow blood into the ventricles. How does the Heart work? STEP TWO
    29. 29. How does the Heart work? The valves close to stop blood flowing backwards. The ventricles contract forcing the blood to leave the heart. At the same time, the atria are relaxing and once again filling with blood. The cycle then repeats itself. STEP THREE
    30. 30. What is DIASTOLE? What is SYSTOLE? • The time period when the heart is in a state of relaxation • It is a phase of the cardiac cycle where the myocardium is contracting
    31. 31. HEART
    32. 32. ARTERY
    33. 33. VEIN
    34. 34. CAPILLARY
    35. 35. LUNGS
    36. 36. Some figures • Your body has about 5.6 litres of blood. • This 5.6 litres of blood circulates through the body three times every minute. • In one day, the blood travels a total of 19,000 km that's four times the distance across the US from coast to coast. • The heart pumps around a third of a cup each time it beats.