What is Geography? <ul><li>Geography: the study of where people, places, and things are located and how they relate to eac...
Location <ul><li>Absolute Location: exact or precise spot on Earth that a place occupies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use latitud...
<ul><li>Relative Location: the position of a particular place in relation to other places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: S...
Place <ul><li>A location’s physical and human characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Place identity CHANGES through time </li><...
<ul><li>Human characteristics: people’s way of life – activities, population distribution, means of transportation, archit...
Human-Environment Interaction <ul><li>People adapt their way of life to accommodate their environment </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Movement <ul><li>Interactions of people with one another as they travel, communicate, and exchange goods and services </li...
Regions <ul><li>Region: an area having a specific characteristic or characteristics that set it apart from other regions <...
Political Theme of History <ul><li>Why do we need government? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide for the common needs of the pe...
Why Should People Obey the Law? <ul><li>Every form of government has different laws and punishments for breaking them </li...
Types of Government <ul><li>Democracy: government by the people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free electoral system </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Constitutional Monarchy: monarch is a figurehead of the government, while a Parliamentary body exercises actual po...
<ul><li>Socialism: government owns the means of production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utopian: ideal, everyone is equal </li></...
<ul><li>Fascism: government led by a dictator, emphasizing aggressive nationalism and racism, and is extremely conservativ...
Economic Theme of History <ul><li>Economics: how people use limited resources to satisfy their wants and needs </li></ul><...
 
Social Theme of History <ul><li>Social theme: Includes all of the items that make up a culture and involves the way in whi...
Religion <ul><li>Religion helps people to answer basic questions and the meaning and purpose of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Major world religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
 
<ul><li>Abraham </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Father of 3 prominent religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism, Christianity...
Judaism <ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Religious text: Torah </li></ul><ul><li>Religious buildings: Synogogues  </...
<ul><li>Prophets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moses, through whom Torah was revealed to the Hebrew people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
As a way of life, Judaism is based on… <ul><li>Written Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>613 commandments found in Torah </li></ul...
As a people, Jews are… <ul><li>A nation in Diaspora (dispersed) </li></ul><ul><li>15 – 16 million in worldwide population ...
How does Judaism sanctify life? <ul><li>Life cycle celebrations: </li></ul><ul><li>Bris – ritual circumcision, sign of the...
Jewish Holidays <ul><li>Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) </li></ul><ul><li>Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) </li></ul><ul><li>...
How is Judaism related to Christianity? <ul><li>Judaism predates Christianity  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the foundation ...
Christianity <ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Text: Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Sites: Bethlehem, Jerus...
<ul><li>World’s largest religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.8 billion people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of world populati...
Islam <ul><li>Islam – submission to the will of God </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim – follower of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Qur’an ...
5 Pillars of Islam <ul><li>The profession of faith </li></ul><ul><li>The five daily prayers </li></ul><ul><li>Paying zakat...
Muhammad <ul><li>Born into merchant family in Mecca, orphaned early </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad was troubled with gap betwe...
Hijrah  <ul><li>Many of the people in Mecca were against Muhammad’s preaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people made pilgr...
Mosque Of  The  Prophet In Medina
<ul><li>Muhammad assembled a military force to defend community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military victories attracted many fo...
Dome of the Rock: Where Muhammad Ascended Into Heaven
The Islamic Community Divides <ul><li>Sunni </li></ul><ul><li>Shi’ah </li></ul>Sufi –
Hinduism <ul><li>God is one-but goes by many names </li></ul><ul><li>No single founder-combination of beliefs </li></ul><u...
Reincarnation <ul><li>Death is not final for Hindus as they expect to be reborn many times. </li></ul><ul><li>Samsara is t...
Karma and Dharma <ul><li>Karma-actions in this life that affect the next. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every action produces a Ju...
Caste System <ul><li>Group you are in according to class, occupation, or gender. </li></ul><ul><li>4 major castes </li></u...
Festival of Divali <ul><li>Divali: row of lights </li></ul><ul><li>Series of five festivals in October and November </li><...
The Ganges River Falling from Its source of  Vishnu’s feet onto Shiva’s head and out from his hair,  the water of the Gang...
Buddhism <ul><li>Founded by Siddhartha Guatama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Prince who lived in luxury and comfort inside ...
<ul><li>The truth about suffering is that it exists. Life is suffering. Birth, aging and dying is suffering.  </li></ul><u...
The Eightfold Path <ul><li>1.Right Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>2.Right Thoughts  </li></ul><ul><li>3.Right Speech  </l...
<ul><li>The only cure for suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path, a middle road between a life devoted to pleasure and ...
Different Buddhas
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Themes Of History

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Themes Of History

  1. 1. What is Geography? <ul><li>Geography: the study of where people, places, and things are located and how they relate to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Five Themes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction (between people and their environment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Location <ul><li>Absolute Location: exact or precise spot on Earth that a place occupies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use latitude (north and south) and longitude (east and west), hemispheres, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Santa Fe, NM is located at 35°41’ north and 105°57’ west </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Relative Location: the position of a particular place in relation to other places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Santa Fe is 58 miles northeast of Albuquerque </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Place <ul><li>A location’s physical and human characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Place identity CHANGES through time </li></ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics: landforms, climate, soil, vegetation, and animal life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Santa Fe is in the foothills of the southern Rocky Mountains </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Human characteristics: people’s way of life – activities, population distribution, means of transportation, architecture, religion, and languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Santa Fe has traditional Pueblo and Spanish architecture </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Human-Environment Interaction <ul><li>People adapt their way of life to accommodate their environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Chinese stir fry – not many trees in China so food is cut into tiny pieces to allow it to cook quicker with little fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People adapt their environment to accommodate their lives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: clearing forests, blasting tunnels through mountains, plowing fields </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Movement <ul><li>Interactions of people with one another as they travel, communicate, and exchange goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Migration: movement of people from one place to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: people leave homelands to escape war or natural disasters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade: movement of goods between areas </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: ideas of Buddhism spread from India to China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interdependence: dependence of countries on goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Americans get coffee from South America, tea from India, oil from the Middle East </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Regions <ul><li>Region: an area having a specific characteristic or characteristics that set it apart from other regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics could be physical, political, climate, cultural, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any given area could be part of several different regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Santa Fe is the state capital of New Mexico (political region), at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Range of the Rocky Mountains (physical region), and has a large Spanish-American population (cultural region) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Political Theme of History <ul><li>Why do we need government? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide for the common needs of the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep order within a society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting a society from outside threats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do governments keep order? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do societies create laws? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customs turn into laws </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Why Should People Obey the Law? <ul><li>Every form of government has different laws and punishments for breaking them </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophes: Enlightenment thinkers who argued about how much control the government should have over people’s lives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will people create chaos without government? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do laws take away peoples’ rights? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social contract: people “sign” a contract with their government in which they give up certain rights in exchange for protection of other rights </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Government <ul><li>Democracy: government by the people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free electoral system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dictatorship: absolute power exercised by a dictator </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Constitutional Monarchy: monarch is a figurehead of the government, while a Parliamentary body exercises actual power </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Monarchy: monarch retains all power </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Socialism: government owns the means of production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utopian: ideal, everyone is equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic socialism: people retain partial control and may own some private property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian socialism a.k.a. communism: government overthrown violently, new leaders own all the means of production, and must act violently in order to ensure that socialism can be achieved </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Fascism: government led by a dictator, emphasizing aggressive nationalism and racism, and is extremely conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Theocracy: rule by the church </li></ul>
  15. 15. Economic Theme of History <ul><li>Economics: how people use limited resources to satisfy their wants and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic economic questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What goods and services should we produce? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should we produce them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For whom should we produce them? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three basic types of economies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Social Theme of History <ul><li>Social theme: Includes all of the items that make up a culture and involves the way in which people live their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Social institutions: social systems that are built into a society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educational system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arts, music, literature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prison system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daily routines and rituals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folkways and customs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Religion <ul><li>Religion helps people to answer basic questions and the meaning and purpose of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the values that a group of people consider to be important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monotheism: worship one god </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheism: worship of more than one god </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Major world religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Abraham </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Father of 3 prominent religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism, Christianity, Islam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected idolatry and embraced monotheism </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Judaism <ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Religious text: Torah </li></ul><ul><li>Religious buildings: Synogogues </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Symbol: Star of David </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Site: Jerusalem </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Prophets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moses, through whom Torah was revealed to the Hebrew people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Torah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(first five books of the Bible), containing religious, moral and social law which guides the life of a Jew </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not include the New Testament </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. As a way of life, Judaism is based on… <ul><li>Written Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>613 commandments found in Torah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral Law – commentary of ancient rabbis that elaborates on how to apply God’s Law in everyday life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary rules (Kashrut/Kosher) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress and other symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer and devotion to the one God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Temple and Temple rites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observance of Holy days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper social relations between male and female, in business, judicial rulings, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. As a people, Jews are… <ul><li>A nation in Diaspora (dispersed) </li></ul><ul><li>15 – 16 million in worldwide population </li></ul><ul><li>United by a common heritage (an “ethnic” religion), divided in contemporary practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthodox: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chasidic (Ultra Orthodox) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reformed (18 th century Germany) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative – moderates, response to reform </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. How does Judaism sanctify life? <ul><li>Life cycle celebrations: </li></ul><ul><li>Bris – ritual circumcision, sign of the covenant </li></ul><ul><li>Bar/Bat Mitzvah – full adult status and responsibility within the religion </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage - &quot;Be fruitful and multiply&quot; (Gen. 1:22) </li></ul><ul><li>Death – funerals, mourning (sitting “Shiva”), and memorials (“Yartzeits”) </li></ul>
  25. 27. Jewish Holidays <ul><li>Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) </li></ul><ul><li>Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) </li></ul><ul><li>Chanukah, the “Festival of Lights” </li></ul><ul><li>Pesach (“Passover”) – commemorates the exodus from Egypt (events told in Exodus) </li></ul><ul><li>Shavuot (“weeks,” Pentecost) – commemorates receipt of Torah at Sinai </li></ul><ul><li>Shabbat (Sabbath, 7 th day, on Saturday) – the “Day of Rest” </li></ul>
  26. 28. How is Judaism related to Christianity? <ul><li>Judaism predates Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the foundation of Christianity but is not a part of it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jesus was Jewish, as were his followers and the Apostles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews do not believe that Jesus was anything more than a good and wise man who lived and died 2000 years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jews still await their messiah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Jewish messiah would not be divine. He would be a political figure who restores the Hebrew monarchy and causes peace to reign on Earth </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Christianity <ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Text: Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Sites: Bethlehem, Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Symbol: Cross </li></ul><ul><li>Special Days: Easter, Christmas </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>World’s largest religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.8 billion people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of world population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Followers believe that Jesus was the son of God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived as a carpenter and preacher who taught using parables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe he was resurrected after his death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fragmented into many separate denominations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Islam <ul><li>Islam – submission to the will of God </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim – follower of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Qur’an – holy book of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad – struggle to defend the faith </li></ul><ul><li>Mosques – place where Muslims worship </li></ul>
  30. 32. 5 Pillars of Islam <ul><li>The profession of faith </li></ul><ul><li>The five daily prayers </li></ul><ul><li>Paying zakat </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan </li></ul><ul><li>Making a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once, if possible </li></ul>
  31. 33. Muhammad <ul><li>Born into merchant family in Mecca, orphaned early </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad was troubled with gap between the greedy rich & honest poor </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad went into mountains to meditate on the issue </li></ul><ul><li>While meditating, Muhammad received revelation from God through the angel Gabriel </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad came to believe that Allah had revealed himself partially to Moses & Jesus and his final revelations were to him </li></ul>
  32. 34. Hijrah <ul><li>Many of the people in Mecca were against Muhammad’s preaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people made pilgrimage there to worship at the Kaaba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building that contained many idols that people worshipped </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A.D. 622 Muhammad went on journey to more accepting place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Went to Medina (Yathrib) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hijrah: means “flight” or “migration” </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. Mosque Of The Prophet In Medina
  34. 36. <ul><li>Muhammad assembled a military force to defend community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military victories attracted many followers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca with 10,000 soldiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City surrendered & many residents converted to Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muhammad declared the Kaaba to be a sacred shrine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muhammad died 2 years later, Islam spread through the Arabian peninsula </li></ul>
  35. 37. Dome of the Rock: Where Muhammad Ascended Into Heaven
  36. 38. The Islamic Community Divides <ul><li>Sunni </li></ul><ul><li>Shi’ah </li></ul>Sufi –
  37. 39. Hinduism <ul><li>God is one-but goes by many names </li></ul><ul><li>No single founder-combination of beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred texts- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rig Veda: Hinduism’s oldest text- nearly 4000 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bhagavad Gita: most popular sacred text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upanishads </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Reincarnation <ul><li>Death is not final for Hindus as they expect to be reborn many times. </li></ul><ul><li>Samsara is the wheel of rebirth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The soul is reborn from one life form to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People may be reincarnated at a higher or lower level of existence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on their karma from their present life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People may be reborn as plants or animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be elevated to a higher caste as a human </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 41. Karma and Dharma <ul><li>Karma-actions in this life that affect the next. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every action produces a Justified effect based on its moral worthiness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dharma-the religious and moral duties of an individual. </li></ul>
  40. 42. Caste System <ul><li>Group you are in according to class, occupation, or gender. </li></ul><ul><li>4 major castes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brahmin : priests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kshatriya: warriors and administrators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaistrya: farmers, merchants, teachers, artisans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sudras: servants,laborers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Festival of Divali <ul><li>Divali: row of lights </li></ul><ul><li>Series of five festivals in October and November </li></ul><ul><li>Candles are floated on small rafts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If they remain lit, good luck will follow </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. The Ganges River Falling from Its source of Vishnu’s feet onto Shiva’s head and out from his hair, the water of the Ganges is sacred enough to purify all sins.
  43. 45. Buddhism <ul><li>Founded by Siddhartha Guatama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Prince who lived in luxury and comfort inside the palace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One day he left the palace gardens and saw an old man, a sick man, and a dead man </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realized life was full of suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became the Enlightened one </li></ul></ul>
  44. 46. <ul><li>The truth about suffering is that it exists. Life is suffering. Birth, aging and dying is suffering.  </li></ul><ul><li>Our reaching into the world of dreams, our desire to fulfill what cannot be fulfilled is what brings us our suffering.  </li></ul><ul><li>Only when we have broken the mirrors of illusion can we end our suffering, and </li></ul><ul><li>The Eight-Fold Path can help us to break our habits of suffering.  </li></ul>4 noble truths
  45. 47. The Eightfold Path <ul><li>1.Right Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>2.Right Thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>3.Right Speech </li></ul><ul><li>4.Right Action </li></ul><ul><li>5.Right Livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>6.Right Effort </li></ul><ul><li>7.Right Mindfulness </li></ul><ul><li>8.Right Concentration </li></ul>
  46. 48. <ul><li>The only cure for suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path, a middle road between a life devoted to pleasure and a life of harsh self-denial. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to live a moral life. </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment is achieved through meditation. </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate goal is nirvana , union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Different Buddhas

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