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# HBMT3203

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HBMT3203 TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FIVE AND SIX

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### HBMT3203

1. 1. FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND LANGUAGES JANUARY / 2011 HBMT3203 TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR FIVE AND SIXMATRICULATION NO :IDENTITY CARD NO. :TELEPHONE NO. :E-MAIL : znas77@yahoo.com.myLEARNING CENTRE : JOHOR LEARNING CENTRE
2. 2. HBMT3203INTRODUCTIONVOLUME The word ”volume” has several different meanings. The most common definitionis the magnitude or intensity of a certain sound. Volume may also refer to how muchspace a three dimensional object takes up or the amount of three dimensional spaceoccupied by an object. For example, the volume is height x base x length = 4 x 5 x 10 = 200 units³. Unitsof volume include : 1) Metric thats in cubic centimeters (cm³), cubic meters (m³) and liters. 2) Imperial are in fluid ounce, cubic inch, cubic foot, pints, gallons and bushels. A cubic centimeter (cm3) is a commonly used unit of volume extending thederived SI-unit cubic metre, and corresponds to the volume of a cube measuring 1 cm ×1 cm × 1 cm. One cubic centimetre corresponds to a volume of 1⁄1000000 of a cubic metre,or 1⁄1000 of a litre, or one millilitre; thus, 1 cm3 ≡ 1 mL. The mass of one cubic centimetreof water at 3.98 °C (the temperature at which it attains its maximal density) is roughlyequal to one gram. 1
3. 3. HBMT3203CAPACITYCapacity means the amount that something can hold. Usually it means or in other words,capacity is the volume of a container given terms of liquid measurement, such asmililiters (ml) or liters (l) in Metric, or pints or gallons in Imperial. The liter is a unit ofvolume equal to 1/1000 cubic meter or 1 cubic decimeter (dm³). The unit has two officialsymbols: the Latin letter L in lower and upper case (l and L). If the lower case L is used itis often written as a cursive ℓ, although this usage has no official approval by anyinternational bureau.The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came fromGreek via Latin. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit, and it hasbeen used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for usewith the SI, although not an official SI unit, the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3).The spelling of the word used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is"litre" and this is also the usual one in most English-speaking countries, but in AmericanEnglish the spelling is "liter", being endorsed by the United States.One litre of water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram. Example, ”the bucket has a capacity of 9 liters”. So, this bucket has the ability orpower to contain or hold. 2
4. 4. HBMT3203CONTENTCOMPARE AND CONTRAST STRATEGIES OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS a) Example on VolumeINTERACTIVE LEARNING STRATEGYVOLUME OF LIQUID LESSON PLAN:Learning Area : Computation of volume of liquid.Learning objectives : 1. Use and apply fractional computation to problems involving the volume of liquids.Learning outcomes : (i) Compute volume of liquid from a situation expressed in fraction.Teaching aids : Measuring cylinder, coloured liquids, measuring tape.Set induction : Teacher shows a jug of coloured liquids to pupils. Teacher pours half of the liquid into a container.Step 1 : Pupils to discuss in their own group about amount of the remains of the liquid. Pupils’ Activity. Notes To Teachers: Try to recall the fraction through the names: Teacher asks pupils to name the o half, fraction of the o one over two water remains. o one halve Teacher asks pupils to convert the volume into Guide pupils to say the measurement in correct conversion (basic liter and mililiter. knowledge) in liter and mililiter. Teacher asks Eg: pupils to write ½ of 1000m l = 500ml down the relationship ¼ of 1000m l = 250 ml between fraction ¾ of 1000m l = 750 ml and volume. 3
5. 5. HBMT3203Teacher’s Instruction: Expected answers from pupils:o Can anyone tell me how do you get o They get their answer from the your answer? previous knowledge and from the examples given.Step 2 : Teacher shows pupils how to compute volume from situation exposed in fraction. Teacher demonstrates how to solve them. e.g. 3 of 400  8 In this context, “of ” means multiplication (×) operator, so, 4
6. 6. HBMT3203Step 3 : Teacher shows a few questions on cards and asks the pupils to solve.A. Compute the following in litre. No. Question Answer 1 1 of 800  8 2 3 of 320  8 3 6 of 480  8 4 7 of 560  8 5 5 of 640  8Step 4 : Stress the importance of when to multiply and when to divide by having each student write down, verbally repeat, and use the rules in the provided examples.Step 5 : Recreational Game (BINGO) 5
7. 7. HBMT3203 Recreational Game ( BINGO ) Answer Instructions 5. Choose a question from 1 to 12. 6. Solve the question and circle the correct answer. 7. When a pupil gets 5 straight or diagonal lines, the game is over. 8. The pupil with the least uncircled 2 31) of 150 m  = ………….. m  7) of 45  = …………….  3 5 3 42) of 720 m  = ………….. m  8) of 250  = ……………..  4 5 5 33) of 420 m  = ………….. m  9) of 104  = ……………..  6 8 2 34) of 370 m  = ………….. m  10) of 126  = ……………..  5 7 4 15) of 630 m  = ………….. m  11) of 100  = ………………  7 4 6 56) of 560 m  = ………….. m  12) of 108  = ………………  7 6DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INTERACTIVE STRATEGY AND LECTURESTRATEGY 6
8. 8. HBMT3203 INTERACTIVE STRATEGY LECTURE STRATEGY1. It means “Interactive” is in the sense 1. Teacher have to set overarching goals, they create a collaborative and dynamic organized content and developed a set of mechanisms to stimulate their course plan with ideas for how to give own learning. Initially the interactive students the practice that will make it teaching processes are shown. The basic possible for them to achieve the learning presupposition of this process is that outcomes. In this section, teacher will there is much efficiency in learning if make choices about what students will the student adopts an active, energetic have to do in order to learn the content posture during information transmission. of the skills or lesson. The hardware mechanisms for 2. It also can convey a lot of information to interactive teaching are then described. many student but only from what teacher As the software devices for the model, a gives in the classroom. set of expert systems is considered. 3. It can maximizes staff time. Finally, the evaluation of the whole 4. This strategy also non-threatening to experiment is discussed. students.2. It allows students to get more 5. Students may feel boring and also lacks information and also allows students to of student’s feedback. talk, listen, read, write and reflect as 6. Teacher and students may difficult to they approach course content through meet individual learning needs. It is problem solving exercises and activities. more to “The talk and chalk method”.3. It can stimulates critical thinking and decision making but still with teacher’s guidance. Without proper teacher guidance, students may learn incorrect info. INTERACTIVE STRATEGY LECTURE STRATEGY4. Can include others teaching aids such as 7. Encourages one – way communication, technology systems. Example, the teacher must make a conscious effort 7
9. 9. HBMT3203 computer, projector, internet connection to become aware of student problems system, books, articles, films, and student understanding of content recordings, experiences, projects and without verbal feedback. other people. 8. Requires a considerable amount of5. Students feel more enganged and unguided student time outside of the empowered to the teaching and learning classroom to enable understanding and activities. long-term retention of content.6. Encourage the questioning mind and 9. Requires the teacher to have effective equip students with skills for finding the speaking skills. answers.SIMILARITIES BETWEEN INTERACTIVE STRATEGY AND LECTURESTRATEGY Interactive strategy and lecture strategy still have some similarities in bothstrategies that teacher will use in their teaching and learning activities especially in theclassroom. From both strategies, the teacher will have the same problems such as somestudents may be passive in the classroom. For interactive teaching strategy, assessingstudents contribution in active learning environments ca be a problem. Teacher needs tooutline the evaluation criteris for each assignment. Interactive strategy and lecture strategy also can get the teacher give the reward orcompliments for students if they can give cooperation in answering the questions and alsoafter give the correct result in the groups activities. b) Difficulties and misconceptions 8
10. 10. HBMT3203EVALUATIONLITERATURE REVIEWCONCLUSIONI would say that volume refers to the space taken up by an object itself, while capacityrefers to the amount of a liquid or other pourable substance a container can hold. Thatmore or less parallels what you have seen. I have never, however, seen both terms used ofthe same object without clarification, where you would not talk of the volume of apitcher, meaning the amount of plastic it is made of, without carefully saying so, since itis so common to use the two terms interchangeably. The first thing to realize about interactive teaching is that it is not somethingnew or mysterious. If you are a teacher and you ask questions in class, assign and checkhomework, or hold class or group discussions, then you already teach interactively.Basically, interactive teaching is just giving students something to do, getting back whatthey have done, and then assimilating it yourself, so that you can decide what would bebest to do next. But, almost all teachers do these things, so is there more to it? To answer thisquestion, one has to step away from teaching and think about learning. Over the lasttwenty years, the field of cognitive science has taught us a lot about how people learn. Acentral principle that has been generally accepted is that everything we learn, we"construct" for ourselves. That is, any outside agent is essentially powerless to have adirect effect on what we learn. If our brain does not do it itself, - that is, take ininformation, look for connections, interpret and make sense of it, - no outside force willhave any effect. This does not mean that the effort has to be expressly voluntary andconscious on our parts. Our brains take-in information and operate continuously on manykinds of levels, only some of which are consciously directed. But, conscious or not, the important thing to understand is that it is our brainsthat are doing the learning, and that this process is only indirectly related to the teacherand the teaching. For example, even the most lucid and brilliant exposition of a subject 9
11. 11. HBMT3203by a teacher in a lecture, may result in limited learning if the students brains do not dothe necessary work to process it. There are several possible causes why students learningmay fall short of expectations in such a situation. They may, not understand a crucial concept partway into the lecture and so what follows is unintelligible, be missing prior information or not have a good understanding of what went before, so the conceptual structures on which the lecture is based are absent, lack the interest, motivation, or desire to expend the mental effort to follow the presentation, understand the arguments, make sense of the positions, and validate the inferences.However, whatever the cause, without interacting with the students (in the simplest caseby asking questions), a teacher has no way to know if his or her efforts to explain thetopic were successful. This brings me to the first of three distinct reasons for interactive teaching. It is anattempt to see what actually exists in the brains of your students. This is the "summative"aspect. It is the easiest aspect to understand and it is well described in the literature. But,it is far from being the only perspective! The second reason is "formative", where theteacher aims through the assigned task to direct students mental processing along anappropriate path in "concept-space". The intent is that, as students think through theissues necessary in traversing the path, the resulting mental construction that is developedin the students head will possess those properties that the teacher is trying to teach. AsSocrates discovered, a good question can accomplish this result better than, just tellingthe answer. The third may be termed "motivational". Learning is hard work, and an injectionof motivation at the right moment can make all the difference. One motivating factorprovided by the interactive teacher is the requirement of a response to a live classroomtask. This serves to jolt the student into action, to get his brain off the couch, so to speak. 10
12. 12. HBMT3203Additional more subtle and pleasant events follow immediately capitalizing on themomentum created by this initial burst. One of these is a result of our human socialtendencies. When teachers ask students to work together in small groups to solve aproblem, a discussion ensues that not only serves in itself to build more robust knowledgestructures, but also to motivate. The anticipation of immediate feedback in the form ofreaction from their peers, or from the teacher is a very strong motivator. If it is notembarrassing or threatening, students want to know desperately whether theirunderstanding is progressing or just drifting aimlessly in concept space. Knowing thatthey are not allowed to drift too far off track provides tremendous energy to continue. VOLUME OF LIQUID WORKSHEETSNAME: _______________________________ DATE: _______________YEAR: _____________________ 11
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14. 14. HBMT3203INSTRUCTIONS Do not copy the assignment question and instructions to your answer. Prepare your assignment answer following the layout of the ASSESSMENT CRITERIA shown in the RUBRICS provided for the course. Where RUBRICS are not provided, follow the instructions/guidelines specified by the Faculty for the assignment concerned. 13
15. 15. HBMT3203 Your assignment should be between 2500 to 3000 words EXCLUDING references. Type your answer using 12 point Times New Roman font and 1.5 line spacing. Show the number of words at the end of your assignment. Tables and figures where provided, should be appropiately titled. List your references separately in the APPENDIX page. ATTACHMENTREFERENCESAuthor’s name (year). Book, Title, Publication 14
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