Gender Inequalities Presentation


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Gender Inequalities Presentation

  1. 1. Globalization’s Effects on Labor<br />Inequalities<br />
  2. 2. To determine the effects of globalization on the gender inequalities within the work force.<br />Focus<br />
  3. 3. Definition:<br />Globalization<br />Exports<br />Imports<br />United States<br />England<br />
  4. 4. Cultures<br />United States<br />China<br />Mexico<br />
  5. 5. America<br />
  6. 6. Mainstream<br />Developed Countries<br />High concentration of females in global service sector<br />Causes<br />Higher education<br />Increased fertility rates<br />
  7. 7. Gender Inequalities<br />Median annual salary<br />Men = $26,500Women = $19,500<br />Women are cheaper, which increases their chances to be hired.<br />Service Sector<br />
  8. 8. Gender<br />Labor Force<br />My Ethnography<br />Inequalities<br />Globalization<br />
  9. 9. Traditional Western* Gender Stereotypes (Macionis 2001)<br />Feminine TraitsMasculine Traits<br /> -Submissive -Dominant<br /> -Dependent -Independent<br /> -Unintelligent -Intelligent<br /> -Emotional -Rational<br /> -Receptive -Assertive<br /> -Intuitive -Analytical<br /> -Weak -Strong<br /> -Timid -Brave<br /> -Content -Ambitious<br /> -Passive -Active<br /> -Cooperative -Competitive<br /> -Sensitive -Insensitive<br /> -Sex object -Sexually aggressive<br /> -Attractive due to physical appearance -Attractive due to achievement<br />* “The West” refers generally to the cultures and peoples of Europe, North and South America, Australia and New Zealand<br />This chart was used to help with the observations of my ethnography<br />
  10. 10. The Factory<br />Observations in Assembly<br />Men<br />Hard manual labor<br />Management/Supervisors<br />Women<br />Involved in Manual Labor<br />Few management positions<br />Generally Equal Wages<br />
  11. 11. The Factory<br />Observations in Main Office<br />Men<br />Higher positions<br />Salesmen were all men<br />International Sales<br />Contrasts with stereotype since females are more social<br />Men = Assertive<br />Women<br />Secretarial positions<br />
  12. 12. The Bank<br />Findings<br />Management<br />Men = Majority<br />Women were present<br />Had five or less individuals, which compared to men was small<br />Women<br />Repetitive jobs<br />Folding statements, verifying CDs, etc.<br />
  13. 13. The Bank<br />Findings….Continued<br />Tellers<br />All women<br />Job requires social skills and a receptive nature, both of which are common female stereotypes.<br />
  14. 14. Conclusions<br />Men and women are typically put into careers that fit the stereotypes defined by Macionis<br />Therefore American culture is biased to a degree<br />America culture seems to influence gender inequalities substantially more when compared to globalization<br />We have been taught these biased views<br />
  15. 15. China<br />
  16. 16. Work Force<br />Study by Shu, Zhu, and Zhang<br />Surveyed 19,499 individuals<br />Findings<br />Gap of 24 percent between genders.<br />This gap was present in areas that have yet to be influenced by globalization<br />Chinese that were employed by foreign industries were making 34 percent more when compared to the private sector<br />Conclusions<br />Women are frequent employees of foreign industries<br />Export-oriented industries<br />
  17. 17. Work Force<br />Females<br />Provide a large percentage of Chinese labor<br />Occupied careers pertain to international production and commerce<br />Positive of globalization<br />
  18. 18. Work Force<br />Developed Countries<br />China <br />Globalization moves women into the industrial sector<br />Approximately 80 percent of the workers that make up these factories are younger women<br />Increases the overall number of women in the work force<br />
  19. 19. Industry: Wage Comparison<br />Number of Yuan<br />
  20. 20. Conlcusions<br />Globalization changes the status of current jobs<br />Creates new jobs and thus rearranging the market<br />However, higher jobs are often given to men<br />Chinese culture influences gender job opportunities<br />Therefore, gender inequalities can be blamed on culture<br />Chinese Labor Market<br />
  21. 21. Mexico<br />
  22. 22. Labor Market<br />Study<br />Observing two different globalized industries in Mexico<br />Tourism<br />Cancun<br />Global Assembly<br />Cuidad Juarez<br />
  23. 23. Tourism<br />Globalization<br />Positives<br />Encourages job opportunities for the locals<br />Predominantly women<br />Negatives<br />Low pay<br />Require few/no skills<br />Available only during certain seasons<br />
  24. 24. Global Assembly<br />Globalization<br />Cuidad Juarez<br />Provides jobs for 54 percent of the women’s labor force<br />Similar positives and negatives when compared to Cancun<br />
  25. 25. Percentage of the Hispanic Female Work Force in each Sector<br />
  26. 26. Percentage of the Hispanic Male Work Force in each Sector<br />
  27. 27. Global Industries Effects<br />Income<br />Median income for females was only slightly higher in Cuidad Juarez when compared to Cancun<br />Income inequality was lower in both cities when compared to the national average<br />The number of women in the work force increased from 33.1 percent to 38 percent over 6 years<br />Female’s earnings increased as well by 8.1 percent<br />
  28. 28. Globalization does influence gender inequalities, but not always negatively<br />It promotes females in the labor market<br />Pays higher wages for men and women<br />Provides more job opportunities for both genders<br />Conclusions<br />
  29. 29. Overall Results<br />
  30. 30. Increase of women in the work force<br />Increase in wages<br />GlobalizationPositives<br />Technological advances<br />Workers gain more skills<br />
  31. 31. Makes women cheap labor sources<br />Younger generation replaces older because of technology<br />Globalization Negatives<br />
  32. 32. Conclusions<br />Globalization’s positive effects on these cultures outweighs any negative<br />Inequalities were present in each culture, however these were not caused by globalization<br />Culture bias was the reason for these inequalities<br />Women and men are given different educational and developmental opportunities<br />