Contested Narratives of Globalization
Historical Background <ul><li>Sociological Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Barter System ...
Reasons for War <ul><li>List 5: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 </li></u...
<ul><li>The Golden Arches Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“…no two countries that both have a McDonald’s have ever fought a w...
<ul><li>Just or bust?  </li></ul>
 
Multiple Definitions <ul><li>Nothing new:Globalization as Global History </li></ul><ul><li>The Global Capitalist System </...
--Globalization as a distinctly modern phenomenon <ul><li>This view recognizes all of the above as making essentially vali...
Should we care?
Proud to be an American?
 
The Dynamics of Contemporary Globalization <ul><li>The invention of the multi-national corporation </li></ul><ul><li>The g...
Dynamics (con’t) <ul><li>The shrinking of time and space </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of novel institutions, e.g. the in...
Some impacts of globalization <ul><li>New patterns of wealth creation, within nations, between nations--the new inequaliti...
Contested Views of Globalization <ul><li>Who is inside the building and who is outside the building? </li></ul><ul><li>Glo...
Globalization as Progress <ul><li>The inseparability of capital, technology and growth; THE NEW ECONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>...
Globalization as Disaster <ul><li>Intensification of wealth inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>The race for the bottom </li></...
Implications  <ul><li>The global organization of resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Creation/discovery of new ways of “knowing”-...
&quot;Globalization is a transition state. It is illusory and potentially distracting at this stage of the globalization p...
&quot; Globalization as a concept refers both to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of ...
<ul><li>Resistance Groups: Zapatistas </li></ul><ul><li>- Formed 15 years ago to topple the 71 year reign of the corrupt M...
Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN)
<ul><li>The group, which is comprised of mostly Marxist farmers and herders took up arms in response to NAFTA </li></ul><u...
“ Ya Basta!” <ul><li>EZLN: Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35% of Mexico’s Coffee comes from Chiapas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Economic Inequality <ul><li>70% of Chiapas live below the poverty line compared to 6% on the national Average </li></ul><u...
Mexico’s Response <ul><li>11 million Dollar Theatre and Opera House, 1 million dollar restoration of the old theatre- Now ...
First Declaration <ul><li>“ We are product of 500 years of struggle: first against slavery, then during the War for Indepe...
EZLN Statement <ul><li>“ GNP measures neither the health of our children, the quality of their education, nor the joy of t...
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  1. 1. Contested Narratives of Globalization
  2. 2. Historical Background <ul><li>Sociological Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Barter System </li></ul><ul><li>Mercantilism </li></ul><ul><li>New World Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>The End of the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reasons for War <ul><li>List 5: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Golden Arches Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“…no two countries that both have a McDonald’s have ever fought a war with each other before they each got their McDonald’s.”- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas L. Friedman </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Just or bust? </li></ul>
  6. 7. Multiple Definitions <ul><li>Nothing new:Globalization as Global History </li></ul><ul><li>The Global Capitalist System </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Internationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Greater circulation of peoples, goods, symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Modern globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization as Americanization </li></ul>
  7. 8. --Globalization as a distinctly modern phenomenon <ul><li>This view recognizes all of the above as making essentially valid points, but… </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the particular changes taking place in the period from 1960 onward as having created a new form of “globalization” with distinctly new features </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization as “circuits of exchange” (people, goods, symbols, capital, microbes, knowledge…) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Should we care?
  9. 10. Proud to be an American?
  10. 12. The Dynamics of Contemporary Globalization <ul><li>The invention of the multi-national corporation </li></ul><ul><li>The global shift in manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>A new global division of labor: blue-collar, pink collar; outsourcing; whatever is digital can be outsourced </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of new technology on exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The container ship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jet Aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite communications and computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neo-liberal political regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Regional and global trade regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the nation-state </li></ul>
  11. 13. Dynamics (con’t) <ul><li>The shrinking of time and space </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of novel institutions, e.g. the inter-net, global finance (24/7 stock markets, global currency markets) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Media </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in social institutions: the family, the status of women </li></ul>
  12. 14. Some impacts of globalization <ul><li>New patterns of wealth creation, within nations, between nations--the new inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Health--emerging infectious diseases </li></ul><ul><li>The growing importance of trans-national organizations, e.g. WTO, WB, IMF </li></ul><ul><li>Changing behavior and policies within nation states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The dismantling of the welfare state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restructuring: “The Washington Solution” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The domination of economic issues </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Contested Views of Globalization <ul><li>Who is inside the building and who is outside the building? </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization as progress </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization as disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Terrible Wealth Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation of the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Disregard for the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic profits not being funneled back into local economies </li></ul>
  14. 16. Globalization as Progress <ul><li>The inseparability of capital, technology and growth; THE NEW ECONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>Technological progress as a social good: the liberation of science; the centrality of information </li></ul><ul><li>Optimizing economic factors: division of labor and comparative advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Creating necessary capital stocks for investment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic primacy as social value: a world of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Spreading/forcing democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Creating value through trade </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in GDP, Decrease in unemployment </li></ul>
  15. 17. Globalization as Disaster <ul><li>Intensification of wealth inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>The race for the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>The evisceration of social policy by neo-liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>Casino capitalism in financial and stock markets </li></ul><ul><li>Unregulated spread of technology </li></ul><ul><li>The destruction of the local by the global-Assimilation/ Acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Economic reductionism and the destruction of value </li></ul><ul><li>The limitations of democratic institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism as a “produced outcome” </li></ul>
  16. 18. Implications <ul><li>The global organization of resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Creation/discovery of new ways of “knowing”--the challenges for education </li></ul><ul><li>Testing the limits of acceptable change: e.g. fundamentalism </li></ul><ul><li>Redefining the state </li></ul><ul><li>Re-associating the globe: affiliation within globalism </li></ul><ul><li>Re-defining citizenship and identity: democracy as participation in meaningful ethical decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Re-visiting crisis decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomacy v. Military </li></ul>
  17. 19. &quot;Globalization is a transition state. It is illusory and potentially distracting at this stage of the globalization process only to concentrate on the 'collapsing' of time and space without recognizing the diversity of human consciousness which remains&quot; (Findlay, 1999)
  18. 20. &quot; Globalization as a concept refers both to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole…both the concrete global interdependence and consciousness of the global whole in the twentieth century.&quot; (Robertson, 1992) Think Global
  19. 21. <ul><li>Resistance Groups: Zapatistas </li></ul><ul><li>- Formed 15 years ago to topple the 71 year reign of the corrupt Mexican Government </li></ul><ul><li>- Located in </li></ul><ul><li>Chiapas </li></ul>
  20. 22. Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN)
  21. 23. <ul><li>The group, which is comprised of mostly Marxist farmers and herders took up arms in response to NAFTA </li></ul><ul><li>NAFTA was a US based international economic agreement that focused on agribusiness and financial institutions </li></ul><ul><li>This was seen as </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialistic </li></ul>Sub-Comandante Marcos
  22. 24. “ Ya Basta!” <ul><li>EZLN: Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35% of Mexico’s Coffee comes from Chiapas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>87,000 Jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>47% National Consumption- 53% Exported (maj. US) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 lb of coffee is sold for 8,000 pesos ($729) locals producers paid less than 25% of profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle- 400 Pesos to herders, sold for 10x that amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity- 20% of Mexico’s total is produced in Chiapas but only1/3 rd of the homes have electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples can be taken from the lumber, honey, avocadoes, Cacao, and other types of production fuel the world’s non-stop consumption </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Economic Inequality <ul><li>70% of Chiapas live below the poverty line compared to 6% on the national Average </li></ul><ul><li>75% of houses have no electricity or gas </li></ul><ul><li>62% have no clean drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>85% no drainage or sewage </li></ul><ul><li>80% have mud floors </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 million in region, no medical services- .2 clinics for every 1,000 People, .3 hospitals for every 1,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>.5 doctors and .4 nurses for every 1,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>10% infant mortality rate </li></ul><ul><li>54% suffer from malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Curable, common illness kills 15,000 people every year </li></ul><ul><li>50% unemployment rate- 6 out of 10 agricultural work </li></ul>
  24. 26. Mexico’s Response <ul><li>11 million Dollar Theatre and Opera House, 1 million dollar restoration of the old theatre- Now more theatre seats per-capita than Paris or New York </li></ul>
  25. 27. First Declaration <ul><li>“ We are product of 500 years of struggle: first against slavery, then during the War for Independence against Spain led by insurgents, then to avoid being absorbed by North American imperialism, then to promulgate our constitution and expel the French Empire from our soil, and later the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz denied us the just application of the Reform laws and the people rebelled and leaders like Villa and Zapata emerged, poor men just like us. We have been denied the most elemental preparation so they can use us like cannon fodder and pillage the wealth of our country. They don’t care that we have nothing, absolutely nothing, not even a roof over our heads, no land, no work, no health care, no food, or education. Nor are we able to freely and democratically elect our political representatives, nor is there independence from foreigners, nor is there peace nor justice for ourselves and our children. But today, we say Enough is Enough! We are the inheritors of the true builders of our nation. The dispossessed, we are millions and we thereby call upon our brothers and sisters to join this struggle as the only path, so we will not die of hunger…” </li></ul>
  26. 28. EZLN Statement <ul><li>“ GNP measures neither the health of our children, the quality of their education, nor the joy of their play. It measures neither the beauty of our poetry, nor the strength of our marriages. It is indifferent to the decency of our factories and the safety of our streets alike. It measures neither our wisdom nor our learning, neither our wit nor our courage, neither our compassion nor our devotion to our country. It measures everything in short, except that which makes life worth living. It can tell us everything about our country, except those things that make us proud to be a part of it.” </li></ul>

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