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Mansaka tribe

Mansaka Ethnic Tribe

*Geographical location
*Economic system
*Political system
*Social organization and customs
*Religious beliefs and practice

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Mansaka tribe

  1. 1. MANSAKA Ethnic Tribe
  2. 2. Davao del Norte and Compostela Valley • ManatValley • MaragusanValley • Hijo RiverValley • seacoasts of Kingking, Maco, Kwambog, Hijo, Tagum, Libuganon, Tuganay, Ising, and Panabo. GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION
  3. 3. MANSAKA derived from “man” = “first” ; “saka” = “to ascend” the first people to ascend the mountains or go upstream peaceful tribe today, but there was a time when they were a warlike nomadic group who fought the Moros and Mandayas to acquire slaves, which were essential parts of their dowries under Manuvu linguistic • Tagacaolo, Davaoeno, Isamal Dialects Language
  4. 4. HISTORY 3 phases of Mansaka racial development From 3000 to 500 BC Indonesians + Native women = Manobo From 300 to 200 BC Malays + Manobo = Mandaya-Mansaka 13th century Chinese + Mandaya-Mansaka = developed Mandaya- Mansaka
  5. 5. 1851 – Davao was made the Fourth Military District of Mindanao – substitution of the Muslims by the Christians Spanish Period Slavery was halted (practiced by some Islamized groups) Introduced “Spanish reduccion” – Was partially successful American Period Mandaya-Mansaka were encouraged to work in coastal plantations and adopt the lifestyle of Christianized natives Developed abaca industry During the Commonwealth, there were laws liberalizing Christian migration to the settlement areas of the Mansaka
  6. 6. ECONOMY Farming; Fishing; HuntingMain Economic Activities Farming Produce humay (rice) & batad (corn) = harvested and stored coffee & hemp = cash crops paruda (sweet potatoes) & wakag (tubers) = dug from the backyard when they are to be consumed Fishing Methods Yamangot Gabukad Longyab Ligwat Yaaraw Yobas Tuba Bingwit Saranaw Bows & arrows
  7. 7. Hunting Weapons Tuklo (spear) Sumpitan (blowgun) Purot Piranasan Litag Katal Arejas Utotan Metalcraft – Presence of pandayan (blacksmith’s shop) other Economic Activities Weaving – dagmay (abaca cloth with designs) > woven with 3 types of fibers (bintok; sikarig; kanarum) Wood carving Pottery Basketry Budjak Karasag Busog
  8. 8. POLITICAL SYSTEM Have unwritten laws based on their traditions, customs and beliefs These laws guides the political leaders in judicial, social, and political matters Traditional Leadership MATIKADONG - the leader of the tribe has a family an AL-LANG or servant a council of leaders (MANGKATADONG)
  9. 9. BAGANI – a member of the warrior class – lead the community with the help and advice of the matadong – protects the rights and lives of the clan members  must killed atleast 12 people who have violated the Mansaka traditions Distinguished by a red cloth which is the official headdress (MAROGANG) The marogang can only be worn by a Bagani MANIKLAD – a member of the warrior class –killed at least seven persons but falls short of the minimum number required to be a bagani MATADONG (old wise man) - has great influence in community decision making
  10. 10. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND CUSTOMS depends on kinship ties which regulate the interrelationship between families and between members of a family Mansaka family is patriarchal The community assigns members to manage the farm. • Men - tasked in farm-related jobs , fishing and hunting • Women - tasked to produce clothing and weave mats -help in the farm during planting, weeding and harvesting times -cultivate crops as commercial products to sell or barter
  11. 11.  Men - spades to till the soil using the TUTUDAKA, a 2.1-meter-long wooden pole, on which is attached bai (a species of coconut plant) Planting Season  Women - sow the seeds  Children - use the wawaris (bamboo brooms) to cover the seeds with soil Harvest time = merrymaking occasion  PYAGSAWITAN – first meal from their farm produce  A ceremony is performed  Families & neighbors join and witness the event  Guests bring food and wine as their contribution  Tribal dances are performed, coupled with singing & the playing of indigenous instruments  Each guest leaves with something from the farm produce
  12. 12. Marriage is arranged by the parents of the bride and groom Mansaka maiden usually marries when she reaches 15 The parent of the girl sets the amount of dowry for their daughter. The dowry is in terms of al-langs (slaves), agongs and patakia (a container for betel nut chew).  Daughters of Baganis command the highest dowry. It is usually from 10 to 15 al-langs with so many agongs and patakias to accompany them. In more recent times, they accept the equivalent price of one al-lang, after the amount of dowry has been agreed upon. COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE The wedding ceremony consists of an exchange of rice between the parties: the man takes rice in his hand and feeds his bride and vice versa. It is followed by a religious rite to ensure the happy future of the couple. An elder and a tribal leader officiates the wedding ceremony and sit with them at the table.
  13. 13. CLOTHING WOMEN - adorn their bodies with sampad, platena, balyog, and bracelets. - wear decorative combs of colourful beads and beaded hairpins. -may have bangs or tie their long hair at the back. A portion remains untied near the ears.  The blouse of a daughter of the nobility is full of design motifs called pyanaigon, byatotoan, limbotong, and binawid.  Their clothes are made from abaca and saragboy, a soft cotton-like cloth from a native shrub. MEN - wear short pants or SYRAWTANAN also made from abaca and woven by women of the tribe.
  14. 14. BALIAN (shaman) - usually female medicine person who officiates in rituals involving sickness, death, planting and harvest. RELIGIOUS BELIEFS AND PRACTICES believes in a supreme being whom they call Magbabaya or Yumanum Mansaka identify themselves as utaw or people created by Magbabaya  Mansaka manaog or domestic gods are represented by wooden statues standing on a parangka (pedestal)  Manaog have sexes which can be discerned on the sculpture and ornaments on the statues  Offerings are given to the manaog after rice planting, harvest, and before death
  15. 15. Christianity has been introduced and accepted by many Mansaka, but it has not totally eradicated the manaog cult. The Mansaka believe in the saving grace of the Christian God but remnants of the old religion, as in many ethnic groups, persist. Curiously the Mansaka belong to various Christian denominations, often at the same time.  The rituals can be either indoor or outdoor The manaog of the balian are kept on the ceiling near the kitchen, where they become black from the smoke. Mansakas offer food, wine and betel nut, areca leaves and lime or “mama” to appease the evil spirits. They believe that human ailments are caused by displeased super beings.

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