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Conflict in the Middle East                                                      
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the historical roots of the Middle East Conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the ou...
 
 
Background <ul><li>Ground Zero for Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism: Israel = Biblical “Promise...
Balfour Declaration <ul><li>European Jews face persecution in late 1800’s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded movement called Z...
The British Mandate <ul><li>Ottoman Turks on losing side of WW I;  British gain control of Palestine in 1920. </li></ul><u...
Arab-Israeli War of 1948 <ul><li>14 May 1948:  Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion declares that Israel is an independent stat...
 
Arab-Israeli War of 1956 <ul><li>USSR signs arms agreement with Egypt in 1955. </li></ul><ul><li>Israelis feel threatened ...
Arafat and the PLO <ul><li>Arafat forms Al-Fatah (Palestinian National Liberation Front) in 1959. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go...
Six Day War <ul><li>5-10 June 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt, Jordan, and Syria begin military mobilization. </li></ul><ul><...
 
 
Yom Kippur War <ul><li>6 Oct 1973 Egypt and Syria launch surprise attack on holiest day of Jewish year. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Lebanon <ul><li>Israel launches air strikes against PLO positions in Lebanon in retaliation for terrorist attacks. </li></...
Peace Accords <ul><li>Camp David 1979 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt recognizes Israel’s right to exist. </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Peace Accords <ul><li>Wye River Accords 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arafat agrees to crack down on terrorists. </li></ul></...
 
Where Do We Stand? <ul><li>Israel has begun implementing its provisions from Wye. </li></ul><ul><li>Many blame Arafat for ...
For Further Study <ul><li>From Beirut to Jerusalem Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>A History of the Middle East   Mansfield </l...
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Conflict Middle East

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Conflict Middle East

  1. 1. Conflict in the Middle East                                                      
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the historical roots of the Middle East Conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the outcome of each of the wars fought by Israel and her neighbors. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the terms of the various peace accords signed by Israel and her opponents. </li></ul>
  3. 5. Background <ul><li>Ground Zero for Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism: Israel = Biblical “Promised Land” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupied by Moses and Hebrews around 1000 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invaded and occupied by Philistines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks and Romans call it “Land of Philistines”, which becomes Palestine. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Region of Jesus Christ’s birth, ministry, and death. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ownership” changes hands frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims capture in 640 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>built Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem in 691 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spot where Mohammed stopped on his way to heaven. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holiest site in Islam outside Saudi Arabia. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Turks control from 1500’s-1900’s. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Balfour Declaration <ul><li>European Jews face persecution in late 1800’s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded movement called Zionism to establish Jewish homeland in Palestine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begin establishing communities in Palestine prior to World War One. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>British Foreign Secretary Balfour supported the idea of a “national home” for the Jews. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoped to gain Jewish support for World War One. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balfour Declaration endorses this homeland as well as an independent state for Arabs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs interpret the independent state clause to specify Palestine; Brits say that isn’t what they had in mind. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 7. The British Mandate <ul><li>Ottoman Turks on losing side of WW I; British gain control of Palestine in 1920. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90k Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palestinians and Jews begin arming themselves and conducting terrorist attacks against their counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Nazism brings flood of new Jewish settlers to Palestine from Europe in 1930’s. </li></ul><ul><li>UN votes to divide Palestine into Jewish and Arab states in 1947, giving the Jews 55% of the land west of the Jordan River and designating Jerusalem as an international enclave. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Arab-Israeli War of 1948 <ul><li>14 May 1948: Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion declares that Israel is an independent state. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, and Iraq invade on 15 May. </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting continues until Jan 1949. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel prevails and gains territory in Galilee to the north and the Negev Desert to the south. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem is divided between Israel and Jordan. </li></ul><ul><li>Fate of 700k Palestinian refugees is left undecided. </li></ul>
  7. 10. Arab-Israeli War of 1956 <ul><li>USSR signs arms agreement with Egypt in 1955. </li></ul><ul><li>Israelis feel threatened by arms build up and launch pre-emptive strike against Egypt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack and seize the Sinai and Gaza Strip. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relinquished in 1957. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>French and British retake Suez Canal which Egypt had seized several months earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>UN establishes peace keeping force in Sinai that is still in place today. </li></ul>
  8. 11. Arafat and the PLO <ul><li>Arafat forms Al-Fatah (Palestinian National Liberation Front) in 1959. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal was to liberate Palestine from Israel through guerilla warfare. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variety of Palestinian factions form the Palestinian Liberation Organization in 1964. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arafat becomes chairman in 1969. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charter calls for elimination of state of Israel. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hussien feels threatened and expels PLO from Jordan in 1970. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arafat moves HQ to Lebanon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLO driven out of Lebanon by Israel in 1982. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. Six Day War <ul><li>5-10 June 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt, Jordan, and Syria begin military mobilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel launches surprise pre-emptive strike. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys most of Egyptian Air Force on the ground. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knocked out 350 aircraft in first three hours. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armored forces supported by air and infantry quickly take Sinai, Golan Heights, West Bank (including Arab portion of Jerusalem, and Gaza. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed over 200 Arab tanks in two days. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>UN arranges cease-fire, but terms did not specify exactly what land Israel was required to give up. </li></ul>
  10. 15. Yom Kippur War <ul><li>6 Oct 1973 Egypt and Syria launch surprise attack on holiest day of Jewish year. </li></ul><ul><li>IDF not fully mobilized and is initially pushed back. </li></ul><ul><li>Arab integrated air defenses and anti-tank missiles take heavy toll on IDF. </li></ul><ul><li>10-14 Oct IDF pushed Syrians out of Golan and entered Syria. </li></ul><ul><li>15-24 Oct IDF pushes Egyptians back across the Suez. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets threaten to intervene when Egyptians are surrounded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kissinger/US convince Israel to accept truce. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Israeli invincibility brought into question; Arabs emboldened. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OPEC doubles oil prices and embargoes Israeli supporters. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 16. Lebanon <ul><li>Israel launches air strikes against PLO positions in Lebanon in retaliation for terrorist attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequently invades Lebanon and surrounds Beirut in 1982. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US-led UN coalition establishes presence ashore to keep the peace. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Departs after bombing of barracks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLO agrees to leave Beirut. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Israel completes withdrawal of its troops from Lebanon in May 2000. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly 1k IDF soldiers killed during 22 year occupation. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 17. Peace Accords <ul><li>Camp David 1979 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt recognizes Israel’s right to exist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel returns Sinai to Egypt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to Sadat’s assassination in 1981. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oslo Accords 1993 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel and PLO accept each other’s right to exist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows limited Palestinian self-rule in Gaza and Jericho. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes framework for settlement of Gaza and West Bank issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to Rabin’s assassination in 1995. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. Peace Accords <ul><li>Wye River Accords 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arafat agrees to crack down on terrorists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israeli will pull troops back from occupied territories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14.2 percent of the West Bank land will be transferred to Palestinian control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe passage corridors will be established for Palestinians between Gaza and the West Bank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>750 Palestinians will be released from Israeli prisons. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 20. Where Do We Stand? <ul><li>Israel has begun implementing its provisions from Wye. </li></ul><ul><li>Many blame Arafat for terrorism; he argues it is beyond his control. </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides constrained by hard-liners among their backers. </li></ul><ul><li>Former Israeli Prime Minister Sharon visits Temple Mount in Jerusalem in Sept 2000, spurring a rash of riots and terrorism by Palestinians. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel responds to riots with force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guns beat rocks… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status of Jerusalem and religious sites is the critical issue for both sides, and the issue that is least open to compromise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides claim as their capital. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Boundaries of Palestinian state also still at issue. </li></ul>
  15. 21. For Further Study <ul><li>From Beirut to Jerusalem Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>A History of the Middle East Mansfield </li></ul><ul><li>Six Days in June Hammel </li></ul><ul><li>No Victor, No Vanquished: Yom Kippur War O’Balance </li></ul><ul><li>The Root Hammel </li></ul><ul><li>The Haj Uris </li></ul>

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