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Jigs and fixtures


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Jigs and fixtures

  1. 1. JIGS AND FIXTURES Department of Mechanical Engineering Muhammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad
  2. 2. Introduction • Jigs and fixtures are production tools • Used to accurately manufacture duplicate and interchangeable parts. • When large numbers of components can be machined or assembled identically
  3. 3. Introduction Jigs and fixtures may be large (air plane fuselages are built on picture frame fixtures) or very small (as in watch making).
  4. 4. Jigs • Device that holds, supports, or is placed on a part to be machined. • locates and holds the work piece • Guides the cutting tool • For repeatability and exact duplication of a part for reproduction
  5. 5. Jigs A jig is usually made of metal which locates and holds the work-piece(s) in a positive manner and also guides the cutting tools
  6. 6. Jigs
  7. 7. Fixtures • Strong and rigid mechanical devices which attaches to a machine • For quick and consistently accurate locating, supporting and clamping, blanks against cutting tools • Much-wider scope of application than jigs • Common fixtures include milling fixtures, lathe fixtures, sawing fixtures, and grinding fixtures
  8. 8. Fixtures Custom fixture set up. This image shows a custom fixture set up designed to inspect a specific part.
  9. 9. Fixtures Simple Fixture
  10. 10. Jig or Fixture Jig is a guiding device and fixture is a holding device
  11. 11. Jigs and Fixture Material • Materials used in Jigs and fixtures are made from a variety of materials, some of which can be hardened to resist wear. Given below are the materials often used in jigs, fixtures, press tools etc. Some common materials are as following: • Hardened Steel. • Carbide. • Bronze. • Stainless Steel.
  12. 12. Types of jigs • Jigs may be divided into two general classes: Boring jigs and Drill jigs • Boring jigs are used to bore holes that either is too large to drill or must be made an odd size. • Drill jigs are used to drill , ream, tap, chamfer, and counter bore, countersink and reverse. Basic jig is almost the same for either machining operation. The only difference is in the size of the bushings used
  13. 13. Template Jigs • Template jigs are normally used for accuracy rather than speed. • This type of jig fits over, on, or into the work and is not usually clamped • Least expensive and simplest type of jig to use • When bushings are not used, the whole jig plate is normally hardened
  14. 14. Plate Jigs • Similar to templates, The only difference is that plate jigs have built-in clamps to hold the work. • Made with or without bushings, depending on the number of parts to be made
  15. 15. Table Jig • Plate jigs are sometimes made with legs to raise the jig off the table for large work. This style is called a table jig.
  16. 16. Sandwich Jigs • Sandwich jigs are a form of plate jig with a back plate, This type of jig is ideal for thin or soft parts that could bend or warp in another style of jig.
  17. 17. Angle Plate Jigs Angle-plate jigs are used to hold parts that are machined at right angles to their mounting locators. Pulleys, collars, and gears are some of the parts that use this type of a jig,
  18. 18. Modified angle plate jigs • Used for machining angles other than 90 degree
  19. 19. Box jigs • Box jigs, or tumble jigs, usually totally surround the part. This style of jig allows the part to be completely machined on every surface without the need to reposition the work in the jig.
  20. 20. Channel Jigs • Channel jigs are the simplest form of box jig. The work is held between two sides and machined from the third side. In some cases, where jig feet are used, the work can be machined on three sides.
  21. 21. Leaf Jigs • Leaf jigs are small box jigs with a hinged leaf to allow for easier loading and unloading. • The main differences between leaf jigs and box jigs are size and part location. • Leaf jigs are normally smaller than box jigs and are sometimes made so that they do not completely surround the part
  22. 22. Indexing Jig • Indexing jigs are used to accurately space holes or other machined areas around a part. To do this, the jig uses either the part itself or a reference plate and a plunger. Larger indexing jigs are called rotary jigs
  23. 23. Trunnion Jigs • Trunnion jigs are a form of rotary jig for very large or odd-shaped parts • This jig is well suited for large, heavy parts that must be machined with several separate plate type jigs
  24. 24. Pump Jigs • Pump jigs are commercially made jigs that must be adapted by the user. The lever-activated plate makes this tool very fast to load and unload.
  25. 25. Multistation jigs • Multistation jigs are made in any of the forms already discussed. The main feature of this jig is how it locates the work. While one part is drilled, another can be reamed and third counter bored
  26. 26. Types of Fixtures These work holders are designed for applications where the cutting tools cannot be guided as easily as a drill. With fixtures, an edge finder, center finder, or gage blocks position the cutter
  27. 27. Plate fixtures • Plate fixtures are the simplest form of fixture. The basic fixture is made from a flat plate that has a variety of clamps and locators to hold and locate the part. The simplicity of this fixture makes it useful for most machining operations
  28. 28. Angle plate fixtures • The angle-plate fixture is a variation of the plate fixture. With this tool, the part is normally machined at a right angle to its locator.
  29. 29. Modified angle plate fixtures • While most angle-plate fixtures are made at 90 degrees, there are times when other angles are needed. In these cases, a modified angle-plate fixture can be used
  30. 30. Vise Jaw fixture • Vise-jaw fixtures are used for machining small parts • Vise-jaw fixtures are the least expensive type of fixture to make • Use is limited only by the sizes of the vises available
  31. 31. Indexing fixtures • Indexing fixtures are very similar to indexing jigs. These fixtures are used for machining parts that must have machined details evenly spaced
  32. 32. Multistation fixtures • Multistation fixtures are used primarily for high-speed, high-volume production runs, where the machining cycle must be continuous
  33. 33. Duplex fixtures • Duplex fixtures are the simplest form of multistation fixture, using only two stations. This form allows the loading and unloading operations to be performed while the machining operation is in progress
  34. 34. Profiling fixtures • Profiling fixtures are used to guide tools for machining contours that the machine cannot normally follow
  35. 35. Advantages of jigs and fixtures • Increased Productivity • Interchangeability • Jigs and Fixtures facilitate uniform quality in manufacturing. There is no need for selective assembly. Any parts of the machine fit properly in assembly, and all similar components are interchangeable • Skill Reduction • Cost Reduction