Globalization, Interdependence And Education


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Globalization, Interdependence And Education

  1. 1. Globalization
  2. 2. What is the impact of globalization?
  3. 3. The wealth gap is narrowing <ul><li>Gap between richest 20 percent and poorest 20 percent falls - from 15 to 1 in 1970 - to 13 to 1 in 1997 - i.e. by 10 percent </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quality of life improving 67%bb 80% Global literacy 67 44 Infant survival rates/1000 66 58 Average life expectancy 810m 920m People undernourished 1990’s 1970
  5. 5. Incidence of poverty is falling 24% 28.3% WORLD 46.3% 46.6% Sub-Saharan Africa 5.1% 0.2% Europe/Central Asia 11.3% 23.9% (- China) 15.3% 26.6% East Asia 1998 1987
  6. 6. The Drivers <ul><li>Scarcity of Commodities </li></ul><ul><li>Trade liberalization/ Exploitation of 3 rd World Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Information technology </li></ul><ul><li>Endless Markets and ways to Advertise </li></ul>
  7. 7. Countries open to trade grow faster
  8. 11. What Do We Mean By Globalization? <ul><li>Definition: the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa (David Held Political Theory Today 91; Stanford U Press) </li></ul>
  9. 12. Three Theories of Globalization <ul><li>Strong theory: global economy is dominated by uncontrollable global forces in which nation states are structurally dependent on global capital that is primarily determined by TNCs; a drastic shift in structural power and authority away from the nation state towards non-state agencies and from national political systems to global economic systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeptics: oppose convergence theory think globalization is overstated and over-generalized. Nation states more heterogeneous and independent in action than given credit for; a variety of local and regional responses to globalization. Contemporary levels of economic interdependence not historically unprecedented. Compared with former world empires, global economy is less global in its geographical embrace. </li></ul><ul><li>Transformationalists: believe globalization is unprecedented but there is no convergence; instead a kind of global stratification has taken place; international division of labor; so some nations succeed at the expense of others and even within nations there are winners and losers. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Some Globalization Effects Relevant to Education <ul><li>Globalization is resulting in more permeable “boundaries” through which people, practices and goods may flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization is creating vast amounts of new wealth, but also greater gaps between the rich and the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization has revolutionized communications—created a digitalized world that is rapidly changing human behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization is associated with increased migration (primarily induced by people moving to find jobs) and radically increased urbanization. </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization is associated with the spread of neo-liberal economic and political regimes with similar neo-liberal policies. </li></ul>
  11. 14. More Effects <ul><li>Globalization is associated with a rapid increase in the kinds of changes occurring in the world, and the rate at which they occur. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary pressures for social change are as likely to come from external sources and forces (e.g. international commodity prices) as from pressures and structures within countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization is having stratified demographic effects; younger people are more likely to adopt “globalized” identities, personas and consumption patterns than other people. This signals the probability of a “globalization generation gap.” </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization pressures to “reform education” are closely aligned with the economic and educational agendas promoted by major international donor and technical assistance agencies (WB; IMF; USAID, CIDA; JICA) </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization is weakening the authority of the state as private power grows proportionately. </li></ul>