2010 Urinary System- Igcse


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Urinary System-
Kidney structure and function.
Nephron structure and function.
Kidney failure.
Kidney stones.
Kidney transplant.

IES Pedro de Luna -zgz-

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2010 Urinary System- Igcse

  1. 1. EXCRETION Urinary system with some IGCSE questions http://biodeluna.wordpress.com/
  2. 2. Homeostasis . <ul><li>Homeostasis is the general function that controls and keeps constant the conditions of our body. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Excretion <ul><li>it is the removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Substances include carbon dioxide, urea and salts </li></ul>
  4. 4. Urinary system anatomy
  5. 5. <ul><li>Excretory systems regulate the chemical composition of body fluids by removing metabolic wastes and retaining the proper amounts of water, salts, and nutrients. Components of this system in vertebrates include: </li></ul><ul><li> the kidneys, liver, lungs, and skin. </li></ul>http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEXCRET.html
  6. 6. Outline structure of a kidney
  7. 7. The kidney ureter renal pelvis renal cortex renal medulla pyramids
  8. 8. Kidney function <ul><li>Removal of urea and excess water and the reabsorption of glucose and some salts, so: </li></ul><ul><li>Remove wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate water levels </li></ul>
  9. 9. The nephron
  10. 10. X section to nephron
  11. 11. Nephron
  12. 12. Nephron function <ul><li>role of renal capsule - filtration from blood of water, glucose, urea and salts </li></ul><ul><li>role of tubule - reabsorption of glucose,most of the water and some salts back into the blood, leading to concentration of urea in the urine as well as loss of excess water and salts </li></ul>
  13. 13. How can our body keep the percentage of water in our body around 60/70%? <ul><li>60 – 70 % of the weight of our body is water (around 40 l of water). </li></ul><ul><li>If it is very hot and we sweat, we lose some of our body water composition. </li></ul><ul><li>If we lose water, we can suffer dangerous dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>We have to” save” water and we must not lose more water through urine. </li></ul><ul><li>The urine will be more concentrated (water is reabsorbed) </li></ul><ul><li>If we drink a lot of water, we have an extra supply of water (that we don’t need). </li></ul><ul><li>Our urine will be more diluted (water will not be reabsorbed in kidneys ). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Urea <ul><li>Urea is formed in the liver from excess amino acids most of the water and some salts back </li></ul>
  15. 15. How toxic waste from cellular respiration (catabolism) is excreted <ul><li>1- Blood + waste come to kidneys by renal artery . </li></ul><ul><li>2- Filtration of waste in the nephron. </li></ul><ul><li>3- Reabsorption of some useful products that could have been filtered, to the capillaries surrounding the nephron. </li></ul><ul><li>4-Waste is concentrating as urine. </li></ul><ul><li>5-Urine goes to the </li></ul><ul><li>- collecting duct </li></ul><ul><li>- ureter </li></ul><ul><li>- bladder </li></ul><ul><li>- and goes out by urethra </li></ul>
  16. 16. Kidney stones ( renal calculi ) <ul><li>It is the term commonly used to refer to stones, or calculi, in the urinary system. Stones form in the kidneys and may be found anywhere in the urinary system. They vary in size. Some stones cause great pain while others cause very little. The aim of treatment is to remove the stones, prevent infection, and prevent recurrence. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatments are used. Kidney stones affect men more often than women. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Kidney stones form when there is a decrease in urine volume and/or an excess of stone-forming substances in the urine.
  18. 18. http://thoughtsandstuff.posterous.com/uh-oh-kidney-stonesouch
  19. 19. Renal (kidney) failure <ul><li>It results when the kidneys are not able to regulate water and chemicals in the body or remove waste products from your blood. Acute renal failure (ARF) is the sudden onset of kidney failure. This condition can be caused by an accident that injures the kidneys, loss of a lot of blood, or some drugs or poisons. ARF may lead to permanent loss of kidney function. But if the kidneys are not seriously damaged, they may recover. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the gradual reduction of kidney function that may lead to permanent kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). You may go several years without knowing you have CKD. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Dialysis <ul><li>Artificial maintenance of glucose and protein concentration in blood and diffusion of urea from blood to dialysis fluid. </li></ul>
  21. 21. In case of chronic renal failure… <ul><li>What about a kidney transplant? </li></ul>
  22. 23. http://lifeblood.anaemiaworld.com/en/chronic-kidney-disease/kidney-transplant.html
  23. 24. discuss the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplants, compared with dialysis <ul><li>Advantages : Dialysis takes a HUGE amount of time, and your life revolves around it. You also risk infection. A kidney transplant is permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages : Obviously, the risks associated with any surgery, risk of rejection by your body, and you have to take anti-rejection drugs your whole life. </li></ul>IGCSE – syllabus question http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090331122335AAJiPAb
  24. 25. Some IGCSE questions Sandra Brinkhoff http://sandrabrinkhoff.artspan.com/large-view/Medical%20Illustration/96153---7624/Mixed%20Media.html
  25. 29. <ul><li>Some concepts taken from IGCSE Biology syllabus 2010 </li></ul>http://blogs.laweekly.com/style_council/interior-decor/urinary-tract-wallpaper/
  26. 30. <ul><li>http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEXCRET.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Excretory_system </li></ul><ul><li>http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/Yoururinary/ </li></ul>