Groups In Society


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Groups In Society

  1. 1. <ul><li>“ People who interact with one another and think of themselves as belonging together.” </li></ul><ul><li>- List 10 common characteristics of groups </li></ul>What is a Group?
  2. 2. <ul><li>Domestication Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting and Gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pastoral and Horticultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural </li></ul></ul>Societies and Their Transformation
  3. 3. <ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Postindustrial (Information) </li></ul><ul><li>Bioeconomic—New Type? </li></ul>Societies and Their Transformation
  4. 4. <ul><li>Social Equality Greatest in Hunting/Gathering Societies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Inequality Grew Over Time </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulation of Food Surplus Stimulated Change </li></ul>Groups Within Society
  5. 5. <ul><li>Primary Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to-Face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Producing a Mirror Within </li></ul>Groups Within Society
  6. 6. <ul><li>Secondary Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger, More Anonymous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members Interact Based on Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fail to Satisfy Need for Intimate Association </li></ul></ul>Groups Within Society
  7. 7. <ul><li>In-Groups and Out-Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty to In-Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonism Towards Out-Groups </li></ul>Groups Within Society
  8. 8. <ul><li>In-Groups and Out-Groups Produce… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of Superiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivalries/Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications for Socially Diverse Society </li></ul>Groups Within Society
  9. 9. <ul><li>Reference Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a Yardstick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expose Us to Contradictory Standards </li></ul></ul>Groups Within Society
  10. 10. <ul><li>Social Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Small World Phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the Small World Phenomenon a Myth? </li></ul></ul>Groups Within Society
  11. 11. <ul><li>Implications for Socially Diverse Society </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for Science </li></ul>Groups Within Society
  12. 12. <ul><li>Electronic Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People Connect Online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsgroups/Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Chat Rooms/Recruiting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some Meet Definition of a Group </li></ul>Groups Within Society
  13. 13. <ul><li>Group Size Affects Stability and Intimacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalitions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As Size Increases, So Does Stability </li></ul><ul><li>As Size Increases, Intensity and Intimacy Decrease </li></ul>Group Dynamics
  14. 14. <ul><li>Effects of Group Size on Attitudes and Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>The Larger the Group… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater Diffusion of Responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in Formality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division into Smaller Groups </li></ul></ul>Group Dynamics
  15. 15. <ul><li>Who Becomes a Leader? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental/Operational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expressive/Charismatic </li></ul></ul></ul>Leadership
  16. 16. <ul><li>Leadership Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez-Faire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership Styles in Changing Situations </li></ul>Leadership
  17. 17. Personality Traits and Disorders <ul><li>Projection of internal or external fear </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered to act out </li></ul><ul><li>Organized members have some type of hierarchy and structure although it is usually skewed to what benefits the ideologies of the group </li></ul><ul><li>Unorganized members usually follow given the moment </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Power of Peer Pressure—Asch Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study on Conformity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power of Authority—Milgram Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administering Shocks </li></ul></ul>Group Dynamics
  19. 19. <ul><li>Irving Janis Coined the Term </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Groupthink </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing Groupthink </li></ul>Groupthink—Global Consequences
  20. 20. Group Phenomenon <ul><li>Both Organized and Unorganized- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual loses inhibitions and ignores previously learned social norms and values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The group moves as one entity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Unorganized- Tornado Example The tornado is created by random and freak natural stimuli, there are factors that can help predict where they could occur but remain largely unpredictable in size, path, destructiveness, movement, and length as it dissipates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The individuals that participate in the organized group have some type of prior knowledge of group requirements and ideologies </li></ul>
  21. 21. Restraints on Human Behavior (If Any) <ul><li>“This metaphysical freedom, or freedom of the will, as defining characteristics of man as such is possessed by men in all conditions whether of nature or of society” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rousseau </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Question of Individual Ethics <ul><li>If there is no known machine able to map or explain consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>And all ethical perceptions are based on individual consciousness and usually hold true amongst certain groups </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical interpretations are impossible to explain and therefore other individuals in different groups do not have to adhere to them </li></ul><ul><li>So the question remains, can’t we all just get along? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Phenomenological Perspectives <ul><li>What is the phenomenon that ignites group action such as violent and nonviolent protests </li></ul><ul><li>Two ethical perspectives clash- One perspective is usually associated with law, the status-quo, and/or the group in power </li></ul><ul><li>Unorganized factors easily explained </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Phenomenological Social Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between a riot and a revolution? </li></ul>